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1367.5 - Western Australian Statistical Indicators, Sep 2001  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 11/10/2001   
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Feature Article - A Century of Population Change in Western Australia

(This article was published in the September quarter 2001 issue of Western Australian Statistical Indicators (ABS Catalogue Number 1367.5))

INTRODUCTION

During the course of the twentieth century, Western Australia's population grew tenfold to 1.9 million, increasing as a proportion of Australia's population from 5% to 10%.

This article traces shifts in the profile of the Western Australian population since 1901, including changes in fertility, mortality and migration. The data have been drawn from ABS collections, including population censuses and surveys, as well as administrative sources covering births, deaths, marriages, divorces and overseas migration.


POPULATION GROWTH

At Federation (1 January 1901), Western Australia's population was estimated at 189,000. For the first few years of the century, the state's annual rate of population growth was much higher than the national rate, peaking at 9.5% in 1902. By 1907, it had fallen to zero. Thereafter, population growth in the state exhibited the same peaks and troughs as in Australia, although Western Australia's annual rate of growth remained higher for most of the century.

Prior to World War II, population growth was erratic, ranging from 9.5% in 1902 to -3.1% in 1916. While fertility and mortality rates were generally declining, there were large fluctuations in overseas migration. During the two world wars and the Depression, net overseas migration (permanent and long-term arrivals minus permanent and long-term departures) fell below zero.

From 1945 onwards, the rate of growth was less volatile, remaining positive and averaging around 3% per year. This was mainly due to higher levels of migration and higher birth rates, both of which were sustained until around 1971. In the post-war period, there were two peaks in population growth, the first in 1952 when the crude birth rate (number of live births registered per 1,000 of the estimated resident population) rose to 25.7, marking the height of the baby boom. The second peak occurred in 1971, during the second wave of post-war migration and at a time when the older 'baby boomers' were starting to have children.

After 1971, net overseas migration and natural increase (births minus deaths) continued to be the two main contributors to population growth. In the last three decades, natural increase consistently contributed between 12,000 and 16,000 people per year to the state's population. The largest net gains from overseas migration were in the 1980s, peaking at 24,200 people in 1989. However, annual gains from net overseas migration were generally more erratic, falling as low as 2,300 in 1976. Since 1996, they have remained steady, with net gains of about 12,000 people per year.

Annual population growth, 1901 to 1999, for Western Australia and Australia


POPULATION STRUCTURE

In 1901, Western Australia's population was much younger than it is today and men outnumbered women by three to two. At that time, the 25-34 year age group represented 25% of the population, creating a visible bulge in the shape of the age-sex pyramid. Conversely, people aged 50 years and over represented only 8% of the population while those aged 65 years and over represented less than 2%. By the end of the century, the 25-34 age group accounted for only 15% of the population whereas the proportions aged 50 years and over and 65 years and over had increased to 26% and 11% respectively.

The sex ratio (number of males per 100 females) was 155.7 at the beginning of the twentieth century. This excess of males over females was primarily due to a higher proportion of males in the migrant intake during the preceding decades.
Profile of Western Australia's Population, By age - 1901


By the 1920s, an increase in the proportion of female migrants and troop fatalities in World War I resulted in a reduced proportion of males in the population. At the same time, mortality rates were generally decreasing as a result of improved standards of living. These factors had a considerable impact on the age-sex structure of the population. By 1933, people age 50 years and over represented 19% of the population and the sex ratio was 114 males for every 100 females.
Profile of Western Australia's Population, By age - 1933


By 1966, the excess of males over females in the general population had further decreased with 104.2 males for every 100 females. The post-war baby boom had impacted on the age-sex pyramid, with a large increase in the number of children under 15 years. Between 1901 and 1966, this age group had increased fivefold from 53,000 to 260,000.
Profile of Western Australia's Population, By age - 1966


By 1996, the sex ratio had almost achieved equilibrium (101.2 males per 100 females). However, the high masculinity of the migrant intake in the immediate post-war years was still reflected in the sex ratio for the 45-64 age group (105.3).

