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1379.0.55.001 - National Regional Profile, 2002-2006  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 28/07/2008   
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EXPLANATORY NOTES


INTRODUCTION

1 The National Regional Profile presents a set of data for the following levels of the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC): Local Government Area (LGA), Statistical Local Area (SLA), Statistical Subdivision (SSD), Statistical Division (SD), State/Territory and Australia. There is a standard set of data for each region. Some additional data are available for some state/territories, and this data appears in the profiles of regions in the relevant state/territory.

2 Data in the National Regional Profile are sourced from a wide variety of collections, both ABS and non-ABS. When analysing data care needs to be taken as time periods, definitions, methodologies, scope and coverage differ between collections. Where available, data have been presented as a time series. Time series data enable users to assess changes over time. However, looked at on a period to period basis, these series may be volatile. When analysing the data, users are encouraged to consider the longer term behaviour of the series, where this is available.

3 While information on the datasets and terms used in the National Regional Profile are included below and in the accompanying Glossary, more detailed information about the data can be obtained by referring to the relevant source listed for each dataset. Further information about statistical terms can be found in Statistical Language! (cat.no. 1332.0.55.002).

4 Data presented in the National Regional Profile are on geographic boundaries as described in the 2006 edition of the Australian Standard Geographic Classification (ASGC 2006). For further information see Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), (cat. no. 1216.0). For further information on how data have been presented on ASGC 2006, see Geographical Concordances at paragraphs 150 to 155 of these Explanatory Notes.

5 This is the fourth release of the National Regional Profile. The previous release (for the reference years 2000 to 2004) is available via the 'Past & Future Releases' tab of this product. Care should be taken in comparing data within the previous and current releases of the National Regional Profile as:

  • some data will have been subject to revision; and
  • the previous release was on the boundaries outlined in the 2004 edition of the ASGC, and some regions will have changed boundaries between the 2004 and 2006 editions of the ASGC.

6 In some cases, a profile has not been produced for every region. This is usually because there is insufficient data for that region. For example, there have been no profiles produced for Other Territories (Jervis Bay, Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands).

7 Some values in the NRP have been randomly adjusted or suppressed to avoid the release of confidential data. Care should be taken when interpreting cells with small numbers. In some cases small cells have been randomly altered to zero. Caution should be exercised in deducing that there are no people or units with particular characteristics in a given area.

8 These Explanatory Notes have been presented using the ABS Topic Framework. Data are also presented using the Topic Framework within the National Regional Profile. The topics are: Economy (paragraphs 9 to 40), Population/People (paragraphs 41 to 114), Industry (paragraphs 115 to 148) and Environment/Energy (paragraph 149). Explanatory Notes for data which is only available for regions within a specific state/territory are included under the relevant topic heading.


ECONOMY

Estimates of Unemployment

9 Unemployment estimates for small areas are produced by the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) using the Structure Preserving Estimation (SPREE) methodology.

10 SPREE uses statistics from the Australian Government agency Centrelink of persons in receipt of Newstart and Youth Allowance and ABS Population Census and Labour Force Survey estimates by Labour Force Regions to estimate unemployment levels. Sampling and non-sampling errors in these collections will flow into the DEEWR estimates.

11 This methodology produces original, unadjusted estimates which can exhibit considerable variability. The data shown in the National Regional Profile have been 'smoothed' by averaging the original estimates over the four quarters to June for each year. Particular care should be taken when interpreting estimates for regions where the estimated labour force is smaller than 1000 persons.

12 DEEWR produced the unemployment estimates on ASGC 2001 boundaries so a geographic concordance process has been used to present the data based on ASGC 2006 in the National Regional Profile. Further information on Geographic Concordances can be found in paragraphs 150 to 155.

13 A detailed description of the SPREE methodology used in deriving the estimates is presented in the DEEWR quarterly publication 'Small Area Labour Markets, Australia' which can be accessed through the DEEWR web site at http://www.workplace.gov.au.


