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1367.5 - Western Australian Statistical Indicators, Sep 2004  
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Feature Article - Intra-state migration

(This article was published in the September 2004 issue of Western Australian Statistical Indicators (ABS Catalogue Number 1367.5))


INTRODUCTION

This article explores the demographic features of people migrating within Western Australia. It reviews characteristics such as age and sex, family and household membership, and education and workforce experiences of people who have recently moved within the state.

It builds on a companion article, "The impact of migration on Western Australia's population" which appeared in the March 2004 edition of this publication. The earlier article focused on the demographic characteristics of people arriving in Western Australia from other states and territories, and of Western Australians departing for other states and territories.

Awareness of the demographic make-up of 'movers', and how their characteristics may alter local population profiles provides insights for the planning required for the delivery of goods and services at various geographic levels.

While this article has primary focus on population change that results from net migration, consideration is also given to total movements into and movements out of a region.

The main source of data for this article is the 2001 Census of Population and Housing. The census asked where people were usually resident one year and five years prior to Census night, 7th August 2001. This information is compared with their place of usual residence on Census night to examine migration flows. There are, however, limitations in using this information to determine intra- or sub-state migration flows. The census defines usual residence at a particular point of time and, therefore, cannot measure multiple moves or moves occurring between periods. (ABS, 2003, p. 22.)


POPULATION CHANGE

Migration changes Australia's population distribution and structure, and impacts on population growth at both the state and regional level. (ABS, 2004, p. 29.)

Changes in population size and structure affect the demand for services, such as for health, education and housing. These changes are carefully monitored because they affect the allocation of Commonwealth and State funds and the allocation and distribution of seats in the House of Representatives and the Western Australian Parliament.

Australia's estimated resident population (ERP) is determined by adding to the estimated population at the beginning of each period the components of natural increase and net overseas migration. For states and territories, account is also taken of estimated interstate movements involving a change of usual residence. At regional and local government levels, movement within states is also important.

Movement within states is referred to as intra- or sub-state migration and includes movements within the same Local Government Area (LGA), to a different LGA, or a different Statistical Division (SD). As with interstate migration, sub-state migration is difficult to measure as there are no restrictions on movements within a state or territory and movements cannot be easily captured by a data collection.

Various administrative data sources are used to estimate both interstate and sub-state migration flows. These sources include Commonwealth and State electoral roll registrations, family benefit payments and Health Insurance Commission (Medicare) data. Data describing movements of defence personnel are also used. Although it has limitations for some age groups, Medicare data remains the best administrative data source available for estimating interstate and sub-state migration. For more information on interstate migration estimates see Demographic Estimates and Projections: Concepts, Sources and Methods (ABS cat. no. 3228.0).


WHO IS MOVING?

People move to a new region for many different reasons. The motivation for moving can come from a combination of factors including different climate, affordable housing, employment opportunities, retirement, and wanting to be close to family and friends. (ABS, 2004a, p. 11.) Young adults, people who are separated and/or divorced, unemployed and recent immigrants from English speaking countries were more likely to move than people who are older, married or from non-English speaking countries. (ABS, 1998, p. 8.)


INTERNAL MIGRATION

Within Western Australia, the Upper Great Southern SD had the highest proportion (80%) of usual residents who were at the same address 12 months prior to the 2001 Census as they were on Census night. The Kimberley SD the lowest proportion (63%) of people who had the same address in 2000.

TABLE 1: INTERNAL MIGRATION OF USUAL RESIDENTS(a), Western Australia: 2001
Did not
move

Moved from

Not
stated

Not
applicable

Overseas
in 2000

Total

Same LGA
Different
LGA,
same SD
Different
SD,
same state
Interstate
Undefined
Statistical Division
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

Perth
76.8
7.0
7.1
1.3
1.3
0.1
3.5
1.2
1.6
100.0
South West
75.0
10.4
3.3
1.0
1.0
0.2
3.3
1.2
0.5
100.0
Lower Great Southern
76.1
11.3
1.8
0.9
0.9
0.2
3.4
1.2
0.3
100.0
Upper Great Southern
80.0
7.2
2.0
0.5
0.5
0.2
2.3
1.5
0.3
100.0
Midlands
76.3
7.3
2.0
0.8
0.8
0.2
4.3
1.4
0.5
100.0
South Eastern
67.9
12.2
2.0
2.7
2.7
0.3
6.6
1.7
0.8
100.0
Central
72.3
8.9
4.5
1.4
1.4
0.3
4.9
1.4
0.4
100.0
Pilbara
63.2
11.0
2.1
3.0
3.0
0.3
8.4
1.8
0.9
100.0
Kimberley
62.7
10.0
2.0
3.8
3.8
0.5
12.0
2.1
0.5
100.0
WA total(b)
75.5
7.8
5.9
1.3
1.3
0.4
3.9
1.3
1.3
100.0

(a) Based on usual residence 12 months prior to Census night.
(b) Includes Off-Shore Areas & Migratory, and WA Undefined.
Source: ABS data available on request, 2001 Census of Population and Housing.