In the last three decades of the century, Western Australia's population aged significantly as a result of lower fertility and continuing falls in mortality. Between 1979 and 1996, the median age of the population rose from 29.1 to 33.1 years.
Profile of Western Australia's Population, By age - 1996


In 2000, 'baby boomers' born between 1945 and 1971, were estimated to represent over 40% of the state's population. The baby boom generation, being significantly larger than preceding and succeeding generations, will continue to impact on the age structure of the Western Australian population and to influence government policy for the next several decades. By 2031, they will be part of the population aged 60 years and over and are projected to represent over a quarter of the state's population.
Sex Ratio, Western Australia, 1901-1999



FERTILITY

In 1901, there were 30.4 births for every 1,000 persons in the estimated resident population. After 1906, this crude birth rate began a steady decline, dropping to 21.7 after World War I. In the 1920s, the rate remained steady but began to fall again at the start of the Depression, sinking to 17.6 by 1934. Thereafter, the rate began to rise slowly, peaking at 25.7 in 1952 and generally remaining above 20.0 until 1973. From that time, the crude birth rate fell rapidly, sinking to its lowest ever recorded level (13.4) by 1999.
Crude Birth Rate, 1901-1999, for Western Australia and Australia


The dramatic changes in the fertility of Western Australian women that occurred in the second half of the century are best illustrated by changes in the total fertility rate. This is defined as the number of children a woman would bear if the current age-specific fertility rates (number of live births to mothers at each age per 1,000 of the female population of that age) continued during her reproductive life. In the late 1940s, the start of the post-war baby boom, the total fertility rate reached 3.5 babies per woman and eventually peaked at 3.7 babies per woman in 1961.

In the 1960s, the introduction of oral contraception, changing preferences on family size and women's increasing participation in paid employment caused the total fertility rate to fall. By 1966, it had fallen to 3.1. In the 1970s, it continued to fall rapidly, and by 1977, had fallen below replacement level (2.1 babies per woman). By 1979, the total fertility rate was 1.97, gradually dropping to 1.76 by the end of the century.
Total Fertility Rate, Western Australia, 1971-1999


This fall in fertility coincided with the trend towards delayed motherhood. Between 1976 and 1999, the median age of mothers increased, for all births, from 25.5 years to 29.4 years. This trend towards delayed motherhood can also be seen in the decreasing proportion of births to mothers aged 20-24 years, which fell from 21% of all births in 1990 to 17% in 1999. Over the same period, the proportion of births to mothers aged 30-34 years increased from 27% to 30%.


LIFE EXPECTANCY

The life expectancy of both sexes increased throughout the century. However, females have a greater life expectancy than males and are estimated to have a genetic advantage of about two years of life (Hugo,1986). The remainder of the difference can be attributed to behavioural and lifestyle patterns.

The difference between male and female life expectancy at the beginning of the twentieth century was 5.1 years, being 51.4 years for males at birth and 56.5 years for females. By 1981, the difference had increased to 7.2 years, with a life expectancy of 72.1 years for males and 79.3 years for females. In the last two decades, the gap in life expectancy between males and females gradually narrowed to 5.7 years. By the end of the century, life expectancy at birth was 76.4 years for males and 82.1 years for females.
LIFE EXPECTANCY, Western Australia

MALES
FEMALES
AGE DIFFERENCE
Selected years
Age (years)
Age (years)
Age (years)

1910(a)
51.4
56.5
5.1
1971
68.4
75.3
6.9
1981
72.1
79.3
7.2
1991
75.0
80.9
5.9
1999
76.4
82.1
5.7

(a) Estimated life expectancy for the period 1901 to 1910.


