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3105.0.65.001 - Australian Historical Population Statistics, 2006  
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GLOSSARY

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin


The 1996 census form asked the following question of each person:

Diagram: Aboriginal and Torres Strait origin question on 1996 census form


Indigenous statistics since 1996 conform to this definition.


For a discussion of the treatment of Indigenous persons in earlier censuses refer to the ABS Occasional Paper Population Issues, Indigenous Australians, 1996 (cat. no. 4708. 0).


Age-specific death rates


Age-specific death rates are the number of deaths (occurred or registered) during the calendar year at a specified age per 1,000 of the estimated resident population of the same age at mid-point of the year (30 June). Pro rata adjustment is made in respect of deaths for which the age of the deceased is not given.


Age-specific divorce rates


Because of the different purposes to which they are put, two different populations may be used in the calculation of age-specific divorce rates:

  • Per 1,000 population - this relates the number of divorces recorded in the calendar year, by age at decree made absolute, to the estimated resident population of the same age at 30 June. Males under 18 years and females under 16 years are excluded from the population.
  • Per 1,000 married population - this relates the number of divorces recorded in a calendar year, by age at decree made absolute, to the married population of the same age at 30 June. Those classified as permanently separated are included in the married population. Males and females under 15 years are excluded from the population.

Wherever used, the definition adopted is indicated.


Age-specific fertility rates


Age-specific fertility rates are the number of live births (occurred or registered) during the calendar year, according to the age of the mother, per 1,000 of the female estimated resident population of the same age at 30 June. For calculating these rates, births to mothers under 15 years are included in the 15-19 years age group, and births to mothers aged 50 years and over are included in the 45-49 years age group. Pro rata adjustment is made for births for which the age of the mother is not given.


Age-specific marriage rates


Because of the different purposes to which they are put, two different populations may be used in the calculation of age-specific marriage rates:

  • Per 1,000 population - this relates the number of marriages of males or females registered in a calendar year, by age at marriage, to the estimated resident population in the same age. Males and females aged under 15 years are excluded from the population.
  • Per 1,000 not registered married population - this relates the number of marriages of males or females registered in a calendar year, by age at marriage, to the not registered married population of males or females of the same age at 30 June. Males and females aged under 15 years are excluded from the population.

Wherever used, the definition adopted is indicated.


Average annual rate of growth


The average annual growth rate, r, is calculated as a percentage using the formula:


r = Equation: Formula for average annual growth rate


where Po is the population at the start of the period, Pn is the population at the end of the period and n is the length of the period between Pn and Po in years.


Balance of state or territory


The aggregation of all Statistical Divisions (SD) within a state or territory other than its Capital City (see Major Statistical Region in Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0)). Historical data are presented on boundaries as defined at the time, unless otherwise stated.


Birth


The delivery of a child, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, who, after being born, breathes or shows any evidence of life such as heartbeat.


Capital city


Refers to the Capital City Statistical Divisions of states and territories as defined in Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0). Historical data are presented on boundaries as defined at the time, unless otherwise stated.


Category jumping


Until recently, adjustments used by the ABS to produce Net Overseas Migration (NOM) estimates were collectively referred to as 'category jumping adjustments'. They are now referred to more simply as 'migration adjustments'. See Migration Adjustment.


Category of movement


Overseas arrivals and departures are classified according to length of stay (in Australia or overseas), recorded in months and days by travellers on passenger cards. There are three main categories of movement:

  • permanent movements;
  • long-term movements (one year or more); and
  • short-term movements (less than one year).

A significant number of travellers (i.e. overseas visitors to Australia on arrival and Australian residents going abroad) state exactly 12 months or one year as their intended period of stay. Many of them stay for less than that period and on their departure from, or return to, Australia are therefore classified as short-term. Accordingly, in an attempt to maintain consistency between arrivals and departures, movements of travellers who report their actual or intended period of stay as being one year exactly are randomly allocated to long-term or short-term in proportion to the number of movements of travellers who report their actual length of stay as up to one month more, or one month less, than one year.


Prior to 1959, overseas arrivals and departures were classified as either permanent or temporary. Revised questions for travellers were introduced in 1958 which enables arrivals and departures previously classified as permanent to be sub-divided (as from 1 January 1959) into two categories, permanent movement and long-term movement.


Census count


The Census of Population and Housing enumerates persons on the basis of where they were located on census night. Characteristics of households are only available according to place of enumeration. The census also compiles information on people according to their place of usual residence. This information is coded to Statistical Local Areas. This means that census counts of people can be produced according to their location on census night as well as their place of usual residence.


Confinement


A pregnancy which results in at least one live birth.


Country of birth


The classification of countries is the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC). For more detailed information refer to the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC) (cat. no. 1269.0).


