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3303.0 - Causes of Death, Australia, 2006 Quality Declaration 
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 19/03/2008   
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Contents >> Underlying Cause of Death >> External Causes (V01-Y98)

EXTERNAL CAUSES (V01-Y98)

External causes of death relate to cases where the underlying cause of death is determined to be one of a group of causes external to the body (for example suicide, transport accidents, falls, poisoning etc). See Explanatory Notes 44 and 45 for further information.


In 2006, External causes accounted for 7,840 deaths, or 5.9% of all registered deaths. This was a slight decrease from 2005 when 8,015 deaths (6.1%) were attributed to External causes. The standardised death rate was 36.7 per 100,000 of population in 2006, a decrease from 38.4 in 2005 and from 43.3 per 100,000 population in 1997. Males were more likely to die from external causes than females in 2006. The standardised death rate for males was 52.5 per 100,000 compared with 21.7 females per 100,000.


In 2006, the median age at death from these causes was 50.3 years, which was slightly older than the median age of 49.5 years recorded in 2005. Despite this slight increase, the median age at death for External causes was considerably less than the median age of 80.3 years for all registered deaths in 2006. The median age at death for males dying of external causes is 45.5, with the median age at death for females is 71.3 years.


Consistent with previous years, just over two-thirds of the total number of deaths resulting from External causes were males. The difference between the number of male and female deaths was most apparent amongst the 25-34 year age group, with 831 male deaths compared to 198 female deaths.


2.19 Selected Underlying Causes, External Causes (V01-Y98) - 2006

Cause of death and ICD code
Males
Females
Persons
% all deaths

CHAPTER XX External causes of morbidity and mortality (V01-Y98)
5 232
2 608
7 840
5.9
   Transport accidents (V01-V99, Y85)(a)
1 262
406
1 668
1.2
   Other external causes of accidental injury (W00-X59)
2 191
1 507
3 698
2.8
      Falls (W00-W19)
582
643
1 225
0.9
      Exposure to inanimate mechanical forces (W20-W49)
153
29
182
0.1
         Contact with knife, sword or dagger (W26)
42
16
58
-
      Accidental drowning and submersion (W65-W74)
162
50
212
0.2
         Drowning and submersion while in natural water (W69)
51
5
56
-
         Unspecified drowning and submersion (W74)
67
24
91
0.1
      Other accidental threats to breathing (W75-W84)
283
126
409
0.3
         Other accidental hanging and strangulation (W76)
141
38
179
0.1
         Inhalation and ingestion of other objects causing obstruction of respiratory tract (W80)
66
40
106
0.1
      Exposure to smoke, fire and flames (X00-X09)
39
32
71
0.1
      Accidental poisoning by and exposure to noxious substances (X40-X49)
476
225
701
0.5
      Accidental exposure to other and unspecified factors (X58-X59)
430
np
np
np
         Exposure to unspecified factor (X59)
430
364
794
0.6
   Other external causes of mortality (X60-Y36)
np
np
np
np
      Intentional self-harm (X60-X84, Y87.0)(b)
1 398
401
1 799
1.3
      Assault (X85-Y09, Y87.1)(c)
98
57
155
0.1
      Event of undetermined intent (Y10-Y34, Y87.2)(d)
87
48
135
0.1
   Complications of medical and surgical care (Y40-Y84, Y88)(e)
126
148
274
0.2
      Surgical and other medical procedures as the cause of abnormal reaction of the patient, or of later complication, without mention of misadventure at the time of the procedure (Y83-Y84)
108
117
225
0.2
         Surgical operation and other surgical procedures as the cause of abnormal reaction of the patient, or of later complication, without mention of misadventure at the time of the procedure (Y83)
89
106
195
0.1
   Sequelae of external causes of morbidity and mortality (Y85-Y89)
np
np
np
np
      Sequelae of other accidents (Y86)
52
33
85
0.1

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Includes Y85 Sequelae of transport accidents.
(b) Includes Y87.0 Sequelae of intentional self-harm.
(c) Includes Y87.1 Sequelae of assault.
(d) Includes Y87.2 Sequelae of events of undetermined intent.
(e) Includes Y88 Sequelae with surgical and medical care as external causes.



Transport Accidents (V01-V99)


Transport accidents (V01-V99, Y85) accounted for 1,668 deaths registered in 2006. This represented 1.3% of all registered deaths in 2006, and 21% of all External causes of death. Of these, 811 deaths were of occupants of a car, 254 deaths were of pedestrians and 232 deaths were of motorcycle riders.