MORTALITY

Mortality rates in Western Australia declined throughout the twentieth century. The reduction in mortality in the early decades has been attributed to improvements in living standards resulting from better food, health education, water and sewerage systems. From 1901 to 1950, the crude death rate (number of deaths registered per 1,000 of the estimated resident population) fell from 13.4 to 9.1.

In the latter half of the century, the crude death rate dropped faster and further in Western Australia than in Australia. Continuing reductions in mortality since World War II have been attributed to improved social conditions and advances in medical technology, including immunisation and antibiotics (Jain,1994). By 1999, the crude death rate had declined to 5.9.
Crude Death Rate, 1901 to 1999, for Western Australia and Australia


Declining mortality rates were most evident in the age group 0-12 months. Over the century, the infant mortality rate (number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1,000 live births) fell from 128.9 to 4.7.
Infant Mortality Rate, 1901 to 1999, Western Australia and Australia



MARRIAGE

During the twentieth century, the crude marriage rate (annual number of registered marriages per 1,000 of the estimated resident population) fell in times of economic recession and increased during and immediately after the two world wars. In 1901, the crude marriage rate was 9.7, increasing to 11.4 by 1942, the highest on record for the state. Later in the century, the crude marriage rate fell, declining from 9.4 in 1969 to 5.5 in 1999.
Crude Marriage Rate, 1901 to 1999, Western Australia and Australia


The decline in the popularity of registered marriage in recent decades is associated with a rise in the incidence of de facto marriage. By 1999, de facto marriages accounted for 11% of all couple relationships. The proportion of de facto marriages was highest among people aged 25-29 years and was also high in the age groups 20-24 years and 30-34 years. The 1992 ABS Survey of Families found that, of the people living in de facto relationship, 70% had never been in a registered marriage, 22% were divorced and 7% were separated.

During the last three decades of the twentieth century, there was a growing trend among Western Australians to marry later in life. In 1977, the median age at first marriage was 21.1 years for brides and 23.7 years for bridegrooms. By 1999, this median age had increased to 26.5 years for brides and 28.5 years for bridegrooms.
MEDIAN AGE AT FIRST MARRIAGE, Western Australia

BRIDE
GROOM
Selected years
Age (years)
Age (years)

1977
21.1
23.7
1989
24.1
26.3
1999
26.5
28.5



DIVORCE

The number of divorces in Western Australia remained relatively low prior to the passage of the Family Law Act (1975) which made irretrievable breakdown of marriage the sole ground for divorce.

In most years prior to 1976, the crude divorce rate (annual number of decrees made absolute per 1,000 of the estimated resident population) remained below 1.0. However, in the years following World War II the divorce rate did increase slightly, reaching 1.6 in 1948.

The crude divorce rate peaked at 4.6 in 1976 as a backlog of divorces was cleared following the passage of the Act. By 1979, the crude divorce rate had stabilised around 2.7.
Crude Divorce Rate, 1901-1999, Western Australia and Australia



MIGRATION

Although Western Australia is home to only 10% of the nation's population, it has generally attracted a higher share of net overseas migration. Since the 1970s, its share of permanent and long term overseas arrivals has been fairly stable, at 13% and 11% respectively.

Mobility within Australia appears to have been high throughout the century. It has been estimated that, on average, Australians will move eleven times during their lifetime, if 1985-86 migration rates and 1985-87 mortality rates are maintained (Bell,1996).

In the last quarter of the century, interstate migration was characterised by a northward and westward drift away from the south-eastern corner of Australia, resulting in large net population gains for Queensland and Western Australia in some years. However, annual interstate migration into Western Australian has been quite volatile, ranging from a gain of 9,100 persons in 1976 to a loss of 1,800 persons in 1991.

The largest fluctuations in migration (when net interstate and overseas migration are combined) occurred prior to World War II, with population losses exceeding gains in some years. In the second half of the century, Western Australia consistently gained population from migration.
Net Interstate and Overseas Migration, 1901 to 1999, Western Australia and Australia


The changing composition of Western Australia's population reflects the migration waves that occurred over the last century. The clearest trend over the last hundred years is the relative decline in the significance of the United Kingdom as a source country and the increasing diversity of birthplaces represented in the population. In 1901, 31% of Western Australians had been born overseas: of those, 45% had been born in England.

