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6275.0 - Locations of work, Australia, Jun 2000  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 28/05/2001   
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CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The following diagram illustrates the framework for the Locations of Work Survey. Employed persons were asked about all the different types of locations where they worked last week (the reference week) and were classified by whether or not they worked at home in either their main or second job.

Persons who worked some hours at home were further classified according to whether they worked more hours at home than elsewhere in that job or less hours at home than elsewhere. Employees who worked less hours at home than elsewhere were then asked whether they had an arrangement with their employer to work at home or not. 'Home' included own home and the home of someone else other than their employer or client.

For the purposes of this survey, persons employed at home are therefore defined as employed persons who worked all or most hours at home and employees who had an arrangement with their employer to work some hours at home, in their main or second job in the reference week.

Diagram - Conceptual Framework


SUMMARY OF FINDINGS


ALL LOCATIONS OF WORK

There were 8,589,400 employed persons at work in June 2000. In their main job (i.e. the job in which they worked the most hours):

  • 80% had worked at their employer or client's workplace during the week;
  • 31% spent time travelling for work;
  • 20% worked at their own or another home (other than their employer or client's);
  • 8% had worked in their own workplace;
  • 5% had worked at their employer or client's home; and
  • 3% had worked in other places such as forests, parks or streets.

Some 36% of people had worked in two or more location types.

Some 421,400 persons were multiple job holders. These people were most likely to have worked at their employer or client's workplace in their second job (59%). One in three of these persons worked at home in their second job (32%) and 21% spent time driving or travelling for work in this job.
Graph - All locations of work, employed persons by main and second job
MAIN LOCATION OF WORK

For employed persons at work in June 2000 information is also available on their main location of work, which is the place where the most hours were worked in the reference week, in their main job.

The majority of persons at work mainly worked at business premises in their main job (81% of males and 87% of females). Females were more likely than males to have mainly worked at home (8% and 6% respectively) but less likely than males to have mainly travelled for work (1% and 7% respectively).

The vast majority of persons at work were employees (87%). Employees were most likely to have mainly worked at business premises in their main job (89%), with only 3% mainly working at home. In contrast to employees, a smaller proportion of own account workers and employers mainly worked at business premises (47%) and a larger proportion mainly worked at home (32%).


PERSONS EMPLOYED AT HOME

In June 2000, 21% of persons at work (1,794,800) worked some hours at home in either their main or second job.

Some 980,300 persons were classified as persons employed at home (11% of people at work). This group is comprised of 692,600 persons who only or mainly worked at home during the reference week and 287,700 employees who, though working less hours at home than elsewhere, had an arrangement with their employer to work at home.

Personal characteristics

Of the 980,300 persons employed at home:
  • 49% were female compared with 44% of all workers;
  • 76% were 35 years and over compared to 57% of all workers; and
  • 38% were parents of children aged less than 15 years compared with 31% of all persons at work.
Graph - Age distribution, persons employed at home and employed persons
Employment characteristics

A smaller proportion of persons employed at home were employees (58%) than of all people at work (87%). Conversely, self-employed people were a greater proportion of persons employed at home (38%) than of all workers (12%).

For males employed at home the most common occupation groups were Managers and administrators (35%), Professionals (28%) and Associate professionals (13%). The most common occupation groups for females employed at home were Professionals (23%), Advanced clerical and service workers (21%) and Intermediate clerical, sales and service workers (19%).
Graph - Occupation, persons employed at home by sex
Almost one quarter of persons employed at home (23%) worked in the Agriculture, forestry and fishing industry. A further 15% of persons employed at home worked in Property and business services and 9% in Education. There were very few persons employed at home in the Mining; Electricity, gas and water supply; and Communication services industries.

Other characteristics of persons employed at home include:
  • Over half the persons employed at home (51%) had worked in that job at home for five years or more.
  • The main reason given for working at home was to operate own or family business, with 51% of females and 46% of males reporting this. To catch up on work was next, reported by 15% as their main reason for working at home.
  • Some 64% of persons employed at home used information technology at home in that job. Information technology usage was slightly higher for females (66%) than males (63%), however internet usage was higher for males (43%) than females (35%).


EXPLANATORY NOTES


INTRODUCTION

1 The statistics in this publication are compiled from data collected in the Locations of Work survey that was conducted throughout Australia in June 2000 as a supplement to the monthly Labour Force Survey (LFS). Respondents to the LFS who fell within the scope of the supplementary survey were asked further questions.

2 The publication Labour Force, Australia (Cat. no. 6203.0) contains information about survey design, sample redesign, scope, coverage and population benchmarks relevant to the monthly LFS, which also apply to supplementary surveys. It also contains definitions of demographic and labour force characteristics, and information about telephone interviewing which are relevant to both the monthly LFS and supplementary surveys.


SCOPE

3 In addition to those already excluded from the LFS, there were approximately 80,000 persons living in remote and sparsely settled parts of Australia who were out of scope of this survey. The exclusion of these persons has only minor impact on any aggregate estimates that are produced for individual States and Territories, except the Northern Territory.

