Australian Bureau of Statistics
3101.0 - Australian Demographic Statistics, Mar 2012 Quality Declaration
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 27/09/2012
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A significant number of travellers (i.e. overseas visitors to Australia on arrival and Australian residents going abroad) state exactly 12 months or one year as their intended period of stay. Many stay for less than that period and on their departure from, or return to, Australia are therefore classified as short-term. Accordingly, in an attempt to maintain consistency between arrivals and departures, movements of travellers who report their actual or intended period of stay as being one year exactly are randomly allocated to long-term or short-term in proportion to the number of movements of travellers who report their actual length of stay as up to one month more, or one month less, than one year.
The complete enumeration of a population or groups at a point in time with respect to well-defined characteristics (eg Population, Manufacturing, etc.). When the word is capitalised, "Census" usually refers to the national Census of Population and Housing.
Death is the permanent disappearance of all evidence of life after birth has taken place. The definition excludes deaths prior to live birth.
For the purposes of the Deaths and Causes of Death collections conducted by the ABS, a death refers to any death which occurs in, or en route to Australia and is registered with a state or territory Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages.
Estimated resident population (ERP)
The official measure of the population of Australia is based on the concept of usual residence. It refers to all people, regardless of nationality, citizenship or legal status, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. It includes usual residents who are overseas for less than 12 months. It excludes overseas visitors who are in Australia for less than 12 months.
Estimates of the Australian resident population are generated on a quarterly basis by adding natural increase (the excess of births over deaths) and net overseas migration (NOM) occurring during the period to the population at the beginning of each period. This is known as the cohort component method, and can be represented by the following equation:
Pt+1 = Pt + B - D + NOM, where:
Pt = the estimated resident population at time point t
Pt+1 = the estimated resident population at time point t+1
B = the number of births occurring between t and t+1
D = the number of deaths occurring between t and t+1
NOM = net overseas migration occurring between t and t+1.
For state and territory population estimates, an additional term is added to the equation representing net interstate migration (NIM) occurring between t and t+1, represented by the following equation:
Pt+1 = Pt + B - D + NOM + NIM.
A household is a group of two or more related or unrelated people who usually reside in the same dwelling who regard themselves as a household and who make common provision for food or other essentials for living; or a person living in a dwelling who makes provision for his or her own food and other essentials for living, without combining with any other person. Households include group households of unrelated persons, same-sex couple households, single-parent households as well as one-person households.
A household usually resides in a private dwelling (including caravans etc. in caravan parks). Persons usually resident in non-private dwellings, such as hotels, motels, boarding houses, gaols and hospitals, are not included in household estimates.
This definition of a household is consistent with the definition used in the Census.
The household population is the estimated resident population (ERP) that usually lives in private dwellings. It is the ERP less the population that usually lives in non-private dwellings.
An infant death is the death of a live-born child who dies before reaching his/her first birthday.
Infant mortality rate (IMR)
The number of deaths of children under one year of age in a financial year per 1,000 live births in the same financial year.
Intercensal discrepancy is the difference between two estimates at 30 June of a Census year population: the first based on the latest Census, and the second arrived at by updating the 30 June estimate of the previous Census date estimate with intercensal components of population change which take account of information available from the latest Census. It is caused by errors in the start and/or finish population estimates and/or in estimates of births, deaths or migration in the intervening period which cannot be attributed to a particular source. For further information see Population Estimates: Concepts Sources and Methods, 2009 (cat. no. 3228.0.55.001).
Intercensal error is the difference between two estimates at 30 June of a Census year population: the first based on the latest Census and the second arrived at by updating the 30 June estimate of the previous Census year with intercensal components of population change which do not take account of information available from the latest Census. For further information see Population Estimates: Concepts Sources and Methods, 2009 (cat. no. 3228.0.55.001).
Long-term arrivals comprise of long-term visitor arrivals (LTVA) and long-term resident returns (LTRR).
Long-term departures comprise of long-term resident departures (LTRD) and long-term visitor departures (LTVD).
Long-term resident departures (LTRD)
Australian residents who state that they intend to stay abroad for 12 months or more (but not permanently).
Long-term resident returns (LTRR)
Australian residents returning after an abscence of 12 months or more overseas.
Long-term visitor arrivals (LTVA)
Overseas visitors who state that they intend to stay in Australia for 12 months or more (but not permanently).
Long-term visitor departures (LTVD)
Overseas visitors departing who stayed 12 months or more in Australia.
For any distribution, the median value is that which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, half falling below the value, and half exceeding it. Thus, the median age is the age at which half the population is older and half is younger.
Under the previous NOM method, the ABS applied a number of adjustments to overseas arrivals and departures data in order to produce estimates of net overseas migration (NOM). These mainly comprised adjustments designed to reflect differences between stated travel intentions and actual travel behaviour. Until recently, adjustments used by ABS to produce NOM estimates were collectively referred to as 'category jumping adjustments'. They are now referred to more simply as 'migration adjustments'.
Excess of births over deaths.
Net interstate migration
The difference between the number of persons who have changed their place of usual residence by moving into a given state or territory and the number who have changed their place of usual residence by moving out of that state or territory during a specified time period. This difference can be either positive or negative.