Crude birth rate


The crude birth rate is the number of live births registered during the calendar year per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June of that year. For years prior to 1992, the crude birth rate was based on the mean estimated resident population for the calendar year.


Crude death rate


The crude death rate is the number of deaths registered during the calendar year per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June. For years prior to 1992, the crude death rate was based on the mean estimated resident population for the calendar year.


Crude divorce rate


The crude divorce rate is the number of decrees absolute granted during the calendar year per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June. For years prior to 1992, the crude divorce rate was based on the mean estimated resident population for the calendar year. In the interpretation of this rate, it must be kept in mind that a large and varying proportion of the population used in the denominator is unmarried or is below the minimum age of marriage.


Crude marriage rate


The crude marriage rate is the number of marriages registered during the calendar year per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June. For years prior to 1992, the crude marriage rate was based on the mean estimated resident population for the calendar year. In the interpretation of this rate, it must be kept in mind that a large and varying proportion of the population used in the denominator is below the minimum age of marriage or is already married.


Date of divorce


Date at which decree absolute of dissolution of marriage is granted.


Date of separation


The date of final separation is the date, given on the application for divorce, from which the period of living apart is calculated for the purpose of establishing grounds for divorce. In determining the date of final separation, a single period of resumed cohabitation of less than three months may be ignored, provided the periods of living apart before and after resumed cohabitation amount to a total of 12 months or more.


Death


Death is the permanent disappearance of all evidence of life after birth has taken place. The definition excludes all deaths prior to live birth. For the purposes of the Vitals and Causes of Death collections of the ABS, a death refers to any death which occurs in, or en route to Australia and is registered with a state or territory Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages.


Dependant children (divorces collection)


Children in the divorce collection are unmarried children of the marriage who were aged under 18 years at the time of application for divorce. Under the Family Law Act 1975 (Cwlth) these may include (in certain cases) adopted and ex-nuptial children and children from a former marriage. Children who are married or aged 18 years or more are not subject to custody and guardianship orders and are excluded.


Divorce


Decree absolute of dissolution of marriage.


Duration of marriage to divorce


Duration of marriage is the interval measured in completed years between the date of marriage and the date of divorce.


Duration of marriage to separation


Duration of marriage until separation is the interval measured in completed years between the date of marriage and the date of separation.


Estimated resident population (ERP)


The official measure of the population of Australia is based on the concept of residence. It refers to all people, regardless of nationality or citizenship, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. It includes usual residents who are overseas for less than 12 months. It excludes overseas visitors who are in Australia for less than 12 months.


Indigenous (see also Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin)


Persons who identify themselves as being of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin.


Infant death


An infant death is the death of a live-born child who dies before completing his/her first birthday.


Infant mortality rate


The number of deaths of children under one year of age in a calendar year per 1,000 live births in the same calendar year.


Intercensal discrepancy


Intercensal discrepancy is the difference between two estimates at 30 June of a census year population, the first based on the latest census and the second arrived at by updating the 30 June estimate of the previous census year with intercensal components of population change which take account of information available from the latest census. It is caused by errors in the start and/or finish population estimates and/or in estimates of births, deaths or migration in the intervening period which cannot be attributed to a particular source.


Life expectancy


Life expectancy refers to the average number of additional years a person of a given age and sex might expect to live if the age-specific death rates of the given period continued throughout his/her lifetime.


Life table


A life table is a tabular, numerical representation of mortality and survivorship of a cohort of births at each age of life. The conventional life table is based on the assumption that as the cohort passes through life it experiences mortality at each age in accordance with a predetermined pattern of mortality rates which do not change from year to year. The life table thus constitutes a hypothetical model of mortality, and even though it is usually based upon death rates from a real population during a particular period of time, it does not describe the real mortality which characterises a cohort as it ages.


There is another kind of life table in which the mortality patterns are derived from the experience of the same cohorts as they pass through different ages. Such tables are called cohort life tables or generation life tables. Because many years must pass to accumulate the information needed to construct a cohort life table, such tables are rare.


Due to differences in mortality patterns between males and females at different ages, life tables generally are constructed separately for each sex. The life table is a very useful tool for computing estimates of the mortality component of population change. This is done by the use of specific figures from the entire array which comprises the life table. The information in this array of figures is of several different types, each of which is called a life table function.


Local Government Area (LGA)


Local Government Areas (LGAs) are the spatial units which represent the geographical areas of incorporated local government councils and incorporated Community Government councils (CGCs) where the CGC is of sufficient size and statistical significance. The various types of LGAs are cities (C), areas (A), rural cities (RC), towns (T), shires (S), district councils (DC) and municipalities (M). Further information concerning LGAs is contained in Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0).


Long-term arrivals


Long-term arrivals comprise:

  • overseas visitors who intend to stay in Australia for 12 months or more (but not permanently); and
  • Australian residents returning after an absence of 12 months or more overseas.

