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See Confidentiality, Introduced random error.
Recoding is the process of aggregating categories of a classification into groups. These groups may contain either the full basic classification, or only part of it. Each of the census data variables disseminated has a basic classification. Output may be produced using this basic classification level, or using recodes.
Tables can be customised to individual requirements using recodes. For example, if data are required for school children only, a suitable recode for the variable Age (AGEP) may show the age groups 5–8 years; 9–12 years; 13–15 years; and 16–18 years, reducing the table to a more manageable size.
Recoding may also be necessary to meet the confidentiality requirements of the ABS, to prevent the identification of individual persons or organisations. For example, a table showing the full classification of Occupation (OCCP) cross-classified with the full classification of Birthplace (BPLP) at Statistical Local Area (SLA) level, would contain many cells with counts of 1 or 2. These cells would then be adjusted to prevent the release of confidential data. By reducing the classificatory or geographic detail, the table would be less affected by introduced random error. For instance, birthplace may be recoded into 12 groups and occupation into 50 groups.
Many recodes have already been designed and incorporated as standards, based on demand from previous censuses and are included in census output products. The design and implementation of non-standard recodes for individual requirements is done by ABS Information Consultancy (contact details for Information Consultancy are provided on the back cover of this publication). The ABS encourages clients to use standard ABS recodes to allow meaningful comparison of data.
See also Classifications, Confidentiality, Section 1–2001 Census Classifications, Information Consultancy, Introduced random error, Mnemonics, Table, Variables.
The 2001 Census standard reference maps incorporate two sets of maps: the 2001 Census Statistical Local Area (SLA) Maps and the 2001 Census Collection District (CD) Maps.
Note that these are reference maps, which do not contain any statistical data.
Census SLA Maps: Each map shows the boundary of an SLA and the CD boundaries contained within the SLA. The name and code of the SLA are included, as well as the CD codes. Some boundary detail for the surrounding SLAs and CDs is also included, as well as selected topographic details.
The scale of each map is set so that the area covered by the SLA is maximised on the available area. Maps are therefore not all the same scale.
Census CD Maps: These are the same maps which were used by census collection staff during the collection phase of the 2001 Census. Each map shows an individual CD's boundary and the code assigned to it. Some boundary detail for the surrounding CDs is also included in the map. All census CDs have at least one map sheet covering their area. The maps also show a range of topographic and cadastral features. These features give the boundaries their context and show how they are used to define the CD boundaries.
CD and SLA maps may be ordered from ABS Information Consultancy. Contact details for Information Consultancy are provided on the back cover of this publication.
See Family, Household, Family/Household Reference Person Indicator (RPIP).
See Statistical Region, ATSIC Region.
This variable records an individual's current status in regard to a registered marriage, i.e. whether he/she is widowed, divorced, separated, married or never married. The partners in a registered marriage must be of the opposite sex as same-sex relationships cannot be registered as marriages in Australia. Registered Marital Status (MSTP) is coded from Question 6.
A question on Registered Marital Status has been asked in all Australian censuses. In all censuses since 1986 this question provided responses for the categories:
Marital status is applicable to people aged 15 years and over. Note that the category 'married' was called 'now married' in censuses prior to 1986.
See also Marital status, Married Registered, Social Marital Status (MDCP).
See Other related individual.
See Other related individual.
Relationship information is collected on the census form to enable family and household coding to be done. The Relationship question asks 'What is the person's relationship to Person 1/Person 2'. Response categories for this question include husband or wife, de facto partner, child, stepchild, brother or sister, unrelated flatmate or co-tenant, or other relationship as specified. Children can be children of Person 1 or Person 2 only, or of both Person 1 and Person 2. See also Family, Family/Household Reference Person Indicator (RPIP), Household, Relationship in Household (RLHP).
This family level variable classifies the relationship between the primary family and the second or third family enumerated in the same household. To identify the second and third families, the variable Family Number (FNOF) is required.
See also Family.
This is a key variable at the person level. It is used to determine familial and non-familial relationships between persons usually residing within the same household.
A question on relationship has been included in all Australian censuses. Since the 1986 Census, relationship to Person 1 and/or Person 2 has been asked in respect of each child. This was necessary to classify stepchildren.
For more information regarding the categories contained within RLHP see the following entries:
Same-sex couple, Lone Parent, Married Registered, Child under 15, Other related individual, Non-Dependent Child, Non-Family Member, Lone person household, Group household. See also Family Type (FMTF), Family/Household Reference Person Indicator (RPIP).
