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5216.0 - Australian National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2000  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 15/11/2000   
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07 Transport

07.1 Purchase of vehicles

Description

14.95 The scope of this item is purchases of new motor vehicles by households for personal use; net purchases of used vehicles by households from businesses and government authorities; private importation of used vehicles from overseas; and dealers' margins on used vehicles traded between households through dealers.

14.96 The stamp duties payable on first registration and transfer of ownership of motor vehicles are treated as direct taxes, and as such they are not part of HFCE.

Sources and methods

Purchases of new motor vehicles

14.97 This item is estimated quarterly and the annual estimates are produced by summing the quarterly estimates. The number of new motor vehicle sales by type and ownership (private and non-private) is obtained from the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries VFACTS service. An average price for each type of vehicle purchased is estimated each year using information published in Glass's Guide for Passenger Vehicles and automotive magazines, and extrapolated using information collected for the CPI. The value of purchases of new motor vehicles is obtained by multiplying the estimated number of private purchases by the estimated average price.

Purchases of used vehicles from other sectors

14.98 Businesses and government authorities are assumed to buy mainly new vehicles. It therefore follows that when these sectors sell vehicles they are mainly purchased by households. The number of such sales is calculated using information from Survey of Motor Vehicle Use, Australia (Cat. no. 9208.0). An average price for each type of second-hand vehicle is estimated for a base period using information contained in automotive magazines and moved forward using new vehicle prices lagged by two years. The value of purchases of used vehicles from other sectors is estimated by multiplying the estimated number of household purchases by the estimated average prices.

14.99 Private imports of used vehicles are generally restricted to specialty and high-performance vehicles which are generally not otherwise available in Australia. Estimates of the value of these imports are based on information supplied with Customs documentation.

Dealers' margins

14.100 Dealers' margins on used vehicles traded between households through dealers are estimated using information provided from the Retail Census. The latest quarterly estimates are made using movements in purchases of new motor vehicles as the indicator.

Volume estimates

14.101 Current price estimates of purchases of motor vehicles by Australian residents in Australia are revalued using the relevant component of the CPI.

14.102 Current price estimates of purchases of motor vehicles by Australian residents overseas are revalued using a composite index of overseas CPIs.

14.103 Chain volume estimates of purchases of motor vehicles are derived by aggregating the elemental volume components of the above.

07.2 Operation of personal transport equipment

Description

14.104 The scope of this item is expenditure incurred in running household motor vehicles. Three broad categories of expenditure are covered:

      • motoring goods - purchases of fuel, tyres and batteries;
      • repair and maintenance expenditure, including the cost of oil changes, tuning and other servicing, and panel beating; and
      • miscellaneous motoring expenditure - toll fees, membership fees paid to motoring associations, parking fees, vehicle inspection fees, car rental fees, garage hire, drivers' licence fees, driving school fees, the cost of personalised number plates, and the cost of ferry transport for personal vehicles.

14.105 Motor vehicle registration fees are considered to be direct taxes when they are paid by persons in respect of vehicles used for private rather than business purposes and are not part of HFCE. Drivers' licence fees are treated as service income of general government and hence are included in HFCE. Parking fines are treated as Other current transfers from households to general government. (Prior to the introduction of SNA93, both drivers' licence fees and parking fines were part of Other direct taxes, fees and fines. The SNA93 treatment has been applied for the entire time series.)

Sources and methods

Motoring goods

14.106 Household expenditure on petrol is the most important of these purchases. The annual estimates are obtained by multiplying the following four elements:

      • the number of personal vehicles registered by broad type of vehicle from Survey of Motor Vehicle Use, Australia (Cat. no. 9208.0);
      • the average number of kilometres travelled by these vehicles for personal reasons (from the Survey of Motor Vehicle Use);
      • the rate of petrol consumption for each type of vehicle (derived from the Survey of Motor Vehicle Use); and
      • the average retail price per litre of petrol, which is obtained from the CPI (similar calculations are made for personal vehicles powered by distillate and LPG).

14.107 Estimates of household expenditure on replacement tyres and tubes are calculated by allocating a proportion of total sales from the benchmark Retail Census to households. The household share of sales is estimated by comparing the number of kilometres travelled for personal reasons with the number travelled on business from the Survey of Motor Vehicle Use. Finally, an estimate of the average price paid by consumers obtained from the CPI is used to derive the expenditure estimate. Household expenditure on replacement batteries is calculated as household demand for batteries per year (based on the proportion of total kilometres travelled) multiplied by an average price paid by consumers, obtained from the CPI.

14.108 Estimates of household expenditure on car accessories are based on benchmark data from the periodic Household Expenditure Survey. Benchmark estimates are moved forward using movements in personal vehicle registrations as the indicator. Motoring goods comprise the sum of fuel, tyres, batteries and car accessories.

14.109 Quarterly estimates for household expenditure on automotive fuels are made using volumes sold (as reported in Major Energy Statistics published monthly by the Commonwealth Department of Industry, Science and Resources) and prices per litre (from the CPI) as indicators. Other motoring goods, which are a relatively small part of the total, are estimated using quarterly movements in related series as indicators.

Repair and maintenance expenditure

14.110 Annual estimates of household expenditure on motor vehicle repair and maintenance is based on information from the Retail Census and the Household Expenditure Survey. Three separate components are estimated:

      • expenditure on service and repairs, including parts, is benchmarked to the latest Retail Census. The household share is estimated by comparing the number of kilometres travelled for personal reasons with the number travelled on business from the Survey of Motor Vehicle Use. Benchmark estimates are moved forward using quarterly data on retail sales of motor fuel and the price of services and repairs from the CPI as indicators;
      • purchases of parts other than those used in service and repair is benchmarked to data from the Household Expenditure Survey. Benchmark estimates are moved forward using quarterly data on retail sales of motor fuel as the indicator; and
      • expenditure on panel beating and smash repairs is benchmarked to the Retail Census and is moved forward using motor vehicle property insurance claims as the indicator.