Prior to 1959, overseas arrivals and departures were classified as either permanent or temporary. Revised questions for travellers were introduced in 1958 which enabled arrivals and departures previously classified as permanent to be sub-divided (as from 1 January 1959) into two categories, permanent movement and long-term movement.
  • Long-term departures

Long-term departures comprise:
  • Australian residents who intend to stay abroad for 12 months or more (but not permanently); and
  • overseas visitors departing who stayed 12 months or more in Australia.

Prior to 1959, overseas arrivals and departures were classified as either permanent or temporary. Revised questions for travellers were introduced in 1958 which enabled arrivals and departures previously classified as permanent to be sub-divided (as from 1 January 1959) into two categories, permanent movement and long-term movement.


Marital status


Two separate concepts of marital status are measured by the ABS. These are registered marital status and social marital status.


Registered marital status refers to formally registered marriages and divorces. Registered marital status is a person's relationship status in terms of whether he or she has, or has had, a registered marriage with another person. Accordingly, people are classified as either 'never married', 'married', 'widowed', or 'divorced'.


Social marital status is the relationship status of an individual with reference to another person who is usually resident in the household. A marriage exists when two people live together as husband and wife, or partners, regardless of whether the marriage is formalised through registration. Individuals are, therefore, regarded as married if they are in a de facto marriage, or if they are living with the person to whom they are registered as married. Under social marital status, a person is classified as either 'married' or 'not married' with further disaggregation of 'married' to distinguish 'registered married' from 'de facto married' person.


Marriage


Refers to registered marriages only. Under the Australian Marriage Act 1961 (Cwlth), a marriage may be celebrated by a minister of religion registered as an authorised celebrant, by a district registrar or by other persons authorised by the Attorney-General. Notice of the intended marriage must be given to the celebrant at least one calendar month but within six calendar months before the marriage. A celebrant must transmit an official certificate of the marriage for registration in the state or territory in which the marriage took place.


Mean population


Mean populations are calculated using the formula:


Equation: Formula for mean population calculation


where a is the population at the end of the quarter immediately preceding the 12-month period, and b, c, d and e are the populations at the end of each of the four succeeding quarters. The weights used in the formulation of the mean annual populations have been derived using a mathematical technique which involves the fitting of two quadratic polynomial functions to a series of points.


Median value


For any distribution the median value (age, duration, interval) is that value which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, half falling below the value, and half exceeding it. Where the value for a particular record has not been stated, that record is excluded from the calculation.


Migration adjustment


The ABS applies a number of adjustments to overseas arrivals and departures data in order to produce estimates of net overseas arrivals and departures (NOM). These mainly comprise adjustments designed to reflect differences between stated travel intentions and actual travel behaviour, but (in the case of revised NOM estimates) also include adjustments to transform numbers of overseas movements into numbers of travellers. Until recently, adjustments used by the ABS to produce NOM estimates were collectively referred to as 'category jumping adjustments'. They are now referred to more simply as 'migration adjustments'. For further information see the Technical Note in Australian Demographic Statistics, September Quarter 2005 (cat. no. 3101.0) and ABS Demography Working Paper 2003/5 - Net Overseas Migration: Adjusting for Actual Duration of Stay or Absence.


Natural increase


Excess of births over deaths.


Net interstate migration


The difference between the number of persons who have changed their place of usual residence by moving into a given state or territory and the number who have changed their place of usual residence by moving out of that state or territory. This difference can be either positive or negative.


Net overseas migration


Net overseas migration is net permanent and long-term overseas migration adjusted change in traveller duration, intention and multiple movement error.


Net permanent and long-term movement


The difference between the number of permanent (settler) and long-term arrivals and the number of permanent and long-term departures. Short-term movements are excluded.


Net reproduction rate


The net reproduction rate represents the average number of daughters that would be born to a group of females if they are subject to the fertility and mortality rates of a given year during their future life. It indicates the extent to which the population would reproduce itself. The net reproduction rate is obtained by multiplying the age-specific birth rates (for female births only) by the proportion of survivors at corresponding ages in a life table and adding the products.


Nuptiality


Nuptiality relates to the registered marital status of persons and the events such as marriages, divorces and widowhood. Confinements and births are identified as being nuptial where the father registered was married to the mother at the time of birth, or where the husband died during pregnancy. Confinements and children of Indigenous mothers considered to be tribally married are classified as nuptial. Other confinements, and the children resulting from them, are classified as ex-nuptial whether or not both parents were living together at the time of birth.


Part of state


Part of state is used to refer to the remainder of a state outside the Capital City Statistical Division. See also Balance of state or territory.


