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There were slightly more males than females in the 12-25 years age group (451,872 compared with 439,752). Males slightly outnumbered females at all ages up to 23 years, after which the number of females began to exceed the number of males. Among all people counted in Victoria, females outnumbered males by 71,736.
Most of Victoria's young people live in Melbourne. The 1996 Census counted 651,943 12-25 year-olds in the Statistical Division of Melbourne. The next largest numbers of young people were counted in the Statistical Divisions of Barwon (46,287) and Goulburn (33,654).
Melbourne and Central Highlands Statistical Divisions recorded the highest proportions of young people (21%) In the rural Statistical Division of Wimmera 12-25 year-olds comprised only 17% of all people.
Young people reported being more mobile than older people. In 1996, 38% of 12-25 year-olds reported living at a different address five years previously, compared with 32% of older people. A similar pattern was evident for residential movement within the previous twelve months, with 20% of young people and only 11% of older people reporting that they were living at a different address.
Most of this movement had taken place within Victoria. Among people who had moved within the previous five years, 91% of 12-25 year-olds and 92% of older people had moved within the State.
CHAPTER 3 CULTURAL DIVERSITY
In 1996, 82% of 12-25 year-olds (734,782) in Victoria were Australian-born, compared with 65% of people aged 26 years and over. Fewer than 1% (5,735) of young Victorians reported that they were of Indigenous origin. This was the lowest proportion among all of the States and Territories.
Just over 14% (127,533) of 12-25 year-olds in Victoria were born overseas, compared with more than twice this proportion among older people (32%).
Countries of birth
Just under 23% of young people born overseas were from the main English-speaking countries (Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America). The largest number (12% or 15,370 people) of overseas-born young people in Victoria were from Viet Nam, followed by young people from the United Kingdom (11%), and New Zealand (7%).
Among people aged 26 years and over born overseas, more than 29% originated from the main English-speaking countries. Almost 23% had been born in the United Kingdom, 11% were born in Italy, and 7% in Greece.
Birthplace of parents
Among Australian-born Victorians aged 26 years and over, 76% had both parents born in Australia. Among 12-25 year-olds born in Australia, a lower proportion (61%) had both an Australian-born mother and father. Almost 38% (277,671) of Australian-born young people in Victoria had at least one parent who had been born overseas, and 16% had both parents born in a non-main English-speaking country.
Languages spoken at home
Just over 20% (179,783) of young Victorians spoke a language other than English at home. The predominant languages they reported speaking were Italian and Greek (almost 15% for each) and Chinese languages (just under 14%). Twice the proportion (40%) of older people reported speaking a language other than English at home. The languages most commonly spoken were also Italian, Greek and Chinese languages, although in different proportions (21%, 15% and 10% respectively).
Proficiency in English
The majority (77%) of young Victorians spoke English only. Another 19% spoke another language, and reported that they spoke English well or very well. A similar proportion (76%) of those aged 26 years and over reported speaking English only. However, 5% of older people reported speaking English not well or not at all, compared with just over 1% of young people.
CHAPTER 4 LIVING ARRANGEMENTS
Just over 12% of 15-25 year-olds in Victoria were married - 7% in a registered marriage, and 5% in a de facto marriage. Young females were more likely than young males to be in a partnership (16% compared with 9%).
Over 45% of 12-25 year-olds were living with their parents as dependent children. This was the highest proportion of all States and Territories. Another 25% of young males, and 17% of young females, were living as non-dependent children with their parents. Young females were more likely than young males to have moved from the family home, forming partnerships and their own families (15% compared with 7% respectively).
For young people born in non-main English-speaking countries, about 43% were living as dependent children with their parents. Another 14% lived in the family home as non-dependent children, while 9% were living in group households.
Type of dwelling
About 3% (23,723) of 12-25 year-olds in Victoria had spent census night in a non-private dwelling. The majority of these young people were in boarding schools or residential colleges (11,194), or staying at hotels and motels (6,258). Another 2,702 young people reported having no usual address.
Type of tenure
About 65% of young people occupied dwellings which were owned or being purchased, compared with 74% of people aged 26 years and over.
The proportion of young people living in rented dwellings was just under 28% compared with 17% of older people (aged 26 years and over). More than 56% of Indigenous young people, and 42% of those born overseas in non-main English-speaking countries, were in rented dwellings.
