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4130.0.55.001 - Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia, 2002-03  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 23/02/2005   
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Benefit transfers

See government pensions and allowances.

Capital cities

Australia's six state capital city statistical divisions. For the Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory the estimates relate predominantly to urban areas.

Changeover buyer

A household which bought their dwelling in the three years prior to the reference year and either the reference person or partner had previously owned a dwelling.

Couple, one family household

One family household consisting of:

  • one couple only
  • one couple, with their dependent and/or non-dependent children only
  • one couple, with or without children, plus other relatives
  • one couple, with or without children and other relatives, plus unrelated individuals.

Couple

Two people in a registered or de facto marriage, who usually live in the same household.

Decile

Groupings that result from ranking all households or people in the population in ascending order according to some characteristic such as their household income and then dividing the population into 10 equal groups, each comprising 10% of the estimated population.

Dependent children

All persons aged under 15 years; and people aged 15-24 years who are full-time students, have a parent in the household and do not have a partner or child of their own in the household.

Disposable income

Gross income after income tax and the Medicare levy are deducted. Income tax and the Medicare levy are imputed based on each person's income and other characteristics as reported in the survey. Disposable income is sometimes referred to as net income.

Dwelling structure

The dwelling structure type is determined by the structure of the building that contains the dwelling. Households belong to one of four dwelling categories:
  • separate house;
  • semi-detached, row or terrace house or townhouse;
  • flat, unit, or apartment; and
  • other dwelling, including caravan or cabin in a caravan park, houseboat in a marina, caravan not in a caravan park, houseboat not in a marina and house or flat attached to a shop.

Earners

Persons (excluding dependent children) who receive income from wages or salaries, who are engaged in their own business or partnership, or are silent partners in a business or partnership.

Equity in the dwelling

A household's equity in the dwelling is the difference between the value of the dwelling and the total amount outstanding on mortgages taken out on the dwelling or unsecured loans for housing purposes.

Equivalised disposable household income

Disposable household income adjusted using an equivalence scale. For a lone person household it is equal to disposable household income. For a household comprising more than one person, it is an indicator of the disposable household income that would need to be received by a lone person household to enjoy the same level of economic wellbeing as the household in question. For further information see Appendix 3 in Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia, 2002-03, cat. no. 6523.0.

Family

Two or more people, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering, and who usually live in the same household. A separate family is formed for each married couple, or for each set of parent-child relationships where only one parent is present.

First home buyer

A household which bought their dwelling in the three years prior to the survey reference period, and neither the reference person nor partner had previously owned a dwelling.

Flat, unit or apartment

Includes all self-contained dwellings in blocks of flats, units or apartments. These dwellings do not have their own private grounds and usually share a common entrance foyer or stairwell. This category includes houses converted into flats and flats attached to houses such as granny flats. A house with a granny flat attached is regarded as a separate house.

Full-time student

A person 15 years or over who is classified as a full-time student by the institution they attend, or considers himself/herself to be a full-time student. Full-time study does not preclude employment.

Government pensions and allowances/Government cash benefits

Regular, recurring receipts from government to persons under social security and related government programs. Included are pensions and allowances received by aged, disabled, unemployed and sick persons, families and children, veterans or their survivors, and study allowances for students. Sometimes referred to as government benefit transfers. All overseas pensions and benefits are included here, although some may not be paid by overseas governments.

Gross income

Regular cash receipts before income tax or the Medicare levy are deducted.

Group household

A household consisting of two or more unrelated people where all people are aged 15 years and over. There are no reported couple relationships, parent-child relationships or other blood relationships in these households.

Household

A group of related or unrelated people who usually live in the same dwelling and make common provision for food and other essentials of living; or a lone person who makes provision for his or her own food and other essentials of living without combining with any other person. Lodgers who receive accommodation only (not meals) are treated as a separate household. Boarders who receive accommodation and meals, are treated as part of the household.