As with most other external causes, more males than females died from Transport accidents in 2006 (1,262 compared with 406). For males, 1.8% of total male deaths registered in 2006 were caused by Transport accidents. This was compared with only 0.6% of all female deaths. Males also had a lower median age at death than females, with a median age of 34.6 years for males compared with 41.4 years for females. Specifically amongst males aged 15-44, 15% of all male deaths from external causes were attributed to Transport accidents, and males in this age group accounted for 63% of all male deaths due to transport accidents.


For information on quality of data on Transport accidents, refer to Explanatory Note 61


2.20 Selected Underlying Causes, Transport Accidents (V01-V99, Y85) - 2006

Cause of death and ICD code
Males
Females
Persons
% all deaths

Transport accidents (V01-V99, Y85)
1 250
402
1 652
1.2
   Pedestrian injured in transport accident (V01-V09)
168
86
254
0.2
      Pedestrian injured in collision with car, pick-up truck or van (V03)
105
63
168
0.1
      Pedestrian injured in collision with heavy transport vehicle or bus (V04)
23
6
29
-
      Pedestrian injured in collision with railway train or railway vehicle (V05)
22
12
34
-
   Pedal cyclist injured in transport accident (V10-V19)
34
3
37
-
   Motorcycle rider injured in transport accident (V20-V29)
221
11
232
0.2
      Motorcycle rider injured in collision with car, pick-up truck or van (V23)
81
6
87
0.1
      Motorcycle rider injured in collision with fixed or stationary object (V27)
78
3
81
0.1
      Motorcycle rider injured in noncollision transport accident (V28)
np
np
20
-
      Motorcycle rider injured in other and unspecified transport accidents (V29)
24
-
24
-
   Car occupant injured in transport accident (V40-V49)
559
252
811
0.6
      Car occupant injured in collision with car, pick-up truck or van (V43)
115
92
207
0.2
      Car occupant injured in collision with heavy transport vehicle or bus (V44)
42
23
65
-
      Car occupant injured in collision with fixed or stationary object (V47)
271
87
358
0.3
      Car occupant injured in noncollision transport accident (V48)
71
26
97
0.1
      Car occupant injured in other and unspecified transport accidents (V49)
48
19
67
0.1
   Occupant of pick-up truck or van injured in transport accident (V50-V59)
38
10
48
-
   Occupant of heavy transport vehicle injured in transport accident (V60-V69)
32
4
36
-
   Other land transport accidents (V80-V89)
126
26
152
0.1
      Occupant of special all-terrain or other motor vehicle designed primarily for off-road use, injured in transport accident (V86)
15
5
20
-
      Motor or nonmotor vehicle accident, type of vehicle unspecified (V89)
71
15
86
0.1
   Water transport accidents (V90-V94)
33
3
36
-
   Air and space transport accidents (V95-V97)
32
4
36
-
      Accident to powered aircraft causing injury to occupant (V95)
25
4
29
-

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated



Falls (W00-W19)


Falls (W00-W19) accounted for 1,225 deaths registered in 2006. This represented 0.9% of all registered deaths in 2006, and 16% of all External causes of death. Falls have increased 95% over the past 5 years from 629 in 2002. This increase is largely due to stronger focus by the Victorian government to refer all cases where a medical certificate mentions falls to the coroner for verification. See Explanatory Note 69 for further information.


Falls was one of the few categories within external causes with more females than males (643 females, compared with 582 males). This has been the case for the past three years. The median age at death for Falls was 84.8 years, which was considerably higher than the median age at death of 50.3 for all External causes. Of all deaths due to Falls, 83% were of people aged 70 years or more.


2.21 Selected Underlying Causes, Falls (W00-W19) - 2006

Cause of Death and 10 code
Males
Females
Persons
% all deaths

Falls (W00-W19)
582
643
1 225
0.9
   Fall on same level from slipping, tripping and stumbling (W01)
92
117
209
0.2
   Fall involving bed (W06)
14
14
28
-
   Fall on and from stairs and steps (W10)
19
21
40
-
   Fall on and from ladder (W11)
np
np
24
-
   Fall from, out of or through building or structure (W13)
20
10
30
-
   Other fall from one level to another (W17)
34
12
46
-
   Other fall on same level (W18)
29
33
62
-
   Unspecified fall (W19)
324
415
739
0.6

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated



Accidental Poisoning (X40-X49)


Accidental poisoning (X40-X49) accounted for 701 deaths registered in 2006. This represented 0.5% of all registered deaths in 2006, and 8.9% of all External causes of death. Accidental poisoning have decreased 5.3% compared with 2005. More than twice as many males as females died from accidental poisoning in 2006, continuing the trend of the past 10 years since 1997. The median age at death for Accidental poisoning was 41.9 years. Median age at death for males was 40.4 years, compared with 45.9 years for females.


