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Water supply and use in Australia needs to be viewed in the context of Australia's climate. In recent years rainfall has been variable and many parts of NSW have experienced prolonged periods of drought. The average total rainfall throughout NSW in 2007 was 543 mm, slightly less than the long-term average of 566mm. In 2002 and 2006, there were major rainfall deficiencies in NSW, with rainfall levels falling below the long-term average by 245mm and 215mm respectively. Sydney recorded a higher annual rainfall than the state average, but rain that falls in Sydney does not always reach large storage dams.
Energy significantly contributes to all sectors of the economy, including supplying power to households and industry. The amount and type of energy used by households and industry has considerable implications for the environment, including depletion of natural resources, greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution. Between 2001 and 2006, total energy usage in NSW and ACT increased by 3%. This increase was mainly due to the combined energy consumption levels of the Electricity Generation and Transport industries rising by 3%. In the same period, residential consumption decreased slightly by 1%.
In 2006, the Electricity Generation and Transport industries together accounted for 58% of the total energy consumption in NSW and the ACT. Residential energy use accounted for 8% of total direct energy consumption, though household use of transport and demand for products and services contributes to energy consumption in almost all industries.
ELECTRICITY GENERATION AND GREENHOUSE GASES
Human actions, particularly burning fossil fuels, (coal, oil and natural gas), are increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases that trap more heat and change the climate. Global warming is widely perceived as one of the most significant international environmental issues. Most energy consumed in NSW comes from non-renewable fossil fuels, and the main sources are black coal (53%) and petroleum (38%). Between 2001 to 2006, the largest increase for fuel use was black coal, rising by 9% over this period. Black coal provided 89% of the total NSW electricity generation in 2006-07, compared with 7% provided by renewable energy sources such as hydro, wind, solar, biomass or biogas.
In 2005, NSW net greenhouse emissions across all sectors totalled 158 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent, and have decreased slightly (-1%) since 1990. The Stationary Energy sector (mainly electricity generation) is a major contributor to greenhouse gases, and accounted for almost half the total net emissions. Between 1990 to 2005, the largest sectoral increases in greenhouse gas emissions occurred in the Stationary Energy sector (26%), and the Transport sector (17%). Growth in these sectors was offset by a decline in net emissions from the Land Use and Forestry (-61%) and Agriculture (-20%) sectors.
Agricultural Commodities, Australia (cat. no. 7121.0)
Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE), Australian Energy Consumption and Production, 1973-74 to 2005-06
Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE), Australian Energy National and State Projections to 2029-30
Australian Bureau of Meteorology <http://www.bom.gov.au>
Australian Government Department of Climate Change, Australian Greenhouse Emissions Information System <http://www.climatechange.gov.au/inventory>
Australian Greenhouse Office, Department of the Environment and Water Resources, State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Inventories 2005
Domestic Water and Energy Use, NSW (cat. no. 4621.1)
Environmental Issues: People's Views and Practices (cat. no. 4602.0)
National Forest Inventory, Australia's State of the Forests Report, 2003, Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra
National Forest Inventory, National Plantation Inventory, Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra 2001-2007
Natural Resource Management on Australian Farms (cat. no. 4620.0)
NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change <http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au>
Schedules 1 & 2: Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 No. 101, and Schedules 4 & 5: Fisheries Management Act 1994 No. 38
Water Account, Australia (cat. no. 4610.0)
Water Use on Australian Farms (cat. no. 4618.0
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