Taxation Statistics

14 Taxable income data are sourced from the Australian Taxation Office's (ATO) Individual Income Tax Return Database and provided to the ABS by the ATO in aggregated form only, at the Statistical Local Area level. Information about individual taxpayers has not been released to the ABS.

15 The main functions and responsibilities of the ATO are to administer taxation legislation and to collect a wide variety of taxes. The ATO therefore collects data from its reporting population as part of its processes to calculate income tax liability for those persons who are required to lodge an income tax return.

16 Individuals who submit an individual income tax return (Taxable Individuals) report their total income from various sources over a financial year. Their taxable income is the amount remaining after deducting from assessable income all deductions allowed under the Income Tax Assessment Act and is the amount to which tax rates are applied. Non-taxable Individuals are those individuals who submit a tax return, but for whom no tax is payable.

17 Averages presented are calculated by dividing the total income reported for an area by the total number of taxable taxpayers. For example, average taxable income is the total taxable income reported for an area divided by the total number of taxable individuals in that area.

18 The statistics are based on individual income tax returns lodged for the financial year ended 30 June, regardless of the year in which they were processed.

19 A geographic concordance has been used by the Australian Taxation Office in order to present the original data on Australian Standard Geographical Classification 2006 boundaries. Further general information on Geographic Concordances can be found in paragraphs 150 to 155.

20 State/territory totals may be different to the sum of the regions in states/territories, due to different aggregation processes being used in different years.


Wage and Salary Earners

21 Data for Wage and salary earners have been compiled by the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) from their Individual Income Tax Return Database and provided to the ABS by the ATO in aggregated form only, at the Statistical Local Area level. Information about individual taxpayers has not been released to the ABS.

22 Individuals who submit an individual income tax return report their income from one or more of a range of sources such as wages and salary, own unincorporated business, superannuation, investments, and government pensions, benefits or allowances.

23 As the ATO's income tax return is designed to obtain a person's total income from various sources over a financial year, and not the employment status of a person at a particular point in time, Wage and salary earners have been defined as 'persons aged 15 years and over who have submitted an individual income tax return and for whom Wage and salary income was the principal (or main) source of income for the financial year'.

24 Wage and salary income, as reported on the income tax return, includes gross income as shown on the 'PAYG payment summary - individual non-business' as well as allowances, commissions, bonuses, tips, gratuities, consultation fees, honoraria, and other payments for services. Allowances and other earnings may include car, travel or transport allowances, allowances for tools, clothing or laundry and dirt, risk, meal or entertainment allowances. The data to define and compile counts of Wage and salary earners have been sourced from questions 1 and 2 on the individual income tax return (Note: PAYG (Pay as You Go) payment summaries were previously known as Group Certificates).

25 Data by occupation for 2002-03 was extracted from the Individual Income Tax Return Database by the ATO at a later date than other Wage and salary earner data for 2002-03. As a result, more income tax returns had been processed for the 2002-03 financial year when the occupation data was extracted resulting in some different totals for this particular set of Wage and salary earner data.

26 The statistics are based on individual income tax returns lodged for the financial year ended 30 June, regardless of the year in which they were processed.

27 A geographic concordance has been used in order to present the data on ASGC 2006 boundaries. Further information on Geographic Concordances can be found in paragraphs 150 to 155.

28 Further information on these statistics can be found in the electronic publication Regional Wage and Salary Earner Statistics, Australia (cat. no. 5673.0.55.001) via the 'Past & Future Releases' tab for 1995-96 to 2000-01 data, and Regional Wage and Salary Earner Statistics, Australia - Data Cubes (cat. no 5673.0.55.003) for 2001-02 to 2004-05 data.


Persons in Own Unincorporated Business

29 Data for Persons in Own Unincorporated Business have been compiled from the ATO's Individual Income Tax Database and provided to the ABS by the ATO in aggregated form only, at the Statistical Local Area level. Information about individual taxpayers has not been released to the ABS.