4 Students at boarding schools, patients in hospitals, residents of homes (e.g. retirement homes, homes for the handicapped), and inmates of prisons are further excluded from all supplementary surveys.

5 This survey was restricted to employed persons who worked during the reference week in June 2000.


COVERAGE

6 The estimates in this publication relate to persons covered by the survey in June 2000. In the LFS, coverage rules are applied which aim to ensure that each person is associated with only one dwelling and hence has only one chance of selection in the survey (see Labour Force, Australia Cat. no. 6203.0).


RELIABILITY OF THE ESTIMATES

7 Estimates in this publication are subject to sampling and non-sampling errors:
  • Sampling error is the difference between the published estimate and the value that would have been produced if all dwellings had been included in the survey. For further information on sampling error, refer to the Technical Notes.
  • Non-sampling errors are inaccuracies that occur because of imperfections in reporting by respondents and interviewers and errors made in coding and processing data. These inaccuracies may occur in any enumeration, whether it be a full count or a sample. Every effort is made to reduce the non-sampling error to a minimum by careful design of questionnaires, intensive training and supervision of interviewers and efficient processing procedures.


SEASONAL FACTORS

8 The estimates are based on information collected in the survey month and, due to seasonal factors, may not be representative of other months of the year.


CLASSIFICATIONS USED

9 Occupation data are classified according to the second edition of the Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO). For more detailed information see ASCO Australian Standard Classification of Occupations, Second Edition (Cat. No. 1220.0).

10 Industry data are classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), a more detailed description of which appears in Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 (Cat. no. 1292.0).


COMPARABILITY OF TIME SERIES

11 Revisions are made to population benchmarks for the LFS after each five-yearly Census of Population and Housing. The last such revision was made in February 1999 to take account of the results of the 1996 Census of Population and Housing. Estimates from supplementary surveys conducted after February 1999 are therefore based on revised population benchmarks.

12 Supplementary surveys are not always conducted on the full LFS sample. Since August 1994 the sample for supplementary surveys has been restricted to no more than seven-eights of the LFS sample. Therefore the reduction in sample size means that the standard errors for this survey differ from those applicable to previous surveys.


COMPARABILITY WITH MONTHLY LFS STATISTICS

13 Due to differences in the scope and sample size of this supplementary survey and that of the LFS, the estimation procedure may lead to some small variations between labour force estimates from this survey and those from the LFS.


PREVIOUS SURVEYS

14 Results of similar surveys, conducted in April 1989, March 1992 and September 1995 were published in Persons Employed at Home, Australia (Cat. No. 6275.0).

15 This survey was redesigned and renamed Locations of Work for June 2000. Conceptual changes were made to better align the survey with the guidelines and recommendations of the International Labour Organisation Home Work Convention, 1996. This resulted in the definition of persons employed at home including work undertaken at both their own home and another home, excluding employer's or client's homes. The definition of persons employed at home was also widened to include farmers who only or mainly worked at home and employees who worked some hours at home with the agreement of their employer.

16 The focus of interest of the survey was also changed to address data quality and respondent burden issues. In Locations of Work respondents were asked about their actual work arrangements in the survey reference week rather than their usual situation, as had been done in previous surveys. To gain a broader understanding of where people work, information was also collected about all the types of places where people work rather than only concentrating on whether any work was done at home.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

17 Surveys conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) draw extensively on information provided by individuals, businesses, governments and other organisations. Their continued cooperation is very much appreciated: without it, the wide range of statistics published by the ABS would not be available. Information received by the ABS is treated in strict confidence as required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905.


RELATED PUBLICATIONS

18 Other publications which may be of interest include:
  • Labour Force, Australia (Cat. No. 6203.0) issued monthly
  • Labour Force Experience, Australia (Cat. No. 6206.0) issued two-yearly
  • Labour Mobility, Australia (Cat. No. 6209.0) issued two-yearly
  • Forms of Employment, Australia (Cat. No. 6359.0) issued two-yearly

19 Current publications produced by the ABS are listed in the Catalogue of Publications and Products (cat. no. 1101.0). The ABS also issues, on Tuesdays and Fridays, a Release Advice (Cat. No. 1105.0) which lists publications to be released in the next few days. The Catalogue and Release Advice are available from any ABS office or from the ABS Information Service on the World Wide Web, please see the links below.


GLOSSARY

Another home

Any other place of usual residence, other than the person's own home or their employer's or client's home. Examples include a co-worker's, friend's or relative's home.

Arrangement with employer to work at home

A mutual agreement (whether formal or informal) between the employee and employer for the person to work from home. The agreement may be verbal, in writing or implicit in the employee's working arrangements.

Business income

An income based on business cash flows and expected annual profits drawn by persons in their own business.

Business premises

Any non-residential location or premises where the main purpose is the conduct of a business, producing goods or providing a service. Examples include shops, factories, offices, warehouses, building sites, farms (other than a respondent's home property), permanent markets, restaurants, hospitals, schools and hotels.

By the piece

A set payment for repeated or equivalent items or services provided. Total income is determined by the number of these separate items completed.