Net overseas migration (NOM)
Net overseas migration is the net gain or loss of population through immigration to Australia and emigration from Australia. It is:
Under the current method for estimating final net overseas migration this term is based on a traveller's
actual duration of stay or absence using the '12/16 month rule'. Preliminary NOM estimates are modelled on patterns of traveller behaviours observed in final NOM estimates for the same period one year earlier
NOM arrivals are all overseas arrivals that contribute to net overseas migration (NOM). It is the number of incoming international travellers who stay in Australia for 12 months or more, who are not currently counted within the population, and are then added to the population.
Under the current method for estimating final net overseas migration this term is based on a traveller's actual duration of stay or absence using the '12/16 month rule'.
NOM departures are all overseas departures that contribute to net overseas migration (NOM). It is the number of outgoing international travellers (Australian residents and long term visitors to Australia) who leave Australia for 12 months or more, who are currently counted within the population, and are then subtracted from the population.
Under the current method for estimating final net overseas migration this term is based on a traveller's
actual duration of stay or absence using the '12/16 month rule'.
Net permanent and long-term movement
Under the previous NOM method, the difference between the number of permanent (settler) and long-term arrivals and the number of permanent and long-term departures. Short-term movements are excluded.
The difference between the actual Census count (including imputations) and an estimate of the number of people who should have been counted in the Census. This estimate is based on the Post Enumeration Survey (PES) conducted after each Census. For a category of person (e.g. based on age, sex and state of usual residence), net undercount is the result of Census undercount, overcount, misclassification and imputation error.
Overseas arrivals and departures (OAD)
Overseas arrivals and departures (OAD) refer to the recorded arrival or departure of persons through Australian air or sea ports (excluding operational air and ships' crew). Statistics on OAD relate to the number of movements of travellers rather than the number of travellers (i.e. the multiple movements of individual persons during a given reference period are all counted).
Passenger cards are completed by nearly all passengers arriving in, or departing from, Australia. Information including occupation, nationality, intended length of stay, main reason for journey, and state or territory of intended stay/residence is collected.
Permanent arrivals (settlers)
Permanent arrivals (settlers) comprise:
This definition of settlers is used by the Department of Immigration and Citizenship (DIAC). Prior to 1985, the definition of settlers used by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) was the stated intention of the traveller only. Numerically, the effect of the change in definition is insignificant. The change was made to avoid the confusion caused by minor differences between data on settlers published separately by the ABS and the DIAC.
Permanent departures are Australian residents (including former settlers) who on departure state that they are departing permanently.
Post enumeration survey (PES)
The Census Post Enumeration Survey (PES) is a household survey conducted three to four weeks after the Census. The PES allows the ABS to estimate the number of people missed in the Census and the number counted more than once. Usually more people are missed than are counted more than once in Australia, leading to a net undercount. Results from the PES contribute to a more accurate calculation of the estimated resident population (ERP) for Australia and the states and territories, which is then backdated to 30 June of the Census year.
For Australia, population growth is the sum of natural increase and net overseas migration. For states and territories, population growth also includes net interstate migration. After the census, intercensal population growth also includes an allowance for intercensal discrepancy.
Population growth rate
Population change over a period as a proportion (percentage) of the population at the beginning of the period.
The ABS uses the cohort-component method for producing population projections of Australia, the states, territories, capital cities and balances of state. This method begins with a base population for each sex by single year of age and advances it year by year, for each year in the projection period, by applying assumptions regarding future fertility, mortality and migration. The assumptions are based on demographic trends over the past decade and longer, both in Australia and overseas. The projections are not predictions or forecasts, but are simply illustrations of the change in population which would occur if the assumptions were to prevail over the projection period. A number of projections are produced by the ABS to show a range of possible future outcomes.
The sex ratio relates to the number of males per 100 females. The sex ratio is defined for the total population, at birth, at death and among age groups by appropriately selecting the numerator and the denominator of the ratio.
Short-term arrivals comprise:
Short-term departures comprise:
Standardised death rate (SDR)
Standardised death rates enable the comparison of death rates between populations with different age structures by relating them to a standard population. The ABS standard populations relate to the years ending in 1. The current standard population is all persons in the Australian population at 30 June 2001. SDRs are expressed per 1,000 or 100,000 persons. There are two methods of calculating SDRs:
Wherever used, the definition adopted is indicated.
State or territory of usual residence
State or territory of usual residence refer to the state or territory of usual residence of:
In the case of overseas movements, state or territory of usual residence refers to the state or territory regarded by the traveller as the one in which he/she lives or has lived. State or territory of intended residence is derived from the intended address given by settlers, and by Australian residents returning after a journey abroad. Particularly in the case of the former, this information does not necessarily relate to the state or territory in which the traveller will eventually establish a permanent residence.
Statistical District (S Dist)
Statistical Districts (S Dist) consist of selected, significant, predominantly urban areas in Australia which are not located within a Capital City Statistical Division (SD). S Dists enable comparable statistics to be produced about these selected urban areas. Further information concerning S Dists is contained in Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0).
Statistical Division (SD)
Statistical Divisions (SD) consist of one or more Statistical Subdivisions (SSD). These are designed to be relatively homogeneous regions characterised by identifiable social and economic units within the region, under the unifying influence of one or more major towns or cities. Information concerning SDs is contained in Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0).
Total fertility rate (TFR)
The sum of age-specific fertility rates (live births at each age of mother per female population of that age). It represents the number of children a female would bear during her lifetime if she experienced current age-specific fertility rates at each age of her reproductive life (ages 15 - 49).
See net undercount.
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This page last updated 17 December 2012