30 Individuals who submit an individual income tax return report their income from one or more of a range of sources including own unincorporated business. There are four main types of business structure commonly used by businesses in Australia: sole trader, partnership, trust and company. Generally, the income of a business that is structured as a sole trader, partnership or trust is treated as a person's individual or personal income.

31 For the purposes of compiling the data, 'Persons in Own Unincorporated Business' have been defined as 'persons aged 15 years and over who have submitted an individual income tax return and for whom their own unincorporated business, or businesses, was the principal (or main) source of income for the financial year'.

32 The statistics are based on individual income tax returns lodged for the financial year ended 30 June, regardless of the year in which they were processed.

33 A geographic concordance has been used in order to present the data on ASGC 2006 boundaries. Further information on Geographic Concordances can be found in paragraphs 150 to 155.

34 Further information on these statistics can be found in the ABS release Persons with Main Source of Income from Own Unincorporated Business, 1996-97 to 2003-04, (cat. no. 6225.0).


Counts of Businesses, Entries and Exits

35 Counts of businesses, entries and exits data are based on snapshots of actively trading businesses as at June in each reference year, from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register.

36 Most businesses in Australia need to obtain an Australian Business Number (ABN). These businesses are then included on the whole-of government register of businesses, the Australian Business Register (ABR), which is maintained by the Australian Taxation Office. The ABS uses information from the ABR to populate its internal register of businesses, the Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register (ABSBR), which is used as a source for business survey frames and business counts.

37 Counts of businesses produced from the ABSBR comprise actively trading businesses in the Australian economy. The population includes employing and non-employing, single location and multiple location businesses.

38 Excluded from these counts are entities which are not considered to be actively trading in the market sector, such as social and sporting clubs, charitable institutions, and government entities. Business which have not submitted a Business Activity Statement and/or have reported zero dollar amounts over five consecutive quarters have been excluded.

39 The data published has been confidentialised so as not to release the identity of any business units. The confidentialising process used in this release also means that data presented at these detailed levels will not always be additive. That is, opening stock from the beginning of the financial year, plus entries, minus exits, may not be equal the closing stock for the end of the financial year. In addition, all cells have been suppressed (using 'n.a.') for any Statistical Local Area (SLA) or Local Government Area (LGA) in which the total business count was less than 21 in any of the years 2003-2006. This includes SLAs and LGAs with a business count of zero.

40 Further information can be found in Counts of Australian Businesses, including Entries and Exits, Jun 2003 to Jun 2007 (cat. no. 8165.0).


POPULATION/PEOPLE

Population

41 Population data in the National Regional Profile, unless otherwise stated, are the estimated resident population (ERP) counts for the selected region as at 30 June for the year shown. Data are shown to the nearest whole number without rounding, but accuracy to the last digit is not claimed and should not be assumed.

42 The concept of ERP links people to a place of usual residence within Australia. Usual residence is defined as that place where each person has lived or intends to live for six months or more in the reference year.

43 In census years the ERP as at 30 June for a region is based on usual residence census counts, with an allowance for net census undercount and the number of residents temporarily overseas at the census date. Overseas visitors in Australia are excluded from this calculation. As the census is held at a date other than 30 June (8 August in 2006), further adjustments taking into account births, deaths and net migration for the intervening period are made to obtain the ERP at 30 June.

44 For post-censal years, estimates at the Australian level take into account natural increase and net overseas migration, while estimates for states and territories also use estimated interstate movements involving a change of usual residence.

45 The absence of migration data at the Statistical Local Area (SLA) level means that it is not possible to estimate SLA populations by taking into account natural increase and net migration. Instead, ERPs for most areas are calculated using a mathematical model, where a relationship is established between changes in population and changes in other indicators between the two most recent censuses. The choice of indicators varies across the states and territories, depending on indicative ability, and includes dwelling approvals, Medicare enrolments and Australian electoral roll counts. Changes in these indicators are then used to estimate changes in the population of each area since the last census. Local knowledge, including that advised by local governments, may be used to adjust the outcome of the model for a particular SLA.