Prior to World War II, migrants from the United Kingdom and Ireland, who travelled on assisted passages, dominated the flow into the state and the nation. By 1911, the only significant change was an increase in the number of migrants from South Africa, arriving as a consequence of Australia's intervention in the Boer War. Net overseas migration fell below zero during the economic depression of the 1930s and the two world wars.

WESTERN AUSTRALIAN POPULATION BORN OVERSEAS, Top Six Countries - 1901

Country of birth
Number
Proportion of overseas-born
Proportion of total population

England
25,380
44.8
13.8
Ireland
9,862
17.4
5.4
Scotland
5,400
9.5
2.9
New Zealand
2,704
4.8
1.5
Germany
1,522
2.7
0.8
China
1,475
2.6
0.8
Total overseas-born
56,613
. .
30.7



Following World War II, Australia welcomed high levels of immigration as a rapidly growing population was seen as essential to continued economic success. In Western Australia, the first wave of post-war migrants occurred between 1947 and 1957 and largely comprised migrants from the United Kingdom and Italy, as well as displaced persons from northern and eastern Europe. By 1954, the proportion of the overseas-born population born in England had declined to 42% while those born in Italy had grown to be the second largest group (12%).

WESTERN AUSTRALIAN POPULATION BORN OVERSEAS, Top Six Countries - 1954

Country of birth
Number
Proportion of overseas-born
Proportion of total population

England
63,322
42.2
9.9
Italy
17,295
11.5
2.7
Scotland
13,185
8.8
2.1
Netherlands
8,490
5.7
1.3
Poland
5,130
3.4
0.8
Yugoslavia
4,584
3.1
0.7
Total overseas-born
150,017
. .
23.5



The second, larger wave of migrants occurred between 1962 to 1971 and drew more heavily on the Mediterranean countries including Italy, Greece, Malta and Egypt. During this time, however, migrants from England continued to dominate numerically.

In the last thirty years of the century, patterns of migration changed as a result of the abolition of the White Australia Policy. In 1973, the Immigration Restriction Act (1901), the Pacific Islanders Labourers Act (1901) and the Naturalisation Act (1903) were replaced by non-discriminatory immigration policies. As a result of these policy changes, migrants from a greater variety of countries, especially southern and south-east Asian countries, settled in Western Australia.

WESTERN AUSTRALIAN POPULATION BORN OVERSEAS, Top Six Countries - 1976

Country of birth
Number
Proportion of overseas-born
Proportion of total population

England
143,537
47.0
12.8
Italy
29,145
9.5
2.6
Scotland
18,854
6.2
1.7
Netherlands
10,511
3.4
0.9
Yugoslavia
10,180
3.3
0.9
India
9,716
3.2
0.9
Total overseas-born
305,666
. .
27.3



Towards the end of the twentieth century, people born in southern and south-east Asia increased significantly as a share of the migrant intake into Western Australia. By 1996, India and Malaysia were both represented in the top six source countries, accounting for 3% and 4% respectively of the overseas-born. While England remained a dominant source country, those born in England had decreased as a proportion of the overseas-born from 47% to 36% in the twenty years to 1996.
WESTERN AUSTRALIAN POPULATION BORN OVERSEAS, Top Six Countries - 1996

Country of birth
Number
Proportion of overseas-born
Proportion of total population

England(a)
170,596
35.9
10.0
New Zealand
38,917
8.2
2.3
Italy
25,113
5.3
1.5
Scotland
24,877
5.2
1.5
Malaysia
17,355
3.7
1.0
India
12,668
2.7
0.7
Total overseas-born
474,768
. .
27.8

(a) Includes UK undefined


REFERENCES

Bell, M. 1996, 'How often do Australians move? Alternative measures of population.