Table 1 shows the types of moves usual residents made in the 12 months prior to the 2001 Census. The proportion of residents moving within the same LGA was highest in the South Eastern and Lower Great Southern SDs, where 12% and 11% of people changed address between 2000 and 2001. The Pilbara SD had the highest proportion of usual residents who migrated from a different statistical division within Western Australia (9%).

The Kimberley SD had the highest proportion of usual residents who were living in a different state in 2000 (4%), followed by the Pilbara SD (3%). The Perth SD recorded the highest proportion of usual residents returning from overseas (2%).


NET SUB-STATE MIGRATION

In general, more resources and services are used when people move beyond their usual LGA. People who move greater distances are more likely to make use of removalist companies, packers and unpackers, than those who only move a few streets or suburbs away. People who move greater distances will also experience significant changes to their lifestyles. Indeed this may be the catalyst for their move. Prospects of a new job, new schools, new sporting and social networks attach to a move of more than a few streets.

Movements which have a greater impact on the consumption of services and resources, such as between statistical divisions, are examined in table 2 which details the migration flows into and out of each statistical division within WA.

TABLE 2: MIGRATION FLOWS(a)(b), Western Australia: 2001
Perth
South
West
Lower
Great
Southern
Upper
Great Southern
Midlands
South
Eastern
Central
Pilbara
Kimberley
Total
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

Did not move SD(c)
1,214,945
163,678
45,414
16,144
43,908
43,336
49,808
28,810
23,336
1,629,379
Moved in from
    Different SD, same state
18,505
9,444
2,407
1,077
3,731
3,114
3,448
3,554
2,006
47,286
    Overseas in 2000
21,240
945
176
62
232
397
261
324
151
23,788
    Interstate
15,464
1,680
379
69
322
1,360
676
1,059
1,101
22,110
    Total moved in
55,209
12,069
2,962
1,208
4,285
4,871
4,385
4,937
3,258
93,184
Moved out to
    Different SD, same state
17,325
7,337
2,962
1,733
4,126
4,109
4,034
3,672
1,988
47,286
    Interstate
16,826
1,821
511
81
426
1,614
832
1,332
1,718
25,161
    Total moved out
34,151
9,158
3,473
1,814
4,552
5,723
4,866
5,004
3,706
72,447
Net intra-state migration
1,180
2,107
-555
-656
-395
-995
-586
-118
18
-
Net interstate migration
-1,362
-141
-132
-12
-104
-254
-156
-273
-617
-3,051

(a) Based on usual residence 12 months prior to Census night.
(b) Excludes WA Undefined, Not Stated, Not Applicable and Off-Shore Areas & Migratory.
(c) Includes persons who did not move, moves within the same Statistical Local Area (SLA) and moves within the same SD.
Source: ABS data available on request, 2001 Census of Population and Housing.
The South West SD experienced the largest net gain from migration with over 2,100 more people moving into the area from elsewhere in Western Australia between 2000 and 2001 than moved out to other parts of the state in the same time period. This excess of arrivals over departures contributed to an annual population growth of 1.1% in the statistical division.

The South Eastern SD recorded the largest net loss from intra-state migration with nearly 1,000 more usual residents leaving the area than settling into the area
between 2000 and 2001.


TERMINOLOGY
The term 'new residents' is used throughout this article to refer to people who migrated to, or moved into their area of usual residence on Census night (e.g. the South West SD) in the 12 months prior to the 2001 Census.
The term 'residents who left' refers to people who emigrated from, or moved out of an area (e.g. the Upper Great Southern SD) in the 12 months prior to the 2001 Census.


REGIONAL ANALYSIS

The Upper Great Southern and South West SDs are the focus of this analysis. Movements at the statistical division or higher geographic levels are reviewed, while movements within the same local government area (LGA), or within the same statistical division (SD) have been excluded.

