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4156.0 - Sport and Recreation: A Statistical Overview, Australia , 2003  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 29/03/2006   
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Contents >> Chapter 11.1 Products - Introduction >> Chapter 11.5 Products - International Trade in Sports and Physical Recreation Products



PRODUCTS




INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN SPORTS AND PHYSICAL RECREATION PRODUCTS

Sports apparel is an example of sports and physical recreation products which could not be included in the international trade tables because they were part of a larger product category predominantly out-of-scope of the ACLC Product Classification. Another that could not be included is automatic bowling alley equipment, which is part of the category Other articles for funfair, table or parlour games. This category is predominantly in scope of the Other leisure products part of the ACLC Product Classification. Hence, automatic bowling equipment is included in the tables in the international trade section of Other leisure products as part of Other articles for funfair, table or parlour games.


Australia's trade in the selected sports and physical recreation goods is in deficit. Imports of these goods during 2001-02 were valued at $1,233.9m. This is more than two and a half times the $463.4m in sports and physical recreation goods which was exported during that year. Boats, yachts and other vessels for pleasure or sports ($185.6m) and Horses ($129.9m) were the main contributors to the overall export figure and together accounted for over two thirds of total exports. The two product categories contributing the most to imports were Sports or physical recreation footwear ($166.0m) and Marine outboard motors (spark ignition only) ($156.2m). However, their combined contribution to total imports was little more than a quarter.


The main sources of imported sports and physical recreation goods during 2001-02 were China ($373.4m) and the United States of America ($266.2m), together accounting for over half of all imports of these goods. The United States of America was also the largest market for exported sports and physical recreation goods ($95.5m), but was followed closely by New Zealand ($94.7m). The combined purchases by these countries of Australian sports and physical recreation exports accounted for 41% of the total.


Australia's international trade in sports and physical recreation services is relatively small. As a result, sports and physical recreation services are not identified separately in trade statistics, but are instead combined with cultural and entertainment services, other leisure services, and health and medical services. In 2001-02, Australia recorded its fourth successive surplus for trade in these combined services. Earnings came to $137m, while payments overseas were only $60m.


Exports of sports and physical recreation goods

Sports and physical recreation goods exported from Australia during 2001-02 were valued at $463.4m, 21.7% higher than the $380.7m recorded for 2000-01. Since 1995-96, exports of these goods (at current prices) have risen steadily, apart from a 7.5% fall in 1998-99 to $258.6m which was followed by a 20.8% rise in 1999-2000 to $312.4m.


Since 1995-96, the product categories Horses and Boats, yachts and other vessels for pleasure or sports have been the dominant contributors to the total value of sports and physical recreation goods exported. During that time, their combined contribution has never been lower than 50%. Exports of both categories have increased considerably since 1995-96. For Horses, the value (in current prices) has almost trebled from $45.2m in 1995-96 to $129.9m in 2001-02. For Boats, yachts and other vessels for pleasure or sports the value has increased more than two and a quarter times from $81.9m to $185.6m.


Other product categories which have made substantial contributions to total exports since 1995-96 are Water-skis, surf-boards, sailboards and other water sports equipment; Golf clubs and other golf equipment; and Marine outboard motors (spark ignition only).


Exports of water sports equipment have remained fairly constant since 1995-96 with a low point in 1996-97 of $20.8m and a high in 1998-99 of $27.7m. In 2001-02, the value was $25.4m. As a percentage of total exports of sports and physical recreation goods, this category has declined from 9.9% in 1995-96 to 5.5% in 2001-02 as total exports have risen.


Exports of golf equipment have fluctuated quite markedly from a low of $9.8m in 1995-96 to a high of $40.9m in 2000-01. In 2001-02, the value was $27.6m.


The high mark in exports of spark ignition marine outboard motors was $14.7m in 1995-96. After a fall the level of exports recovered in the following two years to be just over $13m for 1998-99 and 1999-2000. However, it has since dropped again and was down to $8.2m for 2001-02.