Household composition

Classifies households into three broad groupings based on the number of families present (one family, multiple family and non-family). One family households are further disaggregated according to the type of family (such as couple family or one parent family) and according to the number of dependent and non-dependent children, other relatives and unrelated individuals present. Non-family households are disaggregated into lone person households and group households.

Housing costs

Housing costs for the purpose of this publication comprise the following costs for the 3 different tenure type categories shown:
  • owner without a mortgage - rates payments (general and water);
  • owner with a mortgage - rates payments plus mortgage or unsecured loan payments if the initial purpose was primarily to buy, build, add to or alter the dwelling;
  • renter - rent payments.

Housing costs as a proportion of income

The total weekly housing costs of a group (e.g. one-parent households) are divided by the total weekly income of that group expressed as a percentage.

Housing stress

People in housing stress are those with household incomes between the bottom 10% and bottom 40% of the distribution of equivalised disposable household income, and living in households where housing costs are more than 30% of the household's gross income.

Income

Regular and recurring cash receipts including moneys received from wages and salaries, government pensions and allowances, and other regular receipts such as superannuation, workers' compensation, child support, scholarships, profit or loss from own unincorporated business or partnership and investment income. Gross income is the sum of the income from all these sources before income tax or the Medicare levy are deducted. Other measures of income are disposable income and equivalised disposable income.

Landlord type

For renters, the type of entity to whom rent is paid or with whom the tenure contract or arrangement is made. Renters belong to one of the following categories:
  • state/territory housing authority - where the household pays rent to a state or territory housing authority or trust
  • private landlords - where the household pays rent to a real estate agent or to another person not in the same household
  • other - where the household pays rent to the owner/manager of a caravan park, an employer (including a government authority), a housing cooperative, a community or church group, or any other body not included elsewhere.

Lone person household

A household consisting of a person living alone.

Mean housing costs

The total weekly housing costs paid by a group of households (e.g. couple only households) divided by the number of households in that group.

Median housing costs

That level of weekly housing costs that divides a group of households into two equal parts, one half having housing costs above the median and the other half having housing costs below the median. Households with nil or negative total income are not included in this calculation.

Median ratio of housing costs to income

The ratio of weekly housing costs to gross weekly income is calculated for each household. The median is the level of that ratio that divides a group of households into two equal parts, one half having the ratio above the median and the other half having the ratio below the median.

Mortgagee

A mortgage is a loan taken out using the usual residence as security. An owner with a mortgage must still owe money from such a loan.

Mortgage

Refer to owner.

Negative income

Income may be negative when a loss accrues to a household as an owner or partner in unincorporated enterprises or rental properties. Losses occur when operating expenses and depreciation are greater than gross receipts.

Non-family household

Consists of unrelated people only. A non-family household can be either a person living alone or a group household.

One family household

A household containing only one family. Unrelated individuals may also be present.

One parent, one family household

A one family household comprising a lone parent with at least one dependent or non-dependent child. The household may also include other relatives and unrelated individuals.

Other dwelling

Includes caravans, houseboats, or houses or flats attached to a shop or other commercial premise.

Other household

Includes a group household (comprising both related and unrelated people); a household with an extended family (e.g. grandparents, parents and children); and a household with multiple families.

Other family household

A household with an extended family (e.g. couple living with a single parent); and a household with multiple families.

Other income

Income other than wages and salaries, own business or partnership income and government pensions and allowances. This includes income received as a result of ownership of financial assets (interest, dividends), and of non-financial assets (rent, royalties) and other regular receipts from sources such as superannuation, child support, workers' compensation and scholarships. Income from rent is net of operating expenses and depreciation and may be negative when these are greater than gross receipts.

Other landlord type

Where the household pays rent to the owner/manager of a caravan park, an employer (including a government authority), a housing cooperative, a community or church group, or any other body not included elsewhere.

Other tenure type

A household which is not an owner, with or without a mortgage, or a renter. Includes rent free.