Hugo, G.J. 1986, Australia's Changing Population: Trends and Implications, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Jain, S.K. 1994, Trends in Mortality, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

The statistics used in this article are sourced from the ABS Ausstats release Australian Historical Population Statistics. For further information, contact Zaneta Georgievski on (08)9360 5271 or by email at zaneta.georgievski@abs.gov.au


APPENDIX
POPULATION STATISTICS, Western Australia: 1901 to 2000

Year
Total
pop'n(a)
Annual
pop'n
growth(b)
Sex
ratio(c)
Net interstate & overseas migration(b)
Crude
birth
rate(d)
Crude
death
rate(e)
Infant
mortality
rate(f)
Crude
marriage
rate(g)
Crude
divorce
rate(h)

1901
188,566
7.6
155.7
10,435
30.4
13.4
128.9
9.7
0.1
1902
205,693
9.5
153.5
14,963
30.4
13.8
142.0
9.9
0.0
1903
220,226
6.0
148.0
8,864
30.5
12.7
141.2
9.4
0.1
1904
235,365
6.5
145.0
10,301
30.7
12.0
113.0
8.9
0.1
1905
247,673
4.5
141.4
5,857
30.7
11.0
104.2
8.6
0.0
1906
255,173
2.0
138.2
319
30.7
12.1
110.0
8.9
0.1
1907
255,497
-0.2
135.1
-5,414
30.2
11.5
97.5
8.3
0.1
1908
258,291
2.0
133.5
255
30.1
11.2
84.7
7.8
0.1
1909
263,515
2.3
132.3
1,106
28.9
10.3
78.0
7.6
0.1
1910
271,162
4.2
132.9
6,312
28.0
10.1
78.2
7.8
0.1
1911
287,757
6.2
133.4
11,923
28.2
10.2
76.0
8.4
0.1
1912
301,966
4.0
132.0
6,344
28.9
11.1
82.1
8.4
0.1
1913
313,334
4.7
129.5
8,030
29.4
9.4
70.3
8.2
0.2
1914
323,206
0.7
125.1
-4,007
28.5
9.4
68.1
8.2
0.1
1915
321,440
-1.7
117.2
-11,451
28.1
9.3
66.5
8.0
0.1
1916
313,048
-3.1
107.9
-15,261
27.4
9.9
66.2
7.6
0.1
1917
306,297
0.0
105.5
-5,155
25.7
9.1
57.1
5.3
0.2
1918
308,232
1.1
106.4
-928
23.1
9.2
57.1
5.2
0.2
1919
319,636
5.7
114.5
14,330
21.7
11.2
61.1
6.9
0.4
1920
330,172
1.1
114.5
-1,298
24.7
10.3
66.0
8.9
0.4
1921
333,932
1.6
113.6
898
23.4
10.4
78.3
8.0
0.4
1922
341,462
2.7
114.5
4,032
23.8
9.3
55.6
7.2
0.3
1923
350,627
3.3
115.3
6,391
22.4
8.4
56.3
6.8
0.3
1924
363,998
3.2
115.8
6,427
22.9
9.1
49.9
7.1
0.2
1925
372,817
2.5
115.8
4,333
21.9
9.0
56.6
7.4
0.3
1926
381,110
2.0
115.9
2,755
21.8
8.9
49.3
7.5
0.3
1927
392,114
3.8
117.3
9,575
21.6
8.8
45.9
7.9
0.3
1928
407,905
3.7
118.7
9,660
21.4
9.1
48.1
8.1
0.4
1929
421,063
2.9
118.5
6,895
21.5
9.6
56.1
8.0
0.4
1930
429,112
1.2
117.2
-453
21.4
9.0
46.7
7.5
0.3
1931
432,183
0.5
115.5
-2,792
19.8
8.8
41.5
6.3
0.3
1932
435,111
0.6
114.6
-1,616
18.3
8.5
44.6
6.7
0.3
1933
438,852
1.0
114.0
238
17.9
8.6
36.8
7.7
0.3
1934
442,770
0.7
113.8
-638
17.6
9.2
40.9
8.3
0.4
1935
447,178
1.3
113.2
1,893