The Upper Great Southern SD was selected as it experienced the greatest proportional net decrease in population due to intrastate migration. From a population of 18,106, the Upper Great Southern SD gained 1,208 (or 7%) new usual residents, but lost 1,814 (or 10%) of its usual residents to other statistical divisions in the state and interstate. The Upper Great Southern SD is in the state's wheatbelt region. The Town of Narrogin accounts for over 25% of the statistical division's population.

The South West SD was selected as it experienced the greatest proportional net increase in population due to intrastate migration. The South West SD experienced the arrival of 12,069 new usual residents and lost 9,158 residents to other statistical divisions and interstate. Of the new usual residents, 9,444 were from other statistical divisions within Western Australia, 1,680 moved in from interstate and 945 had been living overseas. The South West SD includes the Cities of Bunbury and Mandurah, several rural shires and the tourist destinations of Margaret River and Busselton.


CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WHO MOVE

The following analysis focuses on the characteristics of usual residents who had moved within Western Australia in the 12 months prior to Census night 2001. These characteristics relate to individuals as recorded on Census night, after migration has occurred, and therefore may not be the same as when migration occurred.


THE UPPER GREAT SOUTHERN SD

This analysis examines the characteristics of usual residents who migrated out of the Upper Great Southern SD 12 months prior to the 2001 Census.

Almost half (47%) of the 1,814 people who migrated out of the Upper Great Southern SD moved to the Perth SD and 18% moved to the South West SD. A further 11% moved into the adjacent statistical division of Lower Great Southern.

The Upper Great Southern SD is comprised of fifteen Local Government Areas. Together three of them, Narrogin (T), Lake Grace (S) and Wagin (S) accounted for 47% (or 806 people) of the statistical division's movement out. No particular LGA was dominant in terms of preferred destination for migrants leaving the Upper Great Southern SD.


AGE AND SEX

Overall, similar numbers of males and females moved out of the Upper Great Southern SD (900 males and 920 females). Females outnumbered males in movement to the statistical divisions of Perth, South West, and the South Eastern. For movement to all other statistical divisions and interstate migration, males outnumbered females.

One-quarter (26%) of those who left the Upper Great Southern SD were between 10 and 19 years of age, 19% were between 20 and 29 years, and 17% were under 10 years. Aggregating this distribution shows that 62% of people who left the Upper Great Southern SD were under 30 years of age, this compares with 40% of the total statistical division being under 30.

Over one-third (36%) of those who migrated to the Perth SD were between 10 and 19 years of age. For people leaving the Upper Great Southern SD and moving to other rural statistical divisions, this age group accounted for only 17% of the total.

Age is one characteristic that is usually strongly related to mobility and there is a perception that older people are retiring to coastal areas. Six per cent of migrants out of the Upper Great Southern SD were aged 60 years and over. Of these, over three-quarters moved to the Perth, South West and Lower Great Southern SDs, each of which has a coastal strip. Of the 81 people who moved interstate, one-third (35%) were between 20 and 29 years of age and
males outnumbered females.

TABLE 3: AGE PROFILE, Residents who had left the Upper Great Southern SD: 2001
Moved to

Perth
South
West
Lower
Great Southern
Midlands
South
Eastern
Central
Pilbara
Kimberley
Interstate
Total
Persons
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
%

0-9 years
128
60
39
35
17
9
7
2
11
308
17.0
10-19 years
304
68
44
25
7
10
1
2
10
471
26.0
20-29 years
138
51
44
36
15
19
9
10
28
350
19.3
30-39 years
118
58
29
28
15
9
9
4
17
287
15.8
40-49 years
83
43
23
17
12
6
3
1
4
192
10.6
50-59 years
45
20
16
5
8
5
1
-
4
104
5.7
60 years and over
41
28
10
5
6
5
-
-
7
102
5.6
Total
857
328
205
151
80
63
30
19
81
1,814
100.0
%
47.2
18.1
11.3
8.3
4.4
3.5
1.7
1.0
4.5
100.0

Source: ABS data available on request, 2001 Census of Population and Housing.


EDUCATION

Of the 1,320 persons who moved out of the Upper Great Southern SD and were aged 15 years and over, 424 or 32% had a post-school qualification in 2001. Half of these (214 persons) achieved a Certificate Level qualification, compared with 134 persons (32%) who had Bachelor or Postgraduate Degrees.

