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3105.0.65.001 - Australian Historical Population Statistics, 2001  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 26/04/2001   
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  • Glossary

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin

The 1996 Census form asked the following question of each person:

Is the person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin ?
For persons of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin, mark both 'yes' boxes.

Check box No Check box Yes, Aboriginal Check box Yes, Torres Strait Islander

Indigenous statistics since 1996 conform to this definition.

For a discussion of the treatment of Indigenous persons in earlier Censuses refer to the ABS Occasional Paper Population Issues, Indigenous Australians, 1996 (ABS Cat. no. 4708.0).

Age-specific death rates

Age-specific death rates are the number of deaths (occurred or registered) during the calendar year at a specified age per 1,000 of the estimated resident population of the same age at mid-point of the year (30 June). The infant mortality rate is used for the age-specific death rate for children under one year of age. Pro rata adjustment is made in respect of deaths for which the age of the deceased is not given.

Age-specific divorce rates

Age-specific divorce rates are the number of divorces recorded in a calendar year, by age at decree made absolute, per 1,000 married population of the same age at 30 June. Those classified as permanently separated are included in the married population. Males and females under 15 are excluded from the population.

Age-specific fertility rates

Age-specific fertility rates are the number of live births (occurred or registered) during the calendar year, according to the age of the mother, per 1,000 of the female resident population of the same age at 30 June. In the calculation of these rates, births to mothers under 15 are included in the 15–19 age group, and births to mothers aged 50 and over are included in the 45–49 age group. Pro rata adjustment is made for births for which the age of the mother is not given.

Age-specific marriage rates

Age-specific marriage rates are the number of marriages of men or women registered in a calendar year, by age at marriage, per 1,000 not currently married population of men or women of the same age at 30 June. Males and females aged under 15 are excluded from the population.

Balance of State or Territory

Currently defined as the aggregation of all Statistical Divisions (SD) within a State or Territory other than its Capital City SD (See Major Statistical Region in Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (ABS Cat. no. 1216.0)). Historical data are presented on boundaries as defined at the time, unless otherwise stated.

Birth

The delivery of a child, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, who, after being born, breathes or shows any evidence of life such as heartbeat.

Capital city

Refers to the Capital City Statistical Divisions of States and Territories as defined in Statistical Geography: Volume 1 - Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (ABS Cat. no. 1216.0). Historical data are presented on boundaries as defined at the time, unless otherwise stated.

Category jumping

Category jumping is the term used to describe changes between intended and actual duration of stay of travellers to/from Australia, such that their classification as short-term or as long-term/permanent movers is different at arrival/departure from that after 12 months. Category jumping consists of two components—an Australian resident component and an overseas visitor component. The Australian resident component of category jumping for a reference quarter is estimated by comparing the number of residents departing short-term in that quarter with all residents who left in that quarter and return in the following 12 months, to obtain the net number of Australian residents who jump category. Similarly, the number of overseas visitors arriving short-term in a quarter is compared with all overseas visitors and permanent arrivals who arrived in that quarter and depart in the following 12 months, to obtain the net number of overseas visitors who jump category. Estimates of category jumping are derived by subtracting the Australian resident component from the overseas visitor component. The concept was brought in with the estimation of the resident population from 1976.

Category of movement

Overseas arrivals and departures are classified according to length of stay (in Australia or overseas), recorded in months and days by travellers on passenger cards. There are three main categories of movement:

  • permanent movements;
  • long-term movements (one year or more); and
  • short-term movements (less than one year).

Prior to 1959, overseas arrivals and departures were classified as either permanent or temporary. Revised questions for travellers were introduced in 1958 which enabled arrivals and departures previously classified as permanent to be sub-divided (as from 1 January 1959) into two categories, permanent movement and long-term movement.

A significant number of travellers (i.e. overseas visitors to Australia on arrival and Australian residents going abroad) state exactly 12 months or one year as their intended period of stay. Many of them stay for less than that period and on their departure from, or return to, Australia are therefore classified as short-term. Accordingly, in an attempt to maintain consistency between arrivals and departures, movements of travellers who report their actual or intended period of stay as being one year exactly are randomly allocated to long-term or short-term in proportion to the number of movements of travellers who report their actual length of stay as up to one month more, or one month less, than one year.