14.111 Quarterly estimates of household expenditure on automotive repairs and maintenance are extrapolated from the annual series detailed above, using an indicator which is the product of total kilometres travelled by households and the CPI series for motor vehicle service and repairs. A similar procedure is applied for panel beating except that the indicator used is motor vehicle property insurance claims.

Miscellaneous

14.112 The multitude of small components making up miscellaneous motoring expenditure are estimated using many data sources and methods. The main sources for the annual estimates are State and Territory Auditors'-General Reports and Government Finance Statistics, Australia (Cat. no. 5512.0). Benchmark estimates are moved forward using the CPI series for motor vehicle charges and the number of registered personal vehicles as indicators.

14.113 There is very little quarterly information about miscellaneous expenditure on the operation of personal motor vehicles and, for the most part, the quarterly estimates are compiled using the movements in related series as indicators.

Volume estimates

14.114 Current price estimates of expenditures on fuels and lubricants, other motor vehicle goods, and repairs and maintenance by Australian residents in Australia, are each revalued using the relevant components of the CPI.

14.115 Current price estimates of expenditures on these commodities by Australian residents overseas are revalued using a composite index of overseas CPIs.

14.116 Chain volume estimates of expenditures on the operation of personal transport equipment are derived by aggregating the elemental volume components of the above.

07.3 Transport services

07.3.1 Passenger transport by railway

Description

14.117 The scope of this item is personal outlays on suburban, country and interstate rail fares. The value of fare concessions provided by general government to students, pensioners, etc., is regarded as part of Government final consumption expenditure.

Sources and methods

14.118 Household expenditure on services provided by government transport authorities is obtained from the annual reports of the various authorities. Quarterly estimates are based on unpublished revenue indicators obtained from the State public authorities by the ABS Public Finance Section.

Volume estimates

14.119 Expenditures on rail fares in Australia are revalued using the relevant component of the CPI.

07.3.2 Passenger transport by road

Description

14.120 The scope of this item is personal outlays on suburban, country and interstate bus fares (including charter fares); tram fares; taxi and hire-car fares. The value of fare concessions provided by general government to students, pensioners, etc., is regarded as part of Government final consumption expenditure.

Sources and methods

14.121 Household expenditure on services provided by government transport authorities is obtained from the annual reports of the various authorities. Total fares collected are discounted to take account of business use of these services. Quarterly estimates are based on unpublished revenue indicators obtained from the State public authorities by the ABS Public Finance Section.

14.122 Household expenditure on local services provided by private bus companies is obtained from the State government motor transport departments as well as data collected specially by the ABS. A small deduction is made from total fares collected to account for business use of these services. Quarterly estimates are calculated using the same indicators as for public transport authorities.

14.123 Personal outlays on interstate bus fares are estimated from data provided to the ABS each quarter by major interstate bus operators, as well as from their published annual reports. Estimates are benchmarked to the results of research undertaken within the ABS.

14.124 Personal outlays on taxi and hire car fares are estimated using information contained in the published annual reports of State motor transport departments and any available studies of taxi operations and revenue. The quarterly estimates are compiled using CPI data for price changes, and estimated usage.

Volume estimates

14.125 Expenditures on bus fares and taxi fares in Australia are each revalued using the relevant components of the CPI.

0.7.3.3 Passenger transport by air

Description

14.126 The scope of this item is personal outlays on airfares purchased in Australia and overseas by residents.

Sources and methods

Domestic airfares

14.127 Quarterly estimates are prepared from data provided by resident airlines. The annual estimate is the sum of four quarters. Household Expenditure Survey data, when available, are used to cross-check the estimates.

International airfares

14.128 Both annual and quarterly information are provided by the ABS Balance of Payments Section. Estimates for the latest quarters are made using information about international airfares from the CPI and about international departures taken from Overseas Arrivals and Departures, Australia (Cat. no. 3401.0).

Volume estimates

14.129 Expenditures on domestic and overseas airfares in Australia are each revalued using the relevant components of the CPI.

0.7.3.4 Passenger transport by sea and inland waterway

Sources and methods

Ferry and coastal shipping fares

14.130 The annual estimates are compiled using information contained in the annual reports of public transport authorities, the ABS Transport Industry Survey, and unpublished information provided by the Commonwealth Department of Transport and Regional Services. The quarterly estimates are based on passenger revenue information provided by the larger public enterprises.

International shipping fares

14.131 Both annual and quarterly information are provided by the ABS Balance of Payments Section. Estimates for the latest quarters are made using information about international airfares from the CPI and information about international departures taken from Overseas Arrivals and Departures, Australia (Cat. no. 3401.0).

Volume estimates

14.132 Expenditures on domestic shipping fares in Australia are revalued using the relevant component of the CPI.

14.133 Expenditures on overseas shipping fares in Australia are revalued using a specially constructed cruise ship price index.

Total: 07.3 Transport services

Volume estimates

14.134 Current price estimates of expenditures on transport services by Australian residents overseas are revalued using a composite index of overseas CPIs.

14.135 Current price estimates of expenditure on transport services by non-residents in Australia are revalued using the relevant component of the CPI.

14.136 In deriving the chain volume estimates of expenditure on transport services, the elemental volume estimate of expenditure by non-residents in Australia is subtracted from the aggregate of the other elemental volume components above.

Total: 07 Total transport

Volume estimates

4.137 Chain volume estimates of expenditures on transport are derived by aggregating the elemental volume components of the above.


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