TABLE 4: POST-SCHOOL QUALIFICATIONS, Residents who had left the Upper Great Southern SD: 2001
Moved to

Perth
South
West
Lower
Great
Southern
Midlands
South
Eastern
Central
Pilbara
Kimberley
Interstate
Total
Selected fields of study
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

Engineering and Related Technologies
16.2
14.4
11.9
23.1
14.3
23.1
25.0
42.9
16.0
16.5
Management and Commerce
15.3
11.3
16.9
15.4
9.5
15.4
16.7
np
8.0
14.0
Education
12.8
16.5
10.2
12.8
33.3
15.4
8.3
14.3
8.0
13.8
Agriculture, Environmental and Related Studies
6.8
8.2
6.8
20.5
9.5
np
8.3
np
32.0
9.3

Source: ABS data available on request, 2001 Census of Population and Housing.


Engineering and Related Technologies was the most common field of post-school qualifications amongst people who had left the Upper Great Southern SD (17%), followed by Management and Commerce (14%) and Education (14%).

Amongst total residents of the Upper Great Southern SD 16% had a qualification in Engineering and Related Technologies in 2001, less than 10% had qualifications in Management and Commerce and 13% in Education.

Qualifications in Engineering and Related Technologies was highest amongst those who moved to the Kimberley SD (43%). Almost one-third of persons who had a higher qualification and who moved interstate had qualifications in Agriculture, Environmental and Related Studies. This field of study was also high for those who moved to the Midlands SD (21%).


LABOUR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS

Participation in the labour force is, for most individuals and families, the main way of providing for their living expenses. In addition, work can also provide an individual with a way of being involved with their community - an important facet of personal well-being. (ABS, 2004a, p. 13.)

Of those usual residents who had left the Upper Great Southern SD, over 1,300 (73%) were of working age (over 15 years of age), and almost two-thirds of these were in the labour force in 2001.

Figure 1 shows the labour force characteristics of people who had left the Upper Great Southern SD and the usual residents of the statistical division on Census night 2001.

Across the two groups participation rates were similar (64% and 67% respectively), but the unemployment rate was three times higher for those who left the Upper Great Southern SD than for the statistical division as a whole (15% compared with 5%). High unemployment rates for movers are probably related, in part, to the difficulty of finding work in a new area where they may not yet have established the social networks that assist in job seeking. (ABS, 2004a, p. 14.)

Graph - Labour force characteristics: 2001


OCCUPATION

Of the people who moved out of the Upper Great Southern SD and were in employment in 2001, just over 17% were working as Intermediate Clerical, Sales and Service Workers, followed by 16% as Professionals and 14% Labourers and Related Workers.

In comparison, in 2001 over one-third of the total employed usual residents of the Upper Great Southern SD were Managers and Administrators, 9% were Intermediate Clerical, Sales and Service Workers and 9% were Professionals.

Those who moved to the Perth SD were more likely to be employed as Intermediate Clerical, Sales and Service Workers (22%) followed by Professionals (19%). People who moved to other rural statistical divisions from the Upper Great Southern SD were more likely to be employed as Labourers and Related Workers (17%).

TABLE 5: SELECTED OCCUPATIONS, Residents who had left the Upper Great Southern SD: 2001
Moved to

Perth
South
West
Lower
Great
Southern
Midlands
South
Eastern
Central
Pilbara
Kimberley
Interstate
Total
Selected occupations
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

Intermediate Clerical, Sales and Service Workers
22.0
16.5
10.8
15.4
8.6
18.2
9.5
16.7
12.8
17.3
Professionals
19.0
14.9
12.0
7.7
22.9
6.1
9.5
25.0
21.3
16.1
Labourers and Related Workers
9.5
14.0
21.7
20.0
11.4
12.1
19.0
8.3
17.0
13.6
Tradespersons and Related Workers
12.8
10.7
14.5
12.3
8.6
24.2
14.3
33.0
8.5
13.0
Associate Professionals
10.5
15.7
12.0
13.8
8.6
9.1
9.5
np
6.4
11.2

Source: ABS data available on request, 2001 Census of Population and Housing.


INDUSTRY

In 2001, 14% of those who left the Upper Great Southern SD were employed in Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing. In comparison, over 40% of total employed usual residents of the Upper Great Southern SD were employed in this industry for the same time period. (figure 2.)