11.4 EXPORTS OF SELECTED SPORTS AND PHYSICAL RECREATION GOODS(a)

1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Horses
45.2
42.8
63.8
62.6
95.5
93.3
129.9
Tents
0.5
1.0
0.4
0.8
1.0
1.3
1.6
Sleeping bags
-
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Other camping goods of textile fabric
0.6
2.4
1.5
1.7
1.6
0.8
1.3
Parachutes
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
Track suits
4.1
3.8
3.0
1.3
0.1
0.3
0.1
Ski suits
1.0
0.8
0.7
0.7
-
0.1
0.2
Swimwear for men and boys
2.4
2.1
2.8
2.4
2.4
1.5
1.8
Swimwear for women and girls
2.9
3.1
4.2
3.8
5.0
6.3
5.3
Saddlery and harness, for any animal, of any material
6.3
6.4
6.0
5.7
6.2
6.0
8.3
Sports or physical recreation footwear
10.8
12.4
8.7
8.2
8.6
8.1
8.3
Snow-skis, other snow-ski equipment, ice skates and rollerskates
2.3
4.6
3.5
4.8
2.1
1.8
4.1
Water-skis, surf-boards, sailboards and other water sports equipment
24.8
20.8
22.5
27.7
23.8
23.2
25.4
Gymnasium or athletics articles and equipment
7.9
5.2
7.1
8.0
9.4
10.2
13.2
Gloves, mittens and mitts of leather or composition leather, designed for use in sports
0.6
2.7
2.4
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.1
Golf clubs and other golf equipment
9.8
14.5
21.3
11.2
11.3
40.9
27.6
Tennis, badminton and similar racquets
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Sports balls
4.4
3.8
5.6
3.7
3.1
3.0
3.9
Fishing rods and other line fishing tackle; fish landing nets, butterfly and similar nets; decoy 'birds' and similar hunting or shooting requisites
4.9
3.9
4.7
4.7
4.2
4.8
6.0
Billiard articles and accessories
4.7
11.5
4.3
6.5
1.4
0.9
0.9
Sporting, hunting or target-shooting shotguns and rifles
1.3
1.4
1.8
2.3
1.3
0.9
1.8
Articles and equipment for table tennis
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.2
0.1
0.1
Other articles and equipment for sports or physical recreation; swimming pools and paddling pools
11.7
12.3
11.8
5.9
10.2
10.7
15.6
Snowmobiles; and golf cars and similar vehicles
4.1
2.0
4.7
2.4
3.0
3.9
2.7
Bicycles and other cycles, not motorised
0.7
0.5
0.9
1.0
1.2
1.6
2.4
Boats, yachts and other vessels for pleasure or sports
81.9
89.1
84.7
73.9
102.6
144.3
185.6
Inflatable vessels
0.2
0.8
0.5
1.5
0.2
0.6
0.5
Sails
1.0
0.7
1.3
1.3
1.7
2.3
3.3
Marine outboard motors (spark ignition only)
14.7
11.6
9.2
13.3
13.2
8.5
8.2
Gliders and hang gliders
1.3
0.9
1.0
1.2
1.3
3.8
4.2
Balloons and dirigibles and other non-powered aircraft
0.6
0.7
0.4
0.5
1.1
0.9
0.5
Total
251.4
262.6
279.7
258.6
312.4
380.7
463.4

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) All data are presented in Australian dollars using 'Free on Board' valuations.
Source: International Trade, Australia: FASTTRACCS Service - Electronic Delivery, 2003 (cat. no. 5460.0).


Destination of exports

Throughout the period 1995-96 to 2001-02, the United States of America and New Zealand have been the major destinations for sports and physical recreation goods exported from Australia. For 2001-02, exports to the two countries were very similar at around $95m each. This was more than double the $43.2m worth of goods exported to Hong Kong (SAR of China) which was the third-placed export destination.


The 2001-02 figure of $95.5m for exports to the United States of America was the fourth successive increase since the $38.1m recorded in 1997-98.


Japan is another important market for exported sports and physical recreation goods. Since 1995-96, Japan has consistently received between $20m and $27m worth of these exports.