46 More information about population concepts and the ERP methodology as adopted by the ABS for official population estimates, is in Information paper: Population Concepts, 2008 (cat. no. 3107.0.55.006), Demographic Estimates and Projections: Concepts, Sources and Methods (cat. no. 3228.0) and Methods and Procedures for Estimating Small Area Populations in Australia (cat. no. 3121.0).

47 Further information on regional ERP data can be found in Regional Population Growth, Australia (cat. no. 3218.0) and Population by Age and Sex, Australia (cat. no. 3235.0).


Population Density

48 The population density for a region is calculated by dividing the Estimated Resident Population by the land area to obtain the number of persons per square kilometre. For further information on Land Area see paragraph 149.


Census 2006 (also known as 2006 Census of Population and Housing)

49 The National Regional Profile presents a summary of population characteristics from the 2006 Census of Population and Housing. More detailed data are available from the Census page on the ABS web site. All Census data in the National Regional Profile are presented on a usual residence basis. The data relates to where the persons usually are resident, rather than where they were counted on Census night (8 August 2006).

50 For more information about the Census, see How Australia Takes a Census (cat. no. 2903.0) and 2006 Census of Population and Housing: Nature and Content (cat. no. 2008.0). For information about Census data items see Census Dictionary, 2006 (cat. no. 2901.0).


Census 2006 - Indigenous Population

51 Data on the proportion of the population who are Indigenous are calculated from the 2006 Census of Population and Housing. The Indigenous population are people who are of Aboriginal origin, Torres Strait Islander origin or both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin.


Census 2006 - Overseas Born Population

52 Data shown on Australia's overseas born population are from the 2006 Census of Population and Housing.

53 The Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC) (cat. no 1269.0) was used to classify responses for birthplace of individuals. This classification used the current names of countries, so if a person uses a former name the current name is coded. For example, Siam would be coded to Thailand. If an individual's birthplace was not stated on the Census form, an attempt was made to derive it from other answers.

54 The data shown exclude overseas visitors, persons at sea at the time of the Census, and persons whose responses on the Census form inadequately described their country of birth or for whom the birthplace was not stated (and could not be derived).


Census 2006 - Speaks language other than English

55 The data are from the 2006 Census of Population and Housing and identifies the language spoken at home, and is coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Languages (ASCL) (cat. no. 1267.0). Only one language is coded for each person.


Census 2006 - Post School Qualifications

56 The data are from the 2006 Census of Population and Housing and shows the level of education based on the highest completed non-school qualification of persons (eg. bachelor degree, diploma).

57 The full classification for levels of education and fields of study, together with an explanation of the conceptual basis of the classification, can be found in the publication Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0).


Census 2006 - Occupation

58 The data are from the 2006 Census of Population and Housing and includes all employed people aged 15 years and over. Two occupation questions are used in the Census. The first of these asks for occupation title, while the second asks for the main tasks usually performed by the person in their occupation. Collecting both occupation title and task information ensures more accurate coding of occupations.

59 Occupations are coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) Second Edition (cat. no. 1220.0). The Occupation code assigned is based on the main job held during the week prior to Census Night.


Census 2006 - Households

60 The data on households are from the 2006 Census of Population and Housing. The data describes the type of household within a dwelling. Family households can contain non-family members (un-related persons and visitors). A maximum of three families can be coded to a household. Lone person households can contain visitors.


Census 2006 - Families

61 Family data are from the 2006 Census of Population and Housing. Families have been classified in terms of the relationships that exist between a single family reference person and each other member of that family. Different types of families are distinguished based on the presence or absence of couple relationships, parent-child relationships, child dependency relationships or other blood relationships, in that order of preference.

62 The family type is derived from people enumerated in the household who usually reside there and who share a familial relationship. Partners and dependent children usually present but temporarily absent are also included in this derivation. Boarders and other non-family members are excluded.


Census 2006 - Internal Migration

63 Internal migration data are from the 2006 Census of Population and Housing. The Census asked if the person had a different address one year ago, and five years ago.

