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4172.0 - Arts and Culture in Australia: A Statistical Overview, 2004 (Reissue)  
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Contents >> Cultural Trade >> Trade in Services

TRADE IN SERVICES

The previous section provided information on trade in cultural goods (i.e. movable goods that cross Australia's customs frontier). While this is a major part of Australia's cultural trade with other countries, trade in services also contributes to Australia's trade in culture and recreation.


The term ‘credits’ is used to refer to services rendered by Australians to the rest of the world and the term ‘debits’ to describe services provided by the rest of the world to Australians.


Most of Australia’s trade in services relates to international transport, travel, education and business services. Trade in cultural services (including music royalties) is relatively small in value and therefore parts of it have been combined with recreational services and health and medical services in the collection and output of data. Trade in this broader category (referred to as cultural and recreational services in the remainder of this chapter) - rather than just cultural services - is discussed here.


Australia earned $342m from cultural and recreational services in 2002-03, approximately 1% of its total earnings from services in that year. This figure has remained relatively constant over recent years, with the exception of 2000-01 when the inclusion of television rights to the Sydney 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games boosted it to about 4%.


Australia paid $986m to other countries for the cultural and recreational services in 2002-03, with Audiovisual and related services accounting for 69% of that total, and music royalties a further 21%. This represented approximately 3% of all Australia's payments for services in that year.

7.8 TRADE IN CULTURAL AND RECREATIONAL SERVICES - 1996-97 to 2002-03

1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Service credits (earnings)
Audiovisual and related services
146
125
145
175
(a)1 226
80
152
Music royalties
40
42
46
57
70
54
65
Other cultural and recreational services(b)
46
61
83
78
95
137
125
Total services provided
232
228
274
310
1 391
271
342
Service debits (payments)
Audiovisual and related services
467
598
638
683
634
727
680
Music royalties
203
167
171
209
229
229
207
Other cultural and recreational services(b)
54
63
64
64
81
77
99
Total services received
724
828
873
956
944
1 033
986

(a) Includes $1,133m associated with the broadcast rights for the Sydney 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games.
(b) Includes health and medical services.
ABS, Balance of Payments and International Investment Position, Australia, (various issues), (cat. no. 5302.0) and data available on request.


For Audiovisual and related services, Australia's largest earnings came from the sale of television programs. In 2002-03, television program sales amounted to $64m.


Television programs also accounted for the bulk of the $680m of payments Australia made for Audiovisual and related services, amounting to $448m in 2002-03. Of the payments for television programs, $291m (65%) was paid to the United States of America and $57m (13%) to the United Kingdom.


Payments for the right to use videotapes totalled $148m, with $115m (78%) of this being paid to the United States of America.

7.9 AUDIOVISUAL AND RELATED SERVICES, By Type - 1996-97 to 2002-03

1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Credits (earnings)
Theatrical films
19
15
21
21
9
np
16
Television programs - Sydney Olympic Games
-
-
-
-
1 133
-
-
Television programs - other
117
98
111
108
64
59
64
Video tapes
np
np
np
np
6
1
6
Total credits(a)
146
125
145
175
1 226
80
152
Debits (payments)
Theatrical films
87
130
92
136
80
84
74
Television programs
260
342
412
421
429
498
448
Video tapes
np
np
127
118
104
138
148
Total debits(a)
467
598
638
683
634
727
680

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Includes Multimedia and Other (not separately identified).
ABS, Balance of Payments and International Investment Position, data available on request.


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