The Retail Trade industry provided employment for 16% of those people who were employed and had left the Upper Great Southern SD 12 months prior to the 2001 Census. In contrast only 10% of employed persons for the total statistical division were in the Retail Trade industry. The proportion of people employed in Retail Trade was highest for those who migrated to the South West SD (21%).

Graph - Selected industries of employment, Upper Great Southern SD: 2001



THE SOUTH WEST SD

The analysis which follows looks at the characteristics of the people who were not resident in the South West SD 12 months prior to the 2001 Census, but were resident on Census night 2001.

Seventy-eight per cent of new residents to the South West SD were living elsewhere in Western Australia 12 months prior to the 2001 Census, 14% were living interstate and 8% were living overseas.

New residents to the South West SD came from across the state, with the Perth SD contributing the major share (51%) of the 12,069 arrivals. Local Government Areas within the Perth SD that made significant contributions included Stirling, Rockingham and Joondalup.

Whilst sixteen local government areas make up the South West SD, just four - Mandurah, Busselton, Bunbury and Harvey - received over two-thirds of the new arrivals.


AGE AND SEX

From all WA statistical divisions, slightly more females than males moved into the South West SD (6,100 females and 5,900 males). In contrast male migrants to the South West SD from interstate and overseas slightly outnumbered females.

One in five people who moved into the South West SD were between 20 and 29 years of age, and a further 17% were between 30 and 39 years of age. Nearly 1,400 or a further 11% were aged 60 years and over.

TABLE 6: AGE PROFILE, New residents, South West SD: 2001
Moved from

Perth
Upper
Great Southern
Lower
Great
Southern
Midlands
South
Eastern
Central
Pilbara
Kimberley
Overseas
in 2000
Interstate
Total
Persons
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
%

0-9 years
860
60
108
81
133
102
86
36
137
263
1,866
15.5
10-19 years
672
68
99
68
83
110
78
43
135
197
1,553
12.9
20-29 years
1,325
51
100
73
110
86
91
45
254
435
2,570
21.3
30-39 years
996
58
110
88
121
89
96
47
180
326
2,111
17.5
40-49 years
655
43
53
49
72
68
75
36
110
196
1,357
11.2
50-59 years
788
20
33
53
40
54
39
32
56
116
1,231
10.2
60 years and over
876
28
39
68
33
63
21
33
73
147
1,381
11.4
Total
6,172
328
542
480
592
572
486
272
945
1,680
12,069
100.0

Source: ABS data available on request, 2001 Census of Population and Housing.


EDUCATION

Of the 9,428 persons aged 15 years and over who moved into the South West SD, 3,641 or 39% had a post-school qualification in 2001. Half of these (1,832 persons) achieved a Certificate Level qualification and 30% had achieved Bachelor or Postgraduate Degrees.

Figure 3 shows the differences in post-school qualifications of people who moved into the South West SD and those of the total population of the statistical division.

Amongst total usual residents over the age of 15 years in the South West SD, 59% had no post-school qualifications and 41% had achieved a qualification by 2001. Of all new residents, 18% had a Certificate Level qualification and 6% had achieved Bachelor or Postgraduate Degrees.

There was little difference in the qualification levels between those who migrated from the Perth SD and those who migrated from other rural statistical divisions,
with half holding a Certificate Level qualification, and less than one-third having Bachelor or Postgraduate Degrees.

Graph - Post-school qualifications: 2001



FIELD OF STUDY

Overall, the most common fields of post-school qualification for people migrating to the South West SD 12 months prior to the 2001 Census were Engineering and Related Technologies (21%), Management and Commerce (14%) and Health (11%). Qualifications in Engineering and Related Technologies were notably higher amongst people who migrated from the Pilbara SD (38%) and low for those from the Upper Great Southern SD (14%).

There was little difference in the fields of qualifications between those who moved from the Perth SD and those who migrated from other rural statistical divisions. Engineering and Related Technologies was the most common field, followed by Management and Commerce. Health and Education qualifications ranked third and fourth.

TABLE 7: POST-SCHOOL QUALIFICATIONS, New residents, South West SD: 2001
Moved from

Perth
Upper
Great Southern
Lower
Great
Southern
Midlands
South
Eastern
Central
Pilbara
Kimberley
Overseas
in 2000
Interstate
Total
Selected fields of study
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

Engineering and Related Technologies
19.9
14.4
14.7
19.8
26.0
22.5
37.9
23.3
18.6
22.0
20.9
Management and Commerce
14.5
11.3
11.9
16.7
15.0
11.0
14.8
9.3
15.6
10.9
13.8
Health
10.5
9.3
9.8
9.5
5.2
12.1
4.7
12.8
11.3
12.7
10.5
Education
9.3
16.5
9.8
14.3
15.0
13.3
10.7
17.4
7.0
7.1
9.7

Source: ABS data available on request, 2001 Census of Population and Housing.