The level of exports of sports and physical recreation goods received by some countries has increased markedly in the last couple of years. Exports to New Zealand had averaged $70.7m from 1995-96 to 2000-01, but then jumped to $94.7m for 2001-02. After averaging $8.9m for the years 1995-96 to 2000-01, exports to the United Kingdom rose to $21.3m for 2001-02. Exports to Malaysia rose to $19.8m for 2001-02 after averaging $5.6m for the previous six years. Exports to Macau (SAR of China) averaged $5.3m from 1995-96 to 2000-01, but rose to $14.5m for 2001-02. It remains to be seen whether these higher export levels are maintained into the future or drop back as was the case with Thailand. It received exports of $31.4m in 2000-01 after averaging $2.3m for the previous five years, but dropped back to $13.9m in 2001-02.


An isolated large order for a particular good can result in a country receiving an unusually large level of exports in one year before reverting to a more usual level. One such case is the $33.0m recorded by Spain in 1997-98. Another probable case is the $30.9m of exports to Greece for 2001-02. After not having broken $1m in any of the preceding six years, orders for over $30m worth of Motorboats with inboard motors made Greece the fourth biggest overseas market for Australian sports and physical recreation goods during 2001-02.

11.5 DESTINATION OF EXPORTS OF SELECTED SPORTS AND PHYSICAL RECREATION GOODS(a)

1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
Country of destination
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

United States of America
28.1
53.9
38.1
50.8
65.2
90.6
95.5
New Zealand
68.9
69.5
67.4
67.0
75.9
75.6
94.7
Hong Kong (SAR of China)
23.6
15.9
29.3
19.4
29.8
31.3
43.2
Greece
0.1
0.3
0.1
0.9
0.9
0.8
30.9
Japan
27.4
20.5
20.4
26.5
23.3
26.1
26.1
United Kingdom
8.3
9.4
6.1
8.8
9.0
11.7
21.3
Malaysia
4.9
5.5
8.2
3.9
5.3
6.0
19.8
Macau (SAR of China)
0.4
6.9
0.7
8.8
5.5
9.4
14.5
Thailand
1.9
3.8
1.8
1.4
2.7
31.4
13.9
Singapore
12.5
11.0
10.9
7.6
11.2
16.8
10.5
United Arab Emirates
1.9
1.1
0.8
1.1
3.2
2.6
6.9
Italy
2.1
2.8
3.8
4.4
5.4
5.0
6.6
Spain
1.3
1.0
33.0
3.6
5.7
4.8
6.2
New Caledonia
6.1
18.2
3.9
7.0
5.0
3.9
5.6
Korea, Republic of
2.6
4.0
1.9
0.9
2.6
2.2
5.3
South Africa
5.4
3.2
6.4
3.6
6.2
4.4
4.8
Puerto Rico
-
-
-
1.1
2.1
3.7
4.7
Germany
4.0
2.7
2.6
2.8
4.3
5.9
4.0
Indonesia
3.3
1.2
1.6
0.4
2.5
2.6
3.9
Fiji
1.9
1.8
1.6
1.5
1.6
1.8
3.1
Other countries
46.9
29.8
41.3
37.1
44.9
44.0
41.8
Total
251.4
262.6
279.7
258.6
312.4
380.7
463.4

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) All data are presented in Australian dollars using 'Free on Board' valuations.
Source: International Trade, Australia: FASTTRACCS Service - Electronic Delivery, 2003 (cat. no. 5460.0).


Imports of sports and physical recreation goods

The value (at current prices) of sports and physical recreation goods imported into Australia increased with each successive year from $735.6m in 1995-96 to $1,275.2m in 2000-01, before slipping back to $1,233.9m in 2001-02.


Sports and physical recreation footwear and Marine outboard motors (spark ignition only) were the product categories which contributed most to total imports of sports and physical recreation goods in 2001-02. These two categories were usually in the top four in terms of value of goods imported during the previous six years. Other categories to appear in the top four in more than one year were Boats, yachts and other vessels for pleasure or sports ($140.1m in 2001-02); Bicycles and other cycles, not motorised ($116.4m in 2001-02); and Horses ($71.3m in 2001-02).