64 The percentage of persons in a region who lived at a different address (one year ago, five years ago) is calculated as a proportion of the persons usually resident in the region.


Census 2006 - Proportion of Population in Remoteness Area

65 The Remoteness Structure of the Australian Standard Geographical Classification provides a standard geographical structure describing Australia in terms of a measurement of remoteness or distance from services. It is designed to classify Census Collection Districts which share common characteristics or remoteness into broad geographic regions called Remoteness Areas (RA).

66 The Remoteness Structure is based upon the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA) which was developed for the former Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care (now the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing) by the National Key Centre for Social Applications of Geographical Information Systems (GISCA). ARIA measures the remoteness of a point based on the road distances to the nearest town (service centre) in each of five population size classes. The basic premises of ARIA are that there are more services available in larger towns than small towns and that remoteness is a factor of the relative distance one must travel to access a full range of services.

67 With a state/territory, each RA represents an aggregation of non-contiguous geographical areas which share common characteristics of remoteness. The Remoteness Structure contains the following categories which provide a measurement of whether geographic distances impose restrictions on the accessibility to the widest range of goods, services and opportunities for social interaction:
  • Major Cities of Australia - imposes minimal restriction e.g. Sydney, Newcastle, Wollongong, Melbourne, Geelong, Brisbane, Gold Coast, Adelaide, Perth and Canberra.
  • Inner Regional Australia - imposes some restriction e.g. Tamworth, Wagga Wagga (New South Wales), Ballarat, Bendigo (Victoria), Rockhampton, Bundaberg, Gladstone (Queensland), the Adelaide Hills (South Australia), Bunbury (Western Australia), Hobart and Launceston (Tasmania).
  • Outer Regional Australia - imposes a moderate restriction e.g. Broken Hill, Griffith, Gunnedah (New South Wales), Horsham, Swan Hill, Traralgon (Victoria), Roma, Cairns (Queensland), Port Augusta, Mount Gambier (South Australia), Albany (Western Australia) and Burnie (Tasmania), and Darwin (Northern Territory).
  • Remote Australia - imposes a high restriction e.g. Cobar (New South Wales), the northern Wimmera district (Victoria), Charters Towers and Cooktown (Queensland), Port Lincoln (South Australia), the Kalgoorlie gold-fields (Western Australia), parts of the West Coast (Tasmania), Alice Springs and Katherine (Northern Territory).
  • Very Remote Australia - imposes the highest restriction e.g. The far west parts of New South Wales and Queensland, northern South Australia and Western Australia, most of the Northern Territory and Flinders and King Islands in Bass Strait (Tasmania).

68 The percentages shown are the proportion of persons counted in the 2006 Census of Population and Housing, by each category of Remoteness for the selected region. The proportions are based on where people usually resided as at the 2006 Census (8 August 2006).

69 Further information about the Remoteness Structure can be found in Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0)


Census 2006 - Proportion of Population by Section of State

70 The Section of State (SOS) structure uses population counts from the Census of Population and Housing to class Census Collection Districts as urban or rural.

71 Within a state or territory, each SOS represents an aggregation of non-contiguous geographical areas of a particular urban/rural type. The categories are:
  • Major Urban - population of 100,000 or more
  • Other Urban - population from 1,000 to 99,999
  • Bounded Locality - population from 200 to 999
  • Rural Balance - the reminder of the state or territory
  • Migratory - areas composed of off-shore, shipping and migratory Collection Districts

72 The percentages shown are the proportion of persons counted in the 2006 Census, by each category of the Section of State Structure for the selected regions. The proportions are based on where people usually resided as at the 2006 Census (8 August 2006).

73 Further information about the Section of State structure can be found in Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0)


Census 2006 - Unpaid Work

74 Data on unpaid work are from the 2006 Census of Population and Housing. The data show the proportion of persons usually resident in the region who did any voluntary work in the last twelve months, or any unpaid work (caring for own children, caring for other children, caring for family members or others) in the last two weeks.