Commission

Where income is derived from a set percentage of the sale price of the goods or services being marketed or sold. Income from commission is only received if sales are made.

Completion of contract

A contract is a written agreement between two or more parties for the completion of a task or service. Payment is made on completion of the contract. Every contract and resulting payment will be different depending on the particular requirements of the client.

Contributing family worker

A person who works without pay, in an economic enterprise operated by a relative.

Employed

Persons aged 15 years and over who, during the reference week:
  • worked for one hour or more for pay, profit, commission or payment in kind in a job or business, or on a farm (comprising employees, employers and own account workers); or
  • worked for one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm (i.e. contributing family workers); or
  • were employees who had a job but were not at work and were: on paid leave; on leave without pay for less than four weeks up to the end of the reference week; stood down without pay because of bad weather or plant breakdown at their place of employment for less than four weeks up to the end of the reference week; on strike or locked out; on workers' compensation and expected to be returning to their job; or receiving wages and salary while undertaking full-time study; or
  • were employers, own account workers or contributing family workers who had a job, business or farm, but were not at work.

Employee

An employee is a person who works for a public or private employer and receives remuneration in wages, salary, a retainer fee by their employer while working on a commission basis, tips, piece-rates or payment in kind, or a person who operates his or her own incorporated enterprise with or without hiring employees.

Employer

An employer is a person who operates his or her own unincorporated economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade, and hires one or more employees.

Family

Two or more related persons (comprises relationships by blood, marriage or adoption) usually resident in the same household at the time of the survey. A family comprises a married couple or a family head as defined, together with any persons having any of the following relationships to them:
  • sons or daughters of any age, if not married and with no children of their own present; or
  • other relatives if not accompanied by a spouse, sons or daughters, or parents of their own; or
  • any children under 15 years of age who do not have a parent present.

Further details on the determination of family relationships are given in Labour Force, Australia (Cat. no. 6203.0)

Fixed salary

A fixed annual payment divided into equal instalments over the year, for example either weekly, fortnightly or monthly.

Full-time workers

Employed persons who usually work 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs) and others who, although usually working less than 35 hours a week, worked 35 hours or more during the reference week.

Home

Own home or another home, excluding home of employer or client.

Industry

Classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 (Cat. no. 1292.0).

Leave entitlements

Refers to the entitlement of employees to either paid holiday leave or paid sick leave.

Locations of work

The different types of places where people work. These include traditional workplaces, such as offices and factories and other business premises; homes, including both own home and other homes; public places like parks or streets and non-fixed locations for persons who travel for work.

Main English-speaking countries

Comprises the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, the United States of America, New Zealand and South Africa.

Main job

The job in which most hours are usually worked.

Main location of work

The place where the most hours were worked during the survey reference week.

Marital status

Persons are classified as married (husband and wife) if they are reported as being married (including de facto) and their spouse was a usual resident of the household at the time of the survey. The not married category comprises persons who have never married, or are separated, widowed or divorced, as well as those who, although reported as being married, did not have a spouse who usually lived in the household.

Multiple jobholder

Persons who worked in more than one job or business during the survey reference week, excluding those who had changed jobs during the week.

Number of locations of work

The number of different types of places where people work.

Occupation

Classified according to the Australian Standard Classification of Occupations, Second Edition, 1997 (Cat. no. 1220.0).

Other locations of work

These are places for which the primary purpose may not be a workplace and include such places as: parks, beaches, streets and forests.

Own-account worker

A person who operates his or her own unincorporated economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade, and hires no employees.

Own home

Own home or another home, excluding home of employer or client. In Table 1 a distinction is made between this definition and the more specific definition of own home as a person's usual place of residence and the associated land and buildings (where present) for which they are responsible.

Part-time workers

Employed persons who usually work less than 35 hours a week and who did so in the reference week.

Persons employed at home

Employed persons who, last week, worked all or most hours at their own home or at the home of another person (excluding the home of their employer or client) and employees who worked less hours at home than elsewhere but had an arrangement with their employer to work at home.

Status in employment

Employed persons classified by whether they were employees, employers, own account workers, or contributing family workers.

Superannuation

Membership of a superannuation or retirement benefits scheme.

Survey reference week

The week before the respondent's interview.

Time in job

The length of time in years that the person has worked in their current job or business.

Trade union

An organisation consisting predominantly of employees, the principal activities of which are the negotiation of rates of pay and conditions of employment for its members.

Travelling

Any journey made as part of a person's work, whether on land, air, water, by vehicle or on foot. This includes: travelling by road on behalf of employer or business, trips between different client's premises for work purposes, travel to other towns, cities or countries and trips to collect supplies. Commuting to and from work is excluded.

Wage

An hourly rate of payment paid to an employee, i.e. the amount of pay the employee receives depends on the number of hours worked.

Where work is based

The location from which the work of a person who only or mainly travels for work is organised. The base may be an office or depot, the point of contact for clients and/or employers, or the place where work is allocated or orders taken, accounts issued and supplies stored.

Workers' compensation

Provision of workers' compensation coverage as collected by responses to the question ''Are you covered by workers' compensation in that job?" Income protection insurance is excluded.


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