Together, the five sports and physical recreation product categories accounted for 52.7% ($650.0m) of total imports of sports and physical recreation goods in 2001-02, and not less than 47% of the total in any other year since 1995-96.


At current prices, the value of imports of Sports and physical recreation footwear has increased each year, reaching $166.0m in 2001-02, considerably more than double the 1995-96 figure of $75.3m. For Marine outboard motors (spark ignition only), imports have generally increased, reaching a high of $156.2m in 2001-02. This is just slightly more than double the 1995-96 level of $77.7m.


Imports of Boats, yachts and other vessels for pleasure or sports reached a high of $199.2m in 2000-01 after increasing each year from the 1995-96 level of $42.4m (almost a five-fold increase). However, the 2000-01 high point was followed by a 29.7% fall to $140.1m in 2001-02. Imports of Bicycles and other cycles, not motorised followed a similar pattern, increasing each year from the 1995-96 level of $76.0m, reaching a high in 2000-01 of $123.4m (an overall increase of 62.4%) before dropping by 5.7% to $116.4m in 2001-02.


Imports of Horses also rose each year, but peaked in 1999-2000 at $126.1m, an increase of 69.7% on the 1995-96 value of $74.3m. This was followed by a fall of over 50% to $60.1m in 2000-01 before an 18.6% recovery to $71.3m in 2001-02.

11.6 IMPORTS OF SELECTED SPORTS AND PHYSICAL RECREATION GOODS(a)

1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Horses
74.3
90.6
110.8
120.7
126.1
60.1
71.3
Tents
21.8
21.5
25.5
29.4
26.7
35.8
36.7
Sleeping bags
6.1
5.9
6.7
9.4
9.5
13.4
11.1
Other camping goods of textile fabric
5.1
3.9
6.9
5.7
5.8
6.7
8.9
Parachutes
4.7
5.0
6.2
2.7
6.8
5.2
3.1
Track suits
6.1
7.2
9.6
6.4
4.2
6.8
3.5
Ski suits
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.2
Swimwear for men and boys
2.8
2.0
2.5
4.5
3.1
3.8
7.2
Swimwear for women and girls
8.3
8.3
10.0
14.8
18.3
21.3
28.1
Saddlery and harness, for any animal, of any material
9.3
11.2
12.8
14.8
17.4
18.9
22.3
Sports or physical recreation footwear
75.3
88.9
98.3
106.7
135.4
146.3
166.0
Snow-skis, other snow-ski equipment, ice skates and rollerskates
31.4
25.0
29.1
23.2
18.7
20.2
15.1
Water-skis, surf-boards, sailboards and other water sports equipment
18.6
20.3
21.0
22.7
25.2
28.0
32.0
Gymnasium or athletics articles and equipment
72.4
85.2
58.9
50.2
53.2
69.8
84.6
Gloves, mittens and mitts of leather or composition leather,designed for use in sports
10.4
8.5
9.6
9.7
10.2
10.1
10.7
Golf clubs and other golf equipment
52.0
59.2
80.9
69.8
72.8
92.4
98.1
Tennis, badminton and similar racquets
9.6
9.9
11.5
11.4
14.4
13.8
14.2
Sports balls
20.8
19.3
22.1
22.8
23.0
27.1
31.0
Fishing rods and other line fishing tackle; fish landing nets, butterfly and similar nets; decoy 'birds' and similar hunting or shooting requisites
38.6
46.4
43.4
45.5
47.4
58.4
65.2
Billiard articles and accessories
4.3
3.6
4.3
4.1
5.0
5.2
5.6
Sporting, hunting or target-shooting shotguns and rifles
10.2
33.0
10.5
4.7
6.6
10.2
12.0
Articles and equipment for table tennis
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.3
1.6
1.7
2.0
Other articles and equipment for sports or physical recreation; swimming pools and paddling pools
40.4
45.6
52.6
60.2
66.8
130.1
65.7
Snowmobiles; and golf cars and similar vehicles
6.7
6.1
8.5
9.3
10.5
14.5
13.2
Bicycles and other cycles, not motorised
76.0
80.2
83.9
88.0
102.9
123.4
116.4
Boats, yachts and other vessels for pleasure or sports
42.4
73.5
82.5
85.4
107.3
199.2
140.1
Inflatable vessels
3.9
3.7
5.6
5.0
5.3
6.0
6.3
Sails
1.2
0.9
1.2
1.9
2.2
2.6
2.7
Marine outboard motors (spark ignition only)
77.7
72.1
99.8
122.4
120.5
140.0
156.2
Gliders and hang gliders
1.2
0.7
0.7
1.0
0.6
1.3
1.5
Balloons and dirigibles and other non-powered aircraft
2.4
3.6
1.6
1.4
2.3
2.5
2.9
Total
735.6
842.8
918.2
955.7
1 050.0
1 275.2
1 233.9

