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4172.0 - Arts and Culture in Australia: A Statistical Overview, 2007  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 18/06/2007  Reissue
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Contents >> 6.0 Output of Cultural Industries - Australian National Accounts

Image: Output of Cultural Industries OUTPUT OF CULTURAL INDUSTRIES


A measure of the significance of an industry to the Australian economy is the value of its outputs compared with those of other industries and to the economy as a whole. The Australian National Accounts (ANA) provides a summary of the economic activity of the nation allowing such comparisons to be made. The ANA includes expenditure in Australia by businesses, governments and people from overseas.

Data from the ANA are available on both an industry basis (the value of output of firms in the industry) and a product basis (the value of commodities typically produced by the industry). The difference between the industry and product data arises because some firms produce products which are typically not made by firms in their industry.

The industries in the ANA are defined using the 1993 Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) (cat. no. 1292.0). The Classification combines industries into economically significant classes which are then the basis for statistical output.

For Australia, a significant industry class is one which has at least $200m turnover in Australia or employs 3,500 people - based on 1989-90 information. Unfortunately, many individual cultural industries do not reach these limits and are therefore grouped with similar cultural industries. For example, those industries that employ painters, writers and playwrights are all grouped together, with several other similar activities, under a class entitled 'Creative arts'. Data are available for the combined group but not for the individual creative activities.

A small number of cultural goods and services have been excluded from the calculation of cultural output because they cannot be separately identified from non-cultural products.

The latest product data available are for the year 2001-02. These data show that the Australian production of cultural goods and services totalled $48,557m.

The value of the output of the cultural industries was approximately the same as that of the Other construction industry ($46,286m), the Scientific research, technical and computer services industry ($43,551m), the Education industry ($43,952m) and the Health services industry ($43,928m).

In 2001-02, the value of Advertising services totalled $11,512m, which was 24% of the total value of cultural goods and services produced in that year. Printing and services to printing accounted for 21% of the total value of output of cultural goods and services. Radio and TV station services was the only other cultural product which accounted for more than 10%.


Australian production
Percentage of total
cultural goods
and services produced
Product item

Publishing, recorded media and publishing
Newspapers, printing or publishing
1 603
Magazines and bound periodicals publishing
Books, sheet music, maps, etc. publishing
Pre-recorded audio, video tapes, computer tapes or disks, compact disks and records, manufactured or published
1 210
Other income
4 625
Motion picture, radio and television services
Motion picture production
Film hiring services
Motion picture theatre services
Radio and TV station services
6 236
Pay TV services
2 187
10 006
Libraries, museums and the arts
Library, museum and art gallery services
1 061
Zoological and botanical gardens operation
Recreational parks and gardens operation
Music and theatre production operation
Creative arts services
1 095
Sound recording studios operation
Performing arts venue operation
1 103
Other services to the arts(c)
5 665
Other cultural products
Printing and services to printing
9 932
Television receiving sets production
Musical instruments (incl. parts and accessories) production
Architectural services
3 317
Advertising services
11 512
Commercial art and display services
2 044
Video hire
1 040
Photography services n.e.c.
28 261
48 557

(a) At basic values - the net price received by the producer (after deducting any indirect taxes).
(b) Excludes products produced by: the Recorded media manufacturing and publishing industry; the Book and magazine wholesaling industry; the Newspaper, book and stationery retailing industry; and the Recorded music retailing industry (details for these industries are not available separately).
(c) Includes casting agency operation and services to the arts n.e.c.
ABS, Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables (Product Details), 2001-02 (cat. no. 5215.0.55.001).

The data in table 6.1 show the value of cultural goods and services produced in Australia. This is a gross measure which includes the value of output produced by other industries that are used by the cultural industries in producing their output.

For instance, the category Radio and TV station services includes the purchase of the rights to broadcast sport events which are the output of another industry (i.e. the Sport, recreation and gambling services industry).

The value of an industry's output after deducting the value of goods and services used in producing them is termed 'value added'. This is equivalent to the return received by the factors of production (labour and capital).

This is a net measure of the size of the industry's output, and allows the production of different industries to be added together without the risk of double counting.

Value added data are only available on an industry basis, which is not as detailed as the product basis. Therefore, value added data are not available for all of the cultural products displayed in table 6.1, which shows only the value of production and the value added for those cultural industries which can be identified separately in the industry classification.

The value of the goods and services produced by the cultural industries for which value added data were available in 2001-02 was $25,796m. The value added component of these cultural industries was $10,225m, which indicates that 40% of the value of goods and services produced by the cultural industries was paid to factors of production (labour and capital). The remaining amount ($15,571m or 60%) was paid to other industries for their output which was used in producing the cultural goods and services. These selected cultural industries account for 1.5% of Australia's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), in terms of value added.

6.2 OUTPUT AND VALUE ADDED, Selected cultural industries(a) - 2001-02

Australian production(b)
Value added

Motion picture, radio and television services
10 043
3 229
Libraries, museums and the arts
5 874
2 498
Publishing, recorded media, etc.
9 879
4 498
Total for selected cultural industries(a)
25 796
10 225
Total for all industries
1 417 756
671 872

(a) Those for which value added data are available.
(b) These figures differ slightly from those that could be obtained by summing the relevant categories in the previous table. This table shows the value of output produced by firms belonging to this industry, whereas the previous table shows the value of products typically produced by this industry, regardless of whether they were produced by firms in this industry (the difference arises because some firms have non-core activities which belong to a different industry to their core activities).
ABS, Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables, 2001-02 (cat. no. 5209.0.55.001).

This section contains the following subsection :
      6.1 Service Industries Survey

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