Australian Bureau of Statistics
1367.2 - State and Regional Indicators, Victoria, Dec 2008
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 20/02/2009
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Employed persons who usually worked less than 35 hours a week (in all jobs) and either did so during the reference week, or were not at work in the reference week.
Particles as PM10
Particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 micrometres or less.
Photochemical oxidants and ozone
'Photochemical oxidants' is the technical term for the type of smog found in Australian cities during the warmer months of the year. This type of smog can be invisible or it can appear as a whitish haze.
Photochemical oxidants are formed when sunlight falls on a mixture of chemicals in the air. Ozone is one of the main photochemical oxidants. Other chemicals such as formaldehyde are also found and, like ozone, have adverse health effects. Environment agencies measure the level of ozone because it indicates the total amount of photochemical oxidants in the air. Cities that have abundant sunshine over periods of time, together with moderate winds and high temperatures, are most likely to experience high levels of photochemical oxidants.
Ozone is a gas that is formed when nitrogen oxides react with a group of air pollutants known as 'reactive organic substances' in the presence of sunlight. The chemicals that react to form ozone come from sources such as: motor vehicle exhaust, oil refining, printing, petrochemicals, lawn mowing, aviation, bushfires and burning off. Motor vehicle exhaust fumes produce as much as 70% of the nitrogen oxides and 50% of the organic chemicals that form ozone. (Source: Australian Government Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, <http://www.environment.gov.au>)
A means of removing the estimated effects of normal seasonal variations from economic time series so that the effects of other influences are obvious. Seasonal variations are the systematic (though not necessarily regular) intra-year movements of economic time series. These are often the result of non-economic phenomena, such as climatic changes and regular religious festivals (e.g. Christmas and Easter).
State final demand
Conceptually identical to domestic final demand at the national level (the sum of private and government final consumption expenditure and private and public gross fixed capital formation).
National estimates are based on the concepts and conventions embodied in the System of National Accounts, 1993, but for regional (including state) estimates there is no separate international standard. Although national concepts are generally applicable to state accounts, there remain several conceptual and measurement issues that either do not apply or are insignificant nationally. Most of the problems arise in the measurement of gross state product for the transport and storage, communication services, and finance and insurance industries, where production often takes place across state borders. In these cases, a number of conceptual views can be applied to the allocation of value added by state. For more information, see chapter 28 of Australian System of National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods (cat. no. 5216.0).
Smoothing seasonally adjusted series produces a measure of trend by removing the impact of the irregular component of the series. The trend estimates are derived by applying a 13-term Henderson weighted moving average to the respective seasonally adjusted series. Readers are reminded that trend estimates are subject to revision as subsequent months' data become available.
Persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed during the reference week, and:
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This page last updated 13 May 2009