18.2
9.3
40.2
8.8
0.5
1936
452,494
1.0
112.9
328
18.7
9.4
42.2
9.4
0.5
1937
457,257
1.4
112.7
1,798
18.8
8.9
37.5
9.1
0.6
1938
463,989
1.3
112.4
1,235
19.7
9.0
33.8
9.0
0.6
1939
470,044
1.2
111.5
1,000
19.2
9.2
40.8
8.9
0.5
1940
473,254
0.4
110.4
-2,902
19.3
9.3
44.2
11.1
0.6
1941
474,791
-0.2
109.0
-5,769
21.3
10.6
35.3
10.7
0.7
1942
476,983
0.7
107.4
-349
20.8
10.2
36.9
11.4
0.8
1943
475,281
0.3
106.3
-3,528
22.0
9.6
32.6
9.5
1.0
1944
481,530
1.4
105.9
654
22.6
9.3
32.6
9.4
1.2
1945
487,692
1.1
105.5
-105
21.9
9.7
29.5
7.8
1.3
1946
492,510
1.4
105.6
-392
24.6
9.6
31.1
10.5
1.5
1947
502,480
2.4
105.9
3,670
25.6
9.4
30.9
10.5
1.6
1948
515,074
2.6
105.8
4,991
25.1
9.1
25.6
10.1
1.4
1949
532,191
4.3
106.2
13,464
25.4
9.0
26.4
9.3
1.1
1950
557,096
5.2
106.1
19,295
25.5
9.1
27.1
9.7
1.3
1951
580,343
3.1
106.5
8,184
25.5
9.1
28.7
9.3
1.2
1952
599,858
3.8
106.9
12,392
25.7
8.7
24.9
9.0
1.0
1953
620,547
3.1
106.9
8,018
25.5
8.2
23.8
8.1
0.9
1954
639,771
2.7
106.4
6,400
24.9
8.4
22.5
8.1
0.8
1955
657,115
3.1
105.9
8,658
25.3
8.2
22.4
7.8
0.7
1956
674,529
1.9
105.9
1,315
25.1
8.2
22.7
7.5
0.8
1957
687,605
2.1
105.1
2,339
24.6
7.7
21.1
7.1
0.8
1958
699,565
1.7
104.5
785
23.9
7.9
21.5
7.2
0.8
1959
712,070
1.6
103.9
-119
24.0
7.7
20.2
7.6
0.8
1960
722,080
1.7
104.0
1,113
23.4
7.9
21.6
7.4
0.7
1961
746,750
3.3
103.9
4,661
23.2
7.8
19.7
7.0
0.6
1962
765,962
2.9
103.8
10,697
22.3
7.7
22.3
7.1
0.8
1963
788,344
2.8
103.9
10,268
21.9
7.7
20.4
7.3
0.7
1964
808,443
2.4
104.0
8,902
20.6
8.1
19.7
7.5
0.7
1965
825,525
2.5
104.0
10,161
19.6
7.8
21.7
7.8
0.7
1966
848,100
3.1
104.2
15,553
20.2
8.1
19.9
8.2
0.8
1967
879,179
3.8
104.5
21,651
20.5
7.7
17.4
8.4
0.8
1968
915,042
4.5
104.8
28,739
21.3
8.2
20.4
8.8
0.9
1969
954,846
4.1
105.1
25,416
21.8
7.7
21.8
9.4
0.9
1970
991,354
2.8
103.3
23,357
21.8
7.6
21.2
9.3
0.9
1971
1,053,834
6.6
104.7
18,412
23.5
7.4
19.2
9.1
1.0
1972
1,082,017
2.1
104.4
7,875
20.5
6.9
15.6
8.4
1.1
1973
1,101,041
2.0
104.2
8,910
18.6
7.1
19.4
8.3
1.3
1974
1,127,598
2.9
104.1
19,700
17.9
6.9
16.1
8.2
1.6
1975
1,154,948
1.9
103.8
9,410
17.6
6.9
13.3
7.8
2.0
1976
1,178,342
2.1
103.4
10,921
17.6
6.6
13.2
8.1
4.1
1977
1,204,366
2.1
103.2
11,392
17.2
6.5
12.2
8.4
3.3
1978
1,227,851
1.6
103.0
4,980
16.8
6.3
11.2
7.7
2.8
1979
1,246,611
1.7
102.5
6,847
16.5
6.4
12.1
7.4
2.7
1980
1,269,068
2.1
102.3
12,627
16.3
6.4
11.7
7.6
2.4
1981
1,300,056
2.9
102.2
19,931
16.8
6.1
8.9
7.8
2.7
1982
1,338,899
2.6
102.2
17,640
16.6
6.1
9.3
7.8
2.9
1983
1,369,050
1.9
102.1
8,126
16.9
6.1
7.8
7.7
2.8
1984