Census count

The Census of Population and Housing enumerates persons on the basis of where they were located on census night. The Census also compiles information on people according to their place of usual residence. This information is coded to Statistical Local Areas. This means that census counts of people can be produced according to their location on census night as well as their place of usual residence.

Children (Divorces collection)

Children in the divorce collection are unmarried children of the marriage who were aged under 18 years at the time of application for divorce. Under the Family Law Act 1975 (Cwlth) these may include (in certain cases) adopted and ex-nuptial children and children from a former marriage. Children who are married or aged 18 years or more are not subject to custody and guardianship orders and are excluded.

Confinement

A pregnancy which results in at least one live birth.

Crude birth rate

The crude birth rate is the number of live births registered during the calendar year per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June of that year. For years prior to 1994, the crude birth rate was based on the mean population for the calendar year.

Crude death rate

The crude death rate is the number of deaths registered during the calendar year per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June. For years prior to 1994, the crude death rate was based on the mean estimated population for the calendar year.

Crude divorce rate

The crude divorce rate is the number of decrees absolute granted during the calendar year per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June. For years prior to 1994, the crude divorce rate was based on the mean estimated population for the calendar year. In the interpretation of this rate, it must be kept in mind that a large and varying proportion of the population used in the denominator is unmarried or is below the minimum age of marriage.

Crude marriage rate

The crude marriage rate is the number of marriages registered during the calendar year per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June. For years prior to 1994, the crude marriage rate was based on the mean estimated population for the calendar year. In the interpretation of this rate, it must be kept in mind that a large and varying proportion of the population used in the denominator is below the minimum age of marriage or is already married.

Date of final separation

The date of final separation is the date, given on the application for divorce, from which the period of living apart is calculated for the purpose of establishing grounds for divorce. In determining the date of final separation, a single period of resumed cohabitation of less than three months may be ignored, provided the periods of living apart before and after resumed cohabitation amount to a total of 12 months or more.

Death

For the purposes of the Deaths and Causes of Death collections of the ABS, a death refers to any death which occurs in, or en route to Australia and is registered with a State or Territory Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages.

Divorce

Decree absolute of dissolution of marriage.

Duration of marriage

Duration of marriage is the interval measured in completed years between the date of marriage and the date of divorce.

Duration of marriage until separation

Duration of marriage until separation is the interval measured in completed years between the date of marriage and the date of separation.

Estimated resident population (ERP)

The concept of estimated resident population (ERP) links people to a place of usual residence within Australia. Usual residence is that place where each person has lived or intends to live for six months or more from the reference date for data collection.

Estimated resident population (ERP) is an estimate of the Australian population obtained by adding to the estimated population at the beginning of each period the components of natural increase (on a usual residence basis) and net overseas migration. For the States and Territories, account is also taken of the estimated interstate movements involving a change of usual residence.

Estimates of the resident population are based on census counts by place of usual residence, to which are added the estimated net census undercount and Australian residents estimated to have been temporarily overseas at the time of the Census. Overseas visitors in Australia are excluded from this calculation.

After each census, estimates for the preceding intercensal period are revised by incorporating an additional adjustment (intercensal discrepancy) to ensure that the total intercensal increase agrees with the difference between the ERPs at the two respective census dates.

Indigenous (see also Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin)

Persons who identify as being of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin.

Infant death

An infant death is the death of a live-born child who dies before completing his/her first birthday.

Infant mortality rate

The number of deaths of children under one year of age in a calendar year per 1,000 live births in the same calendar year.

Intercensal discrepancy

Intercensal discrepancy is the difference between two estimates of a census year population, the first based on the latest census and the second arrived at by updating the previous census date estimate with intercensal components of population change which take account of information available from the latest census. It is caused by errors in the start and/or finish population estimates and/or in estimates of births, deaths or migration in the intervening period which cannot be attributed to a particular source.

Life expectancy

Life expectancy refers to the average number of additional years a person of a given age and sex might expect to live if the age-specific death rates of the given period continued throughout his/her lifetime.