CHAPTER 5 EDUCATION
Attendance at educational institutions
Slightly more than 57% (508,751) of all 12-25 year-olds were attending an educational institution in 1996. This compares with 53% in 1991. There was a similar overall participation rate for both males (56%) and females (58%).
The proportions of young people attending schools in 1996 (38%) and Technical or further educational institutions and other higher education institutions (18%) were slightly higher than in 1991 (36% and 16% respectively).
Education participation continued to decline with age, with 57% of 18-19 year-olds and 27% of 20-25 year-olds remaining in education.
Non-main English-speaking birthplace
Participation in education was very high among young people born overseas in a non-main English-speaking country. Almost 69% were attending an educational institution. Much of this participation was among older youth, with 80% of 18-19 year-olds and 51% of 20-25 year-olds remaining in education.
Among Indigenous youth aged 12-25 years, 2,536 (44%) were attending an educational institution in 1996. However, most of the participation was in the younger age groups, with 89% of 12-14 year-olds and 61% of 15-17 year-olds in education. Just 14% of 20-25 year-olds remained in education.
Education and labour force status
Among 15-25 year-olds who were attending an educational institution in 1996, 38% were employed; 27% part-time and 10% full-time. A lower proportion (34%) were employed in 1991 (20% part-time and 12% full-time).
In 1996, 44% of young people attending a tertiary or other institution full-time were either working part-time or seeking part-time work. In 1991 this proportion was 38%, reflecting a general increase in part-time work.
In the five years from 1991 to 1996, the proportion of 15-25 year-olds with post-secondary qualifications increased from 16% to 20%. Among persons aged 26 years and over, the proportion increased from 30% to 34% over the same period.
Young Victorians were also more likely to hold higher levels of qualifications in 1996 than five years earlier. Among those young people holding post-school qualifications, the proportions who had attained a bachelor degree or higher increased from 28% to 38%.
While the same proportions of young females and males held post-school qualifications (20%), the level of qualification varied between the sexes. The most common qualifications held by young females were bachelor degrees (8%), followed by associate diplomas (4%). For young males, the most common qualifications held were skilled vocational qualifications (9%) followed by bachelor degrees (5%).
Labour force status
In 1996 there were 450,427 young Victorians in the labour force; that is, either employed or looking for work. They made up 22% of the total labour force (2,081,069 people). The majority (85%) of these young people were employed.
The labour force participation rate for young people in 1996 was 64%. Participation among Indigenous young people was lower at 55%. However, among young people born overseas in a non-main English-speaking country, the participation rate was 42%. This reflected the much higher level of educational participation by this group.
In 1996, fewer young females were in the labour force than young males (62% compared with 65%). A similar pattern existed in 1991, with 63% of young females and 68% of young males in the labour force.
The proportion of young people employed in full-time work fell between 1991 and 1996 from 34% to 32%. This decrease was experienced by both young males (from 38% to 36%) and females (from 30% to 27%). Over the same period the proportion of older people (aged 26 years and over) who were employed full-time remained relatively unchanged at about 39%.
The proportions of both young and older people employed in part-time work have increased. Between 1991 and 1996, the proportion of young Victorians who were employed part-time increased from 15% to 21%. The percentage point increase for older people was much lower (1%). Of employed young females, 47% were employed part-time compared with 30% of young males.
In 1996, Victoria's unemployment rate for young people was 15%. The age group with the highest rate of unemployment (21%) was 18-19 year-olds. In the 15-17 year-old age group the rate was 17% and among 20-24 year-olds it was 14%. Among all young Victorians, 10% were unemployed.
In 1996, the largest proportions of young people were employed in Retail trade (27% or 104,591); Manufacturing (14%); and Property and business services (9%). For older people, the largest industries of employment were similar: Manufacturing (17%) and Retail trade and Property and business services (both 10%).
In 1996, 76,312 or 20% of young Victorians were employed as Elementary clerical, sales and service workers. The largest proportion (20%) of older people were employed as Professionals. For young males, the most common occupations were Tradespersons and related workers (28%); Labourers and related workers (14%); and Intermediate production and transport workers (12%). Young females were most commonly employed as Intermediate clerical, sales and service workers (29%); Elementary clerical, sales and service workers (28%); and Professionals (12%).
The highest proportion (15%) of young people reported receiving no income. In general, there were proportionally more young females at lower income levels and fewer at higher income levels. A partial explanation for this is females' higher participation in part-time work.
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