MIGRATION IN CONTEXT
NET OVERSEAS MIGRATION (NOM)
- In 2007-08 net overseas migration (NOM, 213,700 persons) exceeded natural increase (145,600 persons), remaining the major contributor to Australia's population growth for the third consecutive year. The preliminary estimate of NOM represented 59% of Australia's population growth for the year.
- In 2007-08 net interstate migration (NIM) was a major source of population loss for New South Wales (28% or 21,900 persons) and South Australia (26% or 4,500 persons).
AUSTRALIA'S DIVERSE POPULATION
- In 2007-08 NOM contributed 1.0% to Australia's 1.7% total population growth rate. Only once over the previous three decades has NOM made a higher contribution (1.1% in 2006-07).
- In numeric terms in 2007-08 NOM was 213,700 persons, comprising of 442,100 NOM arrivals minus 228,400 NOM departures.
- The main effect of NOM on Australia's age structure was that it resulted in a larger proportion of persons of early working age. In 2007-08, persons in the 15-34 years age group represented 61% of NOM compared with 28% of Australia's population.
- In 2007-08 NOM made a positive contribution to the population of all states and territories with the most populous states recording the greatest gains: New South Wales gained 61,300 persons, Victoria 58,100 and Queensland 41,200.
- In the year ended June 2008, travellers contributing to NOM were born in over 200 countries. Travellers born in China were the highest contributors to NOM (28,700 persons) followed by New Zealand (27,400), the United Kingdom (24,000) and India (23,900).
- The sex ratios of travellers by birthplace varied substantially. For NOM arrivals India had the highest sex ratio (166 males per 100 females) while Japan had the lowest sex ratio (67 males per 100 females). A similar pattern was evident for NOM departures.
- Of the countries of birth contributing to temporary NOM arrivals, India added the most to the population (31,800 persons) followed by China (29,500) and the United Kingdom (23,700).
- Education (38%) was the main reason for journey for temporary NOM arrivals. Countries with a high rate reporting education as their main reason were China (69%), India (59%) and Malaysia (52%).
- At 30 June 2008, the estimated resident population (ERP) of Australia was 21.4 million people with one quarter (5.5 million people) being born overseas.
- The proportions of immigrants born in North-West Europe and Southern and Eastern Europe are in decline, with each region falling 0.8 percentage points between 1998 and 2008. Conversely, the proportions of migrants from North-East Asia and Southern and Central Asia are increasing, with each region up by 1 percentage point between 1998 and 2008.
- At 30 June 2008, persons born in the United Kingdom continued to be the largest group of overseas-born residents, accounting for 5.4% of Australia's total population. Persons born in New Zealand accounted for 2.3% of Australia's total population, followed by persons born in China (1.5%), India (1.1%) and Italy (1.0%).
- Between 1998 and 2008 the number of Australia-born residents increased at an average rate of 1.1% per year, while the number of overseas-born residents increased at 2.4% per year.
- At 30 June 2008, the highest proportions of overseas-born persons, as a percentage of Australia's population, were in the 40-44 and 45-49 years age groups for both males and females.
- The median age of all Australian residents was 36.9 years at 30 June 2008. The Australia-born median age was 33.2 years compared with 45.7 years for the overseas-born.
- Of the 50 most common countries of birth the highest median ages were recorded for Italy (66.8 years) and Hungary (65.3 years). The lowest median ages were recorded for Sudan (25.2 years) and Afghanistan (28.5 years).
- Of the 50 most common countries of birth the highest sex ratio was recorded for Bangladesh residents (159 males per 100 females) followed by Pakistan (144). The lowest sex ratios were recorded by Thailand (54) and Japan (57).
- During 2007-08, 360,800 people moved interstate, 0.6% higher than the previous year (358,700 movements).
- Of the states and territories in 2007-08, Queensland continued to record the largest net population gain of 23,100 persons due to net interstate migration (NIM) while New South Wales recorded the largest net loss of 21,900 persons.
- The greatest proportional impact on a state's or territory's population from NIM continues to be experienced by the Northern Territory, although it has declined from that recorded in the early 1990's. In 2007-08, the Northern Territory recorded a 7.8% increase to its population through interstate arrivals and a 7.3% decrease due to interstate departures.
- Over the 10 years to 2007-08, Queensland, Western Australia and Victoria were the only states or territories to record average net gains due to interstate migration (26,600, 770 and 270 persons per year respectively).
- New South Wales and South Australia recorded the largest average net population losses due to interstate migration over the 10 years to 2007-08 (23,400 and 2,700 persons per year respectively).
- Persons aged 20-34 years accounted for 39% of all interstate movers in 2007-08, while comprising 21% of the total population.
- Persons aged 50 years and over were less likely to move interstate than younger persons. They accounted for 15% of the total number of interstate migrants in 2007-08, while comprising 31% of the total population.
- In 2007-08 the median age of all interstate movers was 28.3 years.
- Population mobility in this chapter has used census data and compares between an individuals usual place of residence on census night (8 August 2006) and their place of usual residence 1 year earlier or 5 years earlier.
- During the intercensal period 2001-06, 6.6 million people (40.3% of the population), aged five years and over (as at Census night 8 August 2006), changed their place of usual residence in Australia.
- Of this 6.6 million, 86.0% moved within the same state or territory.
- While the 25-29 year age group, for both males and females, was the most mobile age group in 2001-06, females had a higher propensity to move than males.
- Mobility rates of immigrants were higher on arrival and for the first decade of their residence in Australia than Australia-born rates. Long term, overseas-born rates were lower than for Australia-born. For overseas-born, between 1996-2000, the mobility rate was 60.5%. Long term the mobility rate for immigrants was considerably lower at 28.9% for immigrants who arrived in Australia before 1986. This in part, reflects the fact that many of these migrants are now older and less likely to move. The mobility rate for Australia-born at the 2006 Census was 41.6%.
- Of the selected countries of birth, at the 2006 Census, the highest mobility rate was recorded by Pakistan (54.0%) followed by New Zealand (53.4%), countries with relatively low median ages in the Australian population, as seen in Table 4.6 (31.5 years and 38.9 years respectively). The lowest mobility rates were recorded by Italy (14.3%) and Greece (14.0%), countries with high median ages in the Australian population (66.8 years and 64.9 years respectively).
- During 2001-2006, Indigenous Australians moved more than non-Indigenous Australians (standardised by age) with 42.3% of the Indigenous people changing their place of usual residence compared with 41.7% of the non-Indigenous people. In contrast, the reverse was true for interstate movements with a standardised rate of 4.3% of the Indigenous people moving interstate compared with 4.7 % of the non-Indigenous.
- The highest interstate mobility of Indigenous persons was from New South Wales to Queensland (19.4%) followed by Queensland to New South Wales (11.1%).