Life table

A life table is a tabular, numerical representation of mortality and survivorship of a cohort of births at each age of life. The conventional life table is based on the assumption that as the cohort passes through life it experiences mortality at each age in accordance with a predetermined pattern of mortality rates which do not change from year to year. The life table thus constitutes a hypothetical model of mortality, and even though it is usually based upon death rates from a real population during a particular period of time, it does not describe the real mortality which characterises a cohort as it ages.

There is another kind of life table in which the mortality patterns are derived from the experience of the same cohorts as they pass through different ages. Such tables are called cohort life tables or generation life tables. Because many years must pass to accumulate the information needed to construct a cohort life table, such tables are rare.

Due to differences in mortality patterns between men and women at different ages, life tables generally are constructed separately for each sex. The life table is a very useful tool for computing estimates of the mortality component of population change. This is done by the use of specific figures from the entire array which comprises the life table. The information in this array of figures is of several different types, each of which is called a life table function.

Long-term arrivals

Long-term arrivals comprise:
  • overseas visitors who intend to stay in Australia for 12 months or more (but not permanently); and
  • Australian residents returning after an absence of 12 months or more overseas.

Prior to 1959, overseas arrivals and departures were classified as either permanent or temporary. Revised questions for travellers were introduced in 1958 which enabled arrivals and departures previously classified as permanent to be sub-divided (as from 1 January 1959) into two categories, permanent movement and long-term movement.

Long-term departures

Long-term departures comprise:
  • Australian residents who intend to stay abroad for 12 months or more (but not permanently); and
  • overseas visitors departing who stayed 12 months or more in Australia.

Prior to 1959, overseas arrivals and departures were classified as either permanent or temporary. Revised questions for travellers were introduced in 1958 which enabled arrivals and departures previously classified as permanent to be sub-divided (as from 1 January 1959) into two categories, permanent movement and long-term movement.

Marital status

Marital status relates to registered marital status which refers to formally registered marriages or divorces for which the partners hold a certificate.

In tables displaying ERP by marital status, four categories of marital status are identified: 'never married', 'married', 'widowed' and 'divorced'. Tables displaying Census marital status data also include the category 'separated'.

Marriage

Refers to registered marriages only. Under the Australian Marriage Act 1961 (Cwlth), a marriage may be celebrated by a minister of religion registered as an authorised celebrant, by a district registrar or by other persons authorised by the Attorney-General. Notice of the intended marriage must be given to the celebrant at least one calendar month but within six calendar months before the marriage. A celebrant must transmit an official certificate of the marriage for registration in the State or Territory in which the marriage took place.

Mean population

Mean populations are calculated using the formula:



where a is the population at the end of the quarter immediately preceding the 12-month period, and b, c, d and e are the populations at the end of each of the four succeeding quarters. The weights used in the formulation of the mean annual populations have been derived using a mathematical technique which involves the fitting of two quadratic polynomial functions to a series of points.

Median value

For any distribution the median value (age, duration, interval) is that value which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, half falling below the value, and half exceeding it. Where the value for a particular record has not been stated, that record is excluded from the calculation.

Natural increase

Excess of births over deaths.

Net interstate migration

The difference between the number of persons who have changed their place of usual residence by moving into a given State or Territory and the number who have changed their place of usual residence by moving out of that State or Territory. This difference may be either positive or negative.

Net overseas migration

Net overseas migration is net permanent and long-term overseas migration plus an adjustment for the effect of category jumping.

Net permanent and long-term overseas migration

The difference between the number of permanent (settler) and long-term overseas arrivals and the number of permanent and long-term overseas departures. Short-term movements are excluded.

Net reproduction rate

The net reproduction rate represents the average number of daughters that would be born to a group of women if they are subject to the fertility and mortality rates of a given year during their future life. It indicates the extent to which the population would reproduce itself. The net reproduction rate is obtained by multiplying the age-specific birth rates (for female births only) by the proportion of survivors at corresponding ages in a life table and adding the products.

Nuptiality

Nuptiality relates to the registered marital status of persons and the events such as marriages, divorces and widowhood.