Census 2006 - Access to Internet at Home

75 Access to the internet data are from the 2006 Census of Population and Housing. The data show the proportion of occupied private dwellings in the region that have access to the internet.

76 The categories of access are: 'broadband', 'dial-up' and 'other'. Broadband access includes ADSL, cable, wireless and satellite connections. Dial-up includes analog modem and ISDN connections. Other includes access through mobile phones, set-top boxes, games machines, or connections other than dial-up and broadband.


Births

77 Data on births are presented on the basis of the usual residence of the mother regardless of where in Australia the birth occurred or was registered. The data refer to live births registered during the calendar year shown, and are supplied to the Australian Bureau of Statistics by each state/territory Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages for compilation into the aggregate statistics in this publication. For more information refer to Births, Australia (cat. no. 3301.0).


Deaths

78 Data on deaths are presented on the basis of the usual residence of the deceased regardless of where in Australia the death occurred or was registered. The data refer to deaths registered during the calendar year shown, and are supplied to the Australian Bureau of Statistics by each state/territory Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages for compilation into the aggregate statistics in this publication. For more information refer to Deaths, Australia (cat. no 3302.0).


NSW - Recorded Criminal Incidents

79 The Recorded Crime Statistics Database of the New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research (BOCSAR) comprises extracts from the NSW Police Computerised Operational Policing System (COPS). The primary purpose of the COPS database is to record all police activities by NSW Police. As a secondary purpose, an extract of the data is used to produce crime statistics for NSW via BOCSAR and the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS).

80 NSW Police do not have mandatory reporting requirements outside the Annual Reports (Departments) Act 1985. BOCSAR are not subject to any legislative reporting requirements but report crime statistics in accordance with their charter. A copy of their charter can be seen on the BOCSAR web site at http://www.bocsar.nsw.gov.au. An extract of the administrative by-product is used by BOCSAR to produce regular reports and ad-hoc analysis of crime rates and trend statistics.

81 Recorded crime statistics represent criminal incidents reported to police and recorded on the COPS database. The counting units are recorded criminal incidents, (except for murder and manslaughter where the counting units are victims), rather than recorded offences. COPS data are categorised by date of reporting to police (or date of detection by police) rather than by date of occurrence of the incident. Information recorded in the COPS database relates to unique occurrences attended by police or reported to police (referred to as COPS-events). Within each unique occurrence, linked information on incident type, persons of interest and victims is also recorded. Note that more than one incident can be included in a single COPS event. Similarly more than one offence can be included in a single incident.

82 In the National Regional Profile, selected data on occurrences are presented:
  • number of criminal incidents reported, by offence category;
  • number of apprehended violence orders (AVOs) granted.

83 The COPS database used by NSW Police includes information on all reported criminal incidents, data on police actions, and other occurrences attended by, or reported to, police. The scope of the dataset is police activities, including:
  • all events attended;
  • all recorded victim records associated with reported and detected personal crime;
  • persons of interest involved in all reported and detected crime;
  • incidents of all reported and detected crime;
  • apprehended violence orders (AVOs) granted; and,
  • other information used in policing.

84 Excluded from the scope of the COPS database are offences which do not involve NSW Police, such as offences against Commonwealth laws processed under Commonwealth jurisdiction. That is, if there is no action by NSW Police, then there would be nothing recorded in COPS. However, if NSW Police were investigating an offence against Commonwealth laws then it would be included in COPS.

85 The scope of the extracts from the COPS database, in the BOCSAR Recorded Crime Statistics Database, includes verified records of criminal incidents, persons of interest and victims. A verified record is one which has been signed off by the recording officer’s supervisor. The selected domestic violence characteristics extracted directly from the COPS database included only verified incidents.

86 A criminal incident is defined as an activity detected by or reported to police which:
  • involved the same offender(s);
  • involved the same victim(s);
  • occurred at (or in the case of fire, started at) the one location;
  • occurred during one uninterrupted period of time;
  • falls into one offence category; and,
  • falls into one incident type (e.g. 'actual', 'attempted', 'conspiracy').