Outright owner

Refer to owner.

Own unincorporated business income

The profit/loss that accrues to persons as owners of, or partners in, unincorporated enterprises. Profit/loss consists of the value of gross output of the enterprise after the deduction of operating expenses (including depreciation). Losses occur when operating expenses are greater than gross receipts and are treated as negative income.

Owner

A household in which at least one member owns the dwelling in which it usually resides. Owners are divided into two classifications - owners without a mortgage and owners with a mortgage. If there is any outstanding mortgage or loan secured against the dwelling the household is an owner with a mortgage. If there is no mortgage or loan secured against the dwelling the household is an owner without a mortgage. Owners without a mortgage can be referred to as outright owners, and owners with a mortgage as mortgagees.

Principal source of income

That source from which the most positive income is received. If total income is nil or negative the principal source is undefined. As there are several possible sources a household with income from all sources may receive less than 50% of total income from the principal source.

Private income

Regular, recurring receipts from private organisations, including superannuation, regular workers' compensation, income from annuities, interest, dividends, royalties, income from rental properties, private scholarship and child support.

Private renter

A household paying rent to a landlord who is a real estate agent, a parent or other relative not in the same household or another person not in the same household.

Property income

Income received as a result of ownership of assets. It comprises returns from financial assets (interest, dividends), and from non-financial assets (rent and royalties).

Public renter

A household paying rent to a state or territory housing authority/trust.

Quintiles

Groupings that result from ranking all households or people in the population in ascending order according to some characteristic such as their household income and then dividing the population into five equal groups, each comprising 20% of the estimated population. In this publication the quintiles are formed by ranking people by their equivalised disposable household income.

Recent home buyer

A household which bought their dwelling in the three years prior to the survey.

Reference person

The reference person for each household is chosen by applying, to all household members aged 15 years and over, the selection criteria below, in the order listed, until a single appropriate reference person is identified:
  • the person with the highest tenure when ranked as follows: owner without a mortgage, owner with a mortgage, renter, other tenure
  • one of the partners in a registered or de facto marriage, with dependent children
  • one of the partners in a registered or de facto marriage, without dependent children
  • a lone parent with dependent children
  • the person with the highest income
  • the eldest person.

For example, in a household containing a lone parent with a non-dependent child, the person with the highest tenure will become the reference person. If the non-dependent child is an owner with a mortgage and the lone parent lives in the dwelling rent free, the non-dependent child will become the reference person. If both individuals have the same tenure, the one with the higher income will become the reference person. However, if both individuals have the same income, the elder will become the reference person.

Renter

A household which pays rent to reside in the dwelling. See further classification by Landlord type.

Semi-detached, row or terrace house or townhouse

A dwelling with its own private grounds and no dwelling above or below. A key feature of this dwelling is that it is either attached in some structural way to one or more dwellings or is separated from neighbouring dwellings by less than one-half metre. Examples include semi-detached, row or terrace houses, townhouses or villa units. Multistorey townhouses or units are separately identified from those which are single storey.

Separate house

A dwelling which is self-contained and separated from other houses (or other buildings or structures) by a space to allow access on all sides (at least one-half metre). This category also includes houses that have an attached flat (e.g. a granny flat). The attached flat will be included in the flat, unit or apartment category. See also Flat, unit or apartment.

Tenure type

The nature of a household's legal right to occupy the dwelling in which the household members usually reside. Tenure is determined according to whether the household owns the dwelling outright, owns the dwelling but has a mortgage or loan secured against it, is paying rent to live in the dwelling or has some other arrangement to occupy the dwelling.

Unincorporated business

A business in which the owner(s) and the business are the same legal entity, so that, for example, the owner(s) are personally liable for any business debts that are incurred.

Value of dwelling

The estimated value of the dwelling and its land, as estimated and reported by the household respondent. The data are only collected for owners.

Wages and salaries

The gross cash income received as a return to labour from an employer or from a person's own incorporated business.


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