1,391,237
1.6
101.9
5,586
15.5
6.1
10.7
7.1
2.9
1985
1,418,564
2.4
101.8
16,304
16.3
6.2
9.0
7.3
2.8
1986
1,459,019
2.8
101.8
24,154
16.6
6.4
8.8
7.1
2.7
1987
1,496,248
2.4
101.7
22,841
15.6
5.9
8.4
6.8
2.7
1988
1,535,167
3.0
101.7
31,252
16.4
6.2
8.5
6.9
2.6
1989
1,578,434
2.4
101.5
22,941
15.9
6.0
7.8
6.8
2.6
1990
1,613,049
1.8
101.3
13,404
15.7
5.8
8.6
6.6
2.4
1991
1,636,067
1.4
101.1
7,969
15.5
5.8
7.2
6.5
2.7
1992
1,658,045
1.2
101.1
187
15.1
6.0
7.0
6.1
2.7
1993
1,677,669
1.3
101.2
306
14.9
6.1
5.9
6.2
2.8
1994
1,703,009
1.6
101.2
612
14.8
6.0
5.6
6.1
3.0
1995
1,733,787
1.9
101.1
561
14.5
6.0
5.1
6.0
2.9
1996
1,765,256
1.9
101.2
18,017
14.0
6.2
6.5
5.8
2.8
1997
1,797,870
1.7
101.2
16,053
13.8
6.0
5.3
5.8
2.8
1998
1,829,145
1.8
101.3
18,666
13.5
5.8
5.0
5.8
2.9
1999
1,857,586
1.4
101.4
12,206
13.4
5.9
4.7
5.5
2.8
2000
1,883,860
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.

(a) Estimated resident population at 30 June.
(b) As at 31 December.
(c) Sex ratio is the number of males per 100 females as at 31 December.
(d) The crude birth rate is the number of births registered during the calendar year, per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June of that year. For years 1901 to 1970 the crude birth rate was based on the number of births in a year per 1,000 of the mean population. For the years 1971 to 1993, the estimated resident mean population was used.
(e) The crude death rate is the number of deaths registered during the calendar year, per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June of that year. For years prior to 1994, the crude deaths rate is based on the mean estimated resident population for the calendar year.
(f) The number of deaths of children under one year of age in a calendar year, per 1,000 live births in the same calendar year.
(g) The crude marriage rate is the number of marriages registered during the calendar year, per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June. For years prior to 1994, the crude marriage rate was based on the mean resident population for the calendar year.
(h) The crude divorce rate is the number of decrees absolute granted during the calendar year, per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June. For years prior to 1994, the crude divorce rate was based on the mean resident population for the calendar year.

PRINTER FRIENDLY VERSION OF "A CENTURY OF POPULATION CHANGE IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA"


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