(a) All data are presented in Australian dollars using the Australian Customs Value.
Source: International Trade, Australia: FASTTRACCS Service - Electronic Delivery, 2003 (cat. no. 5460.0).


Origin of imports

Throughout the period 1995-96 to 2001-02, China and the United States of America have been the major sources of sports and physical recreation goods imported into Australia. For 2001-02, the combined imports from these two countries amounted to $639.6m, just over half the total of all imports of these goods. The $266.2m contributed to this figure by the United States of America placed it second as a source of Australia's imports. This was more than double the $115.4m worth of goods imported from Japan which was the third-placed import source. Following Japan were Taiwan, from which imports worth $103.7m were obtained in 2001-02, and New Zealand which provided imports worth $79.7m.


These countries were the top five sources of imports for every year of the period 1995-96 to 2001-02. Together they provided more than three quarters of Australia's imports of sports and physical recreation goods for each year except 1996-97 when their combined share was just under at 73%.


At current prices, imports from China have more than doubled over the seven-year period, from $166.3m in 1995-96 to $373.4m in 2001-02. The value increased each year up to a high of $388.5m in 2000-01 before falling by 3.9% to the 2001-02 level. The level of imports from the United States of America in 2001-02 ($266.2m) was 65.3% higher than the $161.0m recorded in 1995-96. After increases each year, a high point of $282.3m was reached in 2000-01 prior to a 5.7% fall to the 2001-02 level.


The value of imports from Japan has increased each year without exception, and the value recorded for 2001-02 ($115.4m) is more than two and a half times greater than the 1995-96 level of $41.0m. The levels of imports from Taiwan and New Zealand have both fluctuated over the years. Taiwan recorded a low point of $90.3m in 1998-99 before rising to a high of $120.0m two years later. Imports from New Zealand increased each year from $75.7m in 1995-96 to $115.2m in 1999-2000, before decreasing 30.8% over two years to be $79.7m in 2001-02.

11.7 ORIGIN OF IMPORTS OF SELECTED SPORTS AND PHYSICAL RECREATION GOODS(a)

1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
Country of origin
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

