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DEFINITION OF R&D
4 R&D as collected by the ABS is defined in accordance with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) standard as 'creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications'. Although outside the economic boundary of R&D as defined by the OECD, R&D performed overseas by Australian organisations is included in the data presented.
5 For a more comprehensive interpretation of the definition of R&D, see the OECD publication The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development - Frascati Manual 2002.
6 Data providers report and self-classify R&D survey information based on their interpretation of OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. See also the Reliability of statistics and Revisions sections of the Technical Note.
7 The sector classification used in the compilation of these statistics is adapted from the guidelines specified by the OECD for use in the conduct of R&D surveys. There are four distinct sectors:
SCOPE AND COVERAGE
8 Refer to the Explanatory Notes of the individual sector releases for scope and coverage details.
9 The statistics in this release are classified to industry in accordance with the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 (cat. no. 1292.0).
10 With the exception of the Higher education sector, estimates for location relate to the region(s) in which the R&D was performed. For the Higher education sector, the estimates represent the main campus or head office location of the reporting institution, with the exception of the Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA) which is shown against the Australian Capital Territory.
TYPE OF ACTIVITY (TOA), FIELD OF RESEARCH (FOR) AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC OBJECTIVE (SEO)
11 TOA, FOR and SEO statistics presented in this release have been collected and compiled based on the Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification (ANZSRC), 2008 (cat. no. 1297.0). Earlier issues of this release used the Australian Standard Research Classification (ASRC).
12 Due to differences between the two classifications, implementation of the ANZSRC represents a break in series. Users should familiarise themselves with the differences if attempting to compare data across reference periods, particularly for FOR and SEO estimates.
13 The ABS has not compiled previous cycle estimates on an ANZSRC basis or 2008-09 estimates on an ASRC basis. Previous cycle data compiled on an ASRC basis (including revised data for 2006-07) are available in the data cubes accompanying this release.
14 Some organisations may have experienced difficulty in classifying their R&D projects to TOA, FOR and SEO. See also the Reliability of statistics and Revisions sections of the Technical Note.
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) AND GROSS STATE PRODUCT (GSP)
15 The most recent GDP and GSP values available were used to calculate the R&D expenditure/GDP and R&D expenditure/GSP ratios presented in this issue. These values are referenced in the tables below.
16 GDP is estimated by the ABS according to the recently updated international standards System of National Accounts, 2008 (2008 SNA) and is not directly comparable to GDP for countries where these standards have not been applied.
17 ABS releases of R&D statistics for individual sectors:
Research and Experimental Development, Government and Private Non-Profit Organisations, Australia, 2008-09 (cat. no. 8109.0)
Research and Experimental Development, Higher Education Organisations, Australia, 2008 (cat. no. 8111.0)
18 Users may also wish to refer to the following ABS releases:
Innovation in Australian Business, 2008-09 (cat. no. 8158.0)
Microdata: Business Longitudinal Database, Expanded CURF, Australia, 2004-05, 2005-06 and 2006-07 (cat. no. 8168.0.55.001)
Selected Characteristics of Australian Business, 2008-09 (cat. no. 8167.0)
Summary of IT Use and Innovation in Australian Business, 2008-09 (cat. no. 8166.0)
19 Relevant OECD publications include:
20 Other information relating to R&D and Innovation (including data cubes in spreadsheet format) can be found on the ABS website <www.abs.gov.au>. See the Innovation, Science and Technology Theme page under Topics @ a Glance/Industry.
21 Where figures have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between the sum of the component items and totals.
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