87 A criminal incident consists of one or more offences of the same type (and their related victims and offenders) which are grouped into the same unique occurrence if they are committed by the same person or group of persons and if:
  • they are part of actions committed simultaneously or in sequence over a short period of time at the same place;
  • they are part of interrelated actions; that is, where one action leads to the other or where one is the consequence of the other(s); and
  • they involve the same action(s) repeated over a long period of time against the same victim(s) and come to the attention of the police at one point in time.

88 One offender assaulting two victims would be counted as one criminal incident. Alternatively, two criminal incidents are recorded in the COPS database if there are two distinct offence types involved (e.g. demand money with menaces and assault) even if the same parties were involved at the same time and in the same place. A criminal incident can have more than one person of interest.

89 Homicide includes manslaughter, murder accessory/conspiracy, murder and attempted murder.

90 Possession and/or use of drugs includes amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, narcotics and other drugs. Dealing, trafficking in drugs includes amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, narcotics and other drugs.

91 Domestic violence occurs when one person uses some form of violence such as physical, emotional, sexual, financial or social to control another person in a current or previous relationship. Where assault or other offences occur in a COPS event, police officers are required to record if it is related to domestic violence. If no criminal offence is recorded, but domestic violence is indicated, a Domestic violence - no offence COPS incident is recorded.

92 Offence categories are derived from COPS incident types, a unique police classification which encompasses offences as well as other police activities. The COPS extract used by BOCSAR is based on a set of offence categories aligned to the 1995 Australian National Classification of Offences (ANCO), issued by the ABS (cat. no. 1234.0).


NSW - Apprehended Violence Orders

93 Data on Apprehended Violence Orders (AVO) is from the Recorded Crime Statistics Database of the New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research (BOCSAR), which comprises extracts from the NSW Police Computerised Operational Policing System (COPS). The primary purpose of the COPS database is to record all police activities by NSW Police. As a secondary purpose, an extract of the data is used to produce crime statistics for NSW via BOCSAR and the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The BOCSAR website is at http://www.bocsar.nsw.gov.au.

94 Recorded crime statistics represent criminal incidents reported to police and recorded on the COPS database. The counting units are recorded criminal incidents, (except for murder and manslaughter where the counting units are victims), rather than recorded offences. COPS data are categorised by date of reporting to police (or date of detection by police) rather than by date of occurrence of the incident. Information recorded in the COPS database relates to unique occurrences attended by police or reported to police (referred to as COPS-events). Within each unique occurrence, linked information on incident type, persons of interest and victims is also recorded. Note that more than one incident can be included in a single COPS event. Similarly more than one offence can be included in a single incident.

95 Excluded from the scope of the COPS database are offences which do not involve NSW Police, such as offences against Commonwealth laws processed under Commonwealth jurisdiction. That is, if there is no action by NSW Police, then there would be nothing recorded in COPS. However, if NSW Police were investigating an offence against Commonwealth laws then it would be included in COPS.

96 In the National Regional Profile, the scope of the Apprehended Violence Order data is for AVOs granted in Local Courts for NSW residents only.

97 AVOs are orders that a court makes to protect people. AVOs protect people by ordering a number of things that the defendant must not do. The defendant must obey the orders made by the Court. Depending on the relationship between the applicant and defendant, AVOs can relate to either domestic violence or non-domestic related (personal) violence.

98 The rates of AVOs issued are per 100,000 preliminary Estimated Resident Population as at 30 June in the reference year.


NSW - Drivers' Licence Holders

99 The number of licence holders is derived from the Driver and Vehicle System (DRIVES), the operational system of the New South Wales Roads and Traffic Authority (RTA). The RTA collects information on licence holders in order to maintain the driver licence register as required by law.

100 The scope of the collection is holders of current, valid driver and rider licences in NSW. Licence holders are persons aged 16 years and above, who have met the eligibility requirements to drive and/ or ride a motor vehicle. A licence holder can hold more than one class of licence; however they will only be counted once as this is a count of licence holders, not licences.