EMPLOYMENT CHARACTERISTICS

Over 9,428 new usual residents to the South West SD were of working age (15 years and above), and almost two-thirds (61%) of these were in the labour force.

Figure 4 compares the labour force characteristics of new usual residents who moved into the South West SD and all usual residents of the South West SD as at the 2001 Census. The unemployment rate for new usual residents in the South West SD was more than twice that of the total statistical division as a whole (18% compared with 9%).

Graph - Labour force characteristics: 2001



OCCUPATION

Of people who moved to the South West SD in the 12 months prior to the 2001 Census, 4,707 were in employment. Almost 19% were employed as Professionals, followed by 14% as Intermediate Clerical, Sales and Service Workers and 13% Associate Professionals. The respective proportions for the total usual resident population in the South West SD were 12%, 13% and 12%.


INDUSTRY

The industries of employment of migrants into the South West SD were distributed across several groups. Just over 13% of movers were employed in Retail Trade, followed by 10% in Manufacturing and a further 10% in Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants. Property and Business Services accounted for 9% and Construction, Education and Health and Community Services each accounted for 8%. Similar distribution patterns were seen for both movers from the Perth SD and for those who migrated from other rural statistical divisions.

TABLE 8: SELECTED INDUSTRIES, New residents, South West SD: 2001
Moved from

Perth
Upper
Great Southern
Lower
Great
Southern
Midlands
South
Eastern
Central
Pilbara
Kimberley
Overseas
in 2000
Interstate
Total
Selected industries
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

Retail Trade
14.1
20.7
9.3
13.0
12.2
18.9
8.8
10.6
10.9
11.9
13.3
Manufacturing
10.7
4.1
7.7
4.1
7.2
12.0
12.4
7.7
12.2
11.6
10.3
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants
9.0
6.6
10.9
13.0
8.6
7.4
6.2
15.4
11.7
13.0
9.9
Property and Business Services
9.8
8.3
4.9
10.1
6.8
6.3
8.8
3.8
8.9
8.0
8.8
Health and Community Services
8.6
8.3
6.6
4.1
6.3
9.7
6.7
8.7
8.9
9.2
8.3
Education
8.0
9.9
7.1
11.8
12.6
11.4
11.9
16.3
6.4
4.4
8.2
Construction
8.6
4.1
9.3
4.1
6.8
8.0
11.3
3.8
4.8
9.2
8.0

Source: ABS data available on request, 2001 Census of Population and Housing.


CONCLUSION

The Census of Population and Housing provides valuable information about migration flows within states and regions; most particularly the characteristics of
people who are moving.

Awareness of the dynamics of migration and the changes to the distribution and structure of populations that stem from it, is important to the planning processes
of all levels of government and private enterprise.

This analysis focused on two statistical divisions; the first, the Upper Great Southern, experienced the greatest proportional net loss through intra-state
migration and the second, the South West SD, experienced the highest net gain through intra-state migration.

The demographic characteristics of movers out and movers into the selected statistical divisions are presented and compared with the characteristics of the total
populations of the divisions.

While there is overlap and some cancelling out within the groups, very broadly, movers tended to be younger and more highly qualified than the population in the
region they were moving to or leaving behind. While labour force participation levels were similar for movers and non-movers, movers were more likely to be
unemployed at the time of the census.

Other possible influences on whether people move, not analysed here but identified through census data, include home ownership or rental, overseas or
Australian birth, English or non-English speaking background and Indigenous status.


RELATED PUBLICATIONS

Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0)

Demography Working Paper 1999/2 - Estimating Interstate Migration, 1996-2001

Migration, Australia, 2000-01 and 2001-02 (cat. no. 3412.0)


REFERENCES

"Seachange - new residents in coastal areas", in Australian Social Trends, 2004a (cat. no. 4102.0)

"The impact of migration on Western Australia's population", in Western Australian Statistical Indicators, March 2004b (cat. no. 1367.5)

"Youth migration within Australia", in Australian Social Trends, 2003 (cat. no. 4102.0)

"Small towns: which ones are in decline?", in Australian Social Trends, 1998 (cat. no. 4102.0)


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