Permanent arrivals (settlers)


Permanent arrivals (settlers) comprise:

  • travellers who hold migrant visas (regardless of stated intended period of stay);
  • New Zealand citizens who indicate an intention to settle; and
  • those who are otherwise eligible to settle (e.g. overseas-born children of Australian citizens).

This definition of settlers is used by the Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (DIMA). Prior to 1985 the definition of settlers used by the ABS was the stated intention of the traveller only. Numerically the effect of the change in definition is insignificant. The change was made to avoid the confusion caused by minor differences between data on settlers published separately by the ABS and the DIMA.


Prior to 1959, overseas arrivals and departures were classified as either permanent or temporary. Revised questions for travellers were introduced in 1958 which enabled arrivals and departures previously classified as permanent to be sub-divided (as from 1 January 1959) into two categories, permanent movement and long-term movement.


Permanent departures


Permanent departures are Australian residents (including former settlers) who on departure state that they are departing permanently.


Prior to 1959, overseas arrivals and departures were classified as either permanent or temporary. Revised questions for travellers were introduced in 1958 which enabled arrivals and departures previously classified as permanent to be sub-divided (as from 1 January 1959) into two categories, permanent movement and long-term movement.


Population growth


For Australia, population growth is the sum of natural increase and net overseas migration. For states and territories, population growth also includes net interstate migration. After the census, intercensal population growth also includes an allowance for intercensal discrepancy.


Rate of population growth


Population change over a period as a proportion (percentage) of the population at the beginning of the period.


Sex ratio


The sex ratio relates to the number of males per 100 females. The sex ratio is defined for total population, at birth, at death and among age groups by appropriately selecting the numerator and denominator of the ratio.


Short-term arrivals


Short-term arrivals comprise:

  • overseas visitors who intend to stay in Australia for less than 12 months; and
  • Australian residents returning after a stay of less than 12 months overseas.

Short-term departures


Short-term departures comprise:

  • Australian residents who intend to stay abroad for less than 12 months; and
  • overseas visitors departing after a stay of less than 12 months in Australia.

Standardised death rates


Standardised death rates enable the comparison of death rates between populations with different age structures by relating them to a standard population. The ABS standard populations relate to years ending in 1 (e.g. 1991). The current standard population is all persons in the 2001 Australian population. They are expressed per 1,000 or 100,000 persons. There are two methods of calculating standardised death rates:

  • The direct method - this is used when the populations under study are large and the age-specific death rates are reliable. It is the overall death rate that would have prevailed in the standard population if it had experienced at each age the death rates of the population under study.
  • The indirect method - this is used when the population under study are small and the age-specific death rates are unreliable or not known. It is an adjustment to the crude death rate of the standard population to account for the variation between the actual number of deaths in the population under study and the number of deaths which would have occurred if the population under study had experienced the age-specific death rates of the standard population.

Wherever used, the definition adopted is indicated.


State or territory of intended address/where lived


Overseas visitors are asked on arrival in Australia for their state or territory of intended address. On departure from Australia overseas visitors are asked the state or territory where they spent most time.


Australian residents are asked on departure for the state or territory in which they live/lived. Residents returning to Australia are asked for their state or territory of intended address.


State or territory of registration


State or territory of registration refers to the state or territory in which the event was registered.


State or territory of usual residence


State or territory of usual residence refers to the state or territory of usual residence of:

  • the population (estimated resident population);
  • the mother (births collection); or
  • the deceased (deaths collection).

In the case of overseas movements, state or territory of usual residence refers to the state or territory regarded by the traveller as the one in which he/she lives or has lived. State or territory of intended residence is derived from the intended address given by settlers, and by Australian residents returning after a journey abroad. Particularly in the case of the former, this information does not necessarily relate to the state or territory in which the traveller will eventually establish a permanent residence.


Statistical District (S Dist)


Statistical Districts (S Dist) consist of selected, significant, predominantly urban areas in Australia which are not located within a Capital City Statistical Division. S Dists enable comparable statistics to be produced about these selected urban areas. Further information concerning S Dists is contained in Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0).


Statistical Division (SD)


Statistical Divisions (SDs) consist of one or more Statistical Subdivisions (SSD). The divisions are designed to be relatively homogeneous regions characterised by identifiable social and economic units within the region, under the unifying influence of once or more major towns or cities. Further information concerning SDs is contained in Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0).


Total fertility rate


The sum of age-specific fertility rates (live births at each age of mother per female population at that age). It represents the number of children a female would bear during her lifetime if she experienced current age-specific fertility rates at each age of her reproductive life.


Usual residence


Usual residence within Australia refers to that address at which the person has lived or intends to live for a total of six months or more in a given reference year.


Year of occurrence


Data presented on year of occurrence basis relate to the date the event occurred.


Year of registration


Data presented on year of registration basis relate to the date the event was registered.


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