2.22 Selected Underlying Causes, Accidental Poisoning (X40-X49) - 2006

Cause of Death and ICD code
Males
Females
Persons
% all deaths

Accidental poisoning by and exposure to noxious substances (X40-X49)
476
225
701
0.5
     Accidental poisoning by and exposure to antiepileptic, sedative-hypnotic, antiparkinsonism and psychotropic drugs, not elsewhere classified (X41)
47
39
86
0.1
     Accidental poisoning by and exposure to narcotics and psychodysleptics [[hallucinogens], not elsewhere classified (X42)
113
31
144
0.1
     Accidental poisoning by and exposure to other and unspecified drugs, medicaments and biological substances (X44)
211
119
330
0.2
     Accidental poisoning by and exposure to alcohol (X45)
30
11
41
-
     Accidental poisoning by and exposure to other gases and vapours (X47)
56
9
65
-

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)



Assault (X85-Y09,Y87.1)


Assault (X85-Y09, Y87.1) accounted for 155 deaths in 2006, which is the lowest number of deaths recorded for this cause since 1997. The deaths from Assault represented 0.1% of all registered deaths and 2.0% of all External causes of death in 2006. More than twice as many males as females died from Assault in 2006, continuing the trend of the 10 years since 1997. The median age at death for Assault was 35.7 years. Median age at death for males was 35.4 years, compared with 37.5 years for females.


Cause of Death statistics for deaths due to assault may differ from other sources of data due to differences in scope and coverage, but also due to the impact of open coroners cases on ABS data. See Explanatory Notes 72 - 73 for further information.


2.23 Selected Underlying Causes, Assault (X85-Y09, Y87.1) - 2006

Cause of Death and ICD code
Males
Females
Persons
% all deaths

Assault (X85-Y09, Y87.1)
98
57
155
0.1
     Assault by rifle, shotgun and larger firearm discharge (X94)
5
6
11
-
     Assault by other and unspecified firearm discharge (X95)
6
4
10
-
     Assault by sharp object (X99)
44
17
61
-
     Assault by bodily force (Y04)
10
11
21
-

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)



Intentional Self Harm (X60-X84,Y87.0)


Care should be taken in using and interpreting suicide data contained in this publication due to concerns regarding data quality. For further information refer to Explanatory Notes 57-58 and 74-75.


There were 1,799 deaths coded to Intentional self-harm [suicide] (X60-X84, Y87.0) in 2006, less than the 2,101 deaths in 2005. Deaths from Intentional self-harm represented 1.4% of all registered deaths and 23.0% of all External causes of death in 2006. More than three times as many males as females died from Intentional self-harm in 2006, continuing the trend of the 10 years since 1997. The median age at death for Intentional self-harm was 43.9 years. Median age at death for males was 43.6 years, compared with 45.1 years for females.


Care should be taken in using and interpreting suicide data contained in this publication due to limitations on data quality. For further information refer to Explanatory Notes 57-58 and 74-75.


2.24 Selected Underlying Causes, Intentional Self Harm (X60-X84, X87.0)(a) - 2006

Cause of Death and ICD code
Males
Females
Persons
% all deaths

Intentional self-harm (X60-X84, Y87.0)
1 398
401
1 799
1.3
     Intentional self-poisoning by and exposure to antiepileptic, sedative-hypnotic, antiparkinsonism and psychotropic drugs, not elsewhere classified (X61)
24
36
60
-
     Intentional self-poisoning by and exposure to other and unspecified drugs, medicaments and biological substances (X64)
46
55
101
0.1
     Intentional self-poisoning by and exposure to other gases and vapours (X67)
188
36
224
0.2
     Intentional self-harm by hanging, strangulation and suffocation (X70)
763
177
940
0.7
     Intentional self-harm by drowning and submersion (X71)
21
20
41
-
     Intentional self-harm by rifle, shotgun and larger firearm discharge (X73)
120
5
125
0.1
     Intentional self-harm by other and unspecified firearm discharge (X74)
20
-
20
-
     Intentional self-harm by sharp object (X78)
29
9
38
-
     Intentional self-harm by jumping from a high place (X80)
54
19
73
0.1
     Intentional self-harm by jumping or lying before moving object ( X81)
48
12
60
-
     Intentional self-harm by other specified means (X83)
17
6
23
-

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Care should be taken in interpreting numbers of suicide deaths due to limitations in the data. For further information, see Explanatory Notes 57-58 and 74-75.



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