See Other related individual.
A question on religious denomination has been included in all Australian censuses, but answering this question has always been optional. The option not to answer this question is provided for in legislation.
Responses to the religion question are coded to the Australian Standard Classification of Religious Groups.
Data on religious affiliation are used for such purposes as planning educational facilities, aged persons' care and other social services provided by religion-based organisations; the location of church buildings; the assigning of chaplains to hospitals, prisons, armed services and universities; the allocation of time on public radio and other media; and sociological research.
Within the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), the Remoteness classification comprises five categories each of which identifies a (non-contiguous) region in Australia having a particular degree of remoteness. The categories range from ‘highly accessible’ to ‘very remote’.
The degree of remoteness of each Collection District (CD) was determined using the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA). CDs have then been grouped into the appropriate category of Remoteness to form non-contiguous areas within each State.
For more information, refer to Statistical Geography Volume 1: Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) 2001 (Cat. no. 1216.0) and ABS Views on Remoteness (Cat. no. 1244.0).
Maps can be obtained from ABS Information Consultancy.
See also Australian Standard Geographical Classification, Census Geographic Areas, Customised mapping service, Information Consultancy.
The variable Rent (RNTD) records the individual dollar amounts of rent paid by households on a weekly basis for the dwelling in which they were enumerated on Census Night. This includes caravans etc. in caravan parks. The categories range from $0–$9,999 in single dollar amounts.
The Census is the only source of rent data for small areas and for small groups of the population. Such data are important for housing policy-making and planning, and for studying the housing conditions of minority populations.
A derived variable RNTD01 is also available which groups responses into ranges. A complete list of these ranges can be found in Section 1 under RNTD01 Rent weekly. See also Household, Housing Loan Repayments (monthly) (HLRD), Tenure Type (TEND).
See Rent (weekly) (RNTD), Tenure Type (TEND).
See Dwelling, Household, Usual residence.
This variable identifies whether people enumerated in Non-Private Dwellings (such as motels, hospitals, colleges etc.) are staying there as either: members of staff of the accommodation (e.g. owner, proprietor, porter, cook, teacher, warden, family of owner or family of staff); or residents, guests, patients, inmates, etc.
No information on family relationships is available for people in Non-Private Dwellings because they are enumerated using Personal Forms. See also Dwelling, Type of Non-Private Dwelling (NPDD).
Residual categories in a classification are labelled Not elsewhere classified (n.e.c.), Not elsewhere included (n.e.i.), Other or Miscellaneous.
These categories are necessary because, although in a classification, meaningful categories are created through the application of certain criteria, not all observations can be classified into a homogeneous group, or the size of the observations does not allow them to be separately identified. For example, in the classification of languages, the minor group 'Chinese' is composed of six distinct languages and one residual category:
The residual category is needed because the six distinct languages do not encompass all the known Chinese languages. The remainder of observations which can be classified as 'Chinese languages' are grouped together in 'Chinese languages, n.e.c.'.
Supplementary codes (often called dump codes) are used to process inadequately described responses. Not Further Defined codes (sometimes referred to as Undefined codes) are used to process incomplete, non-specific or imprecise responses which cannot be coded to the most detailed level of a classification, but which nevertheless, contain enough information to allow them to be coded to a higher level of the classification structure. For example, birthplace responses relating to places which cannot be identified as lying within the boundaries of a country separately identified in the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), but which lie wholly within the boundaries of one of the classification's Minor Groups, are coded to that Minor Group.
It is important to note the distinction between Not Elsewhere Classified categories and Not Further Defined codes. NEC categories are a formal part of a classification's structure, designed to make a classification complete and exhaustive of all observations in scope. Adequately described, specific responses are coded to NEC categories in instances where a suitable substantive category is not included in the classification. As explained above, NFD codes are designed to facilitate processing by allowing inadequately described or non-specific responses to be coded to a broader level of the classification rather than be lost altogether. NFD codes are not a formal part of the classification.
Other supplementary codes are also provided in classifications, for operational purposes, to facilitate the coding of responses to:
See also Classifications, Data processing.
All name-identified information from past censuses has been destroyed, once the statistical processing was completed. However, for the 2001 Census, not all name-identified information will be destroyed:
See also Census and Statistics Act, Confidentiality.
See Accommodation for the retired or aged (cared).
See Number of Bedrooms in Private Dwelling (BEDD).
See Dwelling Structure (STRD).
See Section of State.