China
166.3
185.9
209.2
232.7
276.9
388.5
373.4
United States of America
161.0
175.2
223.8
225.0
232.6
282.3
266.2
Japan
41.0
45.2
57.3
77.9
80.3
96.5
115.4
Taiwan
112.7
118.0
104.3
90.3
93.4
120.0
103.7
New Zealand
75.7
91.6
96.2
103.1
115.2
83.2
79.7
United Kingdom
17.7
24.6
30.7
27.3
39.5
46.7
38.3
Viet Nam
4.3
10.0
9.5
12.8
16.2
22.4
28.8
Italy
14.0
21.9
16.7
21.3
21.6
35.2
24.2
France
9.5
11.5
13.8
15.4
18.8
25.4
23.5
Hong Kong (SAR of China)
7.5
16.1
16.8
17.2
18.7
18.9
23.1
India
14.3
14.8
16.4
17.2
18.1
18.7
21.2
Canada
11.8
15.1
19.8
12.6
14.3
18.9
16.0
Indonesia
15.8
16.7
17.0
16.7
17.7
19.3
14.2
Thailand
8.7
9.6
13.3
8.8
8.8
10.5
13.7
Germany
4.0
4.2
3.8
5.0
9.0
11.9
12.3
Korea, Republic of
22.5
18.0
13.5
11.9
11.7
13.3
11.4
Malaysia
6.1
7.2
11.0
9.1
6.9
8.9
9.3
Pakistan
3.6
3.4
3.8
3.7
4.2
4.5
5.8
Philippines
4.6
4.0
6.7
4.4
4.9
4.2
4.4
Singapore
1.3
1.5
1.8
2.4
3.9
6.1
4.2
Other countries
33.1
48.4
32.8
40.9
37.0
39.9
45.3
Total
735.6
842.8
918.2
955.7
1 050.0
1 275.2
1 233.9

(a) All data are presented in Australian dollars using the Australian Customs Value.
Source: International Trade, Australia: FASTTRACCS Service - Electronic Delivery, 2003 (cat. no. 5460.0).


Balance of trade in sports and physical recreation goods

The countries shown in graph 11.8 were Australia's major trading partners in sports and physical recreation goods for 2001-02. That is, they were the countries with which total transactions (exports and imports) were greatest. Australia had a trade deficit with many of these countries in 2001-02. The largest trade deficit was with China ($370.5m), followed by the United States of America ($170.7m), Taiwan ($102.4m) and Japan ($89.2m). Australia's largest trade surplus in sports and physical recreation goods was with Greece ($30.8m), while exports to Hong Kong (SAR of China) and New Zealand exceeded imports by $20.1m and $15.0m respectively.

11.8 BALANCE OF TRADE IN SELECTED SPORTS AND PHYSICAL RECREATION GOODS - 2001-02
Graph: 11.8 BALANCE OF TRADE IN SELECTED SPORTS AND PHYSICAL RECREATION GOODS—2001–02



International trade in sports and physical recreation services

In addition to trade in goods, there are also flows of funds between Australia and other countries for the export and import of services relating to sports and physical recreation. Export dollars that flow into Australia as a result of services supplied overseas by Australian residents are termed service credits. These include gross receipts from overseas tours by Australian sporting teams, prize moneys and appearance fees earned overseas by Australian sportspersons, and management and entrepreneurial services provided by Australian residents. Amounts paid to non-residents in the form of prize money, appearance fees or management fees are payments for the importation of sports and physical recreation services and are termed service debits.


Australia's international trade in sports and physical recreation services is relatively small. As a result, sports and physical recreation services are not identified separately in trade statistics, but are instead combined with cultural and entertainment services, other leisure services, and health and medical services.


Australia's trade in this group of services has historically been in deficit. However, as can be seen in table 11.9, it moved into surplus ($19m) in 1998-99 and has remained there ever since. A 44.2% increase in service credits to $137m, coupled with a 25.9% decrease in service debits to $60m, has resulted in the surplus for 2001-02 reaching $77m. This is four times the size of the previous highest surplus ($19m in 1998-99).

11.9 INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN SPORTING, ENTERTAINMENT, CULTURAL, HEALTH AND MEDICAL SERVICES

Credits (earnings)
Debits (payments)
Excess of credits over debits
$m
$m
$m

1995-96
39
52
-13
1996-97
46
54
-8
1997-98
61
63
-2
1998-99
83
64
19
1999-00
75
64
11
2000-01
95
81
14
2001-02
137
60
77

Source: Balance of Payments and International Investment Position, Australia, 1999-2000 (cat. no. 5363.0) and ABS data available on request, Balance of Payments.


International trade in Audiovisual and related services includes payments for the broadcast rights to sporting fixtures, but these payments are not recorded separately in the trade statistics. However, it has been determined that the service credits of $1,226m for Audiovisual and related services in 2000-01 included $1,025m associated with the broadcast rights for the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games.


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