Confinements and births are identified as being nuptial where the father registered was married to the mother at the time of birth, or where the husband died during pregnancy. Confinements and children of Indigenous mothers considered to be tribally married are classified as nuptial. Other confinements, and the children resulting from them, are classified as ex-nuptial whether or not both parents were living together at the time of birth.

Part of State

Part of State is used to refer to the remainder of a State outside the Capital City Statistical Division (SD). See also Balance of State or Territory.

Permanent arrivals (settlers)

Permanent arrivals (settlers) comprise:
  • travellers who hold migrant visas (regardless of stated intended period of stay);
  • New Zealand citizens who indicate an intention to settle; and
  • those who are otherwise eligible to settle (e.g. overseas-born children of Australian citizens).

This definition of settlers is used by the Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (DIMA). Prior to 1985 the definition of settlers used by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) was the stated intention of the traveller only. Numerically the effect of the change in definition is insignificant. The change was made to avoid the confusion caused by minor differences between data on settlers published separately by the ABS and the DIMA.

Prior to 1959, overseas arrivals and departures were classified as either permanent or temporary. Revised questions for travellers were introduced in 1958 which enabled arrivals and departures previously classified as permanent to be sub-divided (as from 1 January 1959) into two categories, permanent movement and long-term movement.

Permanent departures

Permanent departures are Australian residents (including former settlers) who on departure state that they are departing permanently.

Prior to 1959, overseas arrivals and departures were classified as either permanent or temporary. Revised questions for travellers were introduced in 1958 which enabled arrivals and departures previously classified as permanent to be sub-divided (as from 1 January 1959) into two categories, permanent movement and long-term movement.

Population growth

For Australia, population growth is the sum of natural increase and net overseas migration. For States and Territories, population growth also includes net interstate migration. After the Census, intercensal population growth also includes an allowance for intercensal discrepancy.

Rate of population growth

Population change over a period as a proportion (percentage) of the population at the beginning of the period.

Sex ratio

The sex ratio relates to the number of males per 100 females. The sex ratio is defined for total population, at birth, at death and among age groups by appropriately selecting the numerator and denominator of the ratio.

Short-term arrivals

Short-term arrivals comprise:
  • overseas visitors who intend to stay in Australia for less than 12 months; and
  • Australian residents returning after a stay of less than 12 months overseas.

Short-term departures

Short-term departures comprise:
  • Australian residents who intend to stay abroad for less than 12 months; and
  • overseas visitors departing after a stay of less than 12 months in Australia.

Standardised death rates

Standardised death rates enable the comparison of death rates between populations with different age structures by relating them to a standard population. The ABS standard populations relate to years ending in 1 (e.g. 1991). The current standard population is the estimated resident population of Australia at 30 June 1991. The rates are expressed as deaths per 1,000 standard population.

The standardised death rate is the overall death rate that would have prevailed in the standard population if it had experienced at each age the death rates of the population under study.

State or Territory of address/lived

Overseas visitors are asked on arrival in Australia for their State of intended address. On departure from Australia overseas visitors are asked the State where they spent most time.

Australian residents are asked on departure for the State in which they live/lived. Residents returning to Australia are asked for their State of intended address.

State or Territory of registration

State or Territory of registration refers to the State or Territory in which the event was registered.

State or Territory of usual residence

State or Territory of usual residence refers to the State or Territory of usual residence of:
  • the population (estimated resident population);
  • the mother (births collection); or
  • the deceased (deaths collection).

In the case of overseas movements, State or Territory of usual residence refers to the State or Territory regarded by the traveller as the one in which he/she lives or has lived. State or Territory of intended residence is derived from the intended address given by settlers, and by Australian residents returning after a journey abroad. Particularly in the case of the former, this information does not necessarily relate to the State or Territory in which the traveller will eventually establish a permanent residence.

Total fertility rate

The sum of age-specific fertility rates, per woman. It represents the number of children a woman would bear during her lifetime if she experienced current age-specific fertility rates at each age of her reproductive life.

Usual residence

Usual residence within Australia refers to that address at which the person has lived or intends to live for a total of six months or more in a given reference year.

Year of occurrence

Data presented on year of occurrence basis relate to the date the event occurred.

Year of registration

Data presented on year of registration basis relate to the date the event was registered.

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