101 The data presented in this product are a series of snapshots for 2001 to 2006. They show the number of licence holders with valid, current licences at 30 June each year.

102 A NSW licence holder is a person who holds a NSW driver or rider licence issued by the RTA. The RTA issues licences when it deems that the person is knowledgeable about the road rules, competent, medically fit to drive safely and meets other licensing requirements. By law, licence holders must be 16 years of age or older before they are eligible to apply to drive a vehicle.

103 The proportion of drivers licence holders is based on the preliminary Estimated Resident Population aged 16 years and over as at 30 June in the reference year.

104 The RTA web site can be found at http://www.rta.nsw.gov.au. Registration and licensing statistics are on the RTA web site.


VIC - Reported Crime Offences

105 Statistics on recorded crime offences by Victorian Police Regions are provided by the Victoria Police Statistical Services Division. Only the most serious offence in a distinct course of criminal conduct is recorded in official statistics, even though multiple charges may be laid for one incident. For example, if an offender carrying a firearm commits an armed robbery and assaults a staff member, only the armed robbery is recorded although the offender will be charged with both offences.

106 The recorded crime statistics include only those offences which become known to police and for which a crime report has been completed and are recorded between 1 July and 30 June regardless of when the offence occurred or when it was reported to police (over 85% of all offences are recorded within 48 hours of being reported to police). There are over 4000 individual statutory and common law offences which are grouped into 27 broad offence categories (loosely based on the Australian National Classification of Offences). These are further aggregated into four general classes of "Crime against the Person", "Crime Against Property", Drug Offences" and "other Crime". For more information, refer to the Victoria Police web site at http://www.police.vic.gov.au.


VIC - Life Expectancy at Birth

107 Data on life expectancy in Victoria is provided by the Department of Human Services, Victoria. Life expectancy is considered as an indicator of the particular health of any given population. For a child born today, life expectancy is calculated as the average life span of the child, on the assumption that currently observed age-and-sex specific death rates continue indefinitely into the future. For more details refer to the Department of Human Services, Victoria web site at http://www.health.vic.gov.au.


WA - Hospital Separations

108 The data are obtained from the Department of Health, Western Australia. The hospital separation data presented in this Profile are based on the postcode of the patient's residential address. They are derived from records submitted by Western Australian public and private hospitals to the Department of Health's Morbidity Data System.

109 These hospital separations statistics have been derived using a concordance to convert the residential postcode of the patient to a specified area. Where a residential address was given as a post-office box and could not be directly assigned to a local government area, the patient information was only included at the aggregated statistical sub-division geographic level.

110 The diagnosis classification used is the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision. (This is available on the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare website at http://www.aihw.gov.au).


WA - Perinatal Statistics

111 The data are sourced from the Department of Health's Midwives Notification Service, Western Australia. Perinatal Statistics are based on the postcode of the patient's residential address.


WA - Reported Offences

112 The data are sourced from the Western Australian Police Service's Offence Information System. Reported offences are selected offences reported to, or becoming known to, police and resulting in the submission of a report. The number of reported offences in a period may include offences that occurred during earlier periods. The data are also subject to revision as further data become available. Offences are classified according to Offence Information System offence codes , however 'Homicides' have since been included with 'Other Offences' in the NRP output. Offence classifications may change between periods due to changes in legislation or administrative recording practices and, therefore, time series may be broken.

113 For further details see http://www.police.wa.gov.au then go to ABOUT US/Statistics/Crime Statistics/Statistical Notes.


WA - Fines and Infringements

114 The data, from the Fines Enforcement Agency at the Department of the Attorney General in Western Australia, provide a snapshot of fines and infringements as at 4th September 2004, and 15th September 2005. Included are outstanding court fines issued since 1991 and all outstanding infringements issued since 1995. It is important to note that although some fines and infringements may be classified as written off, they are kept on the system, and can be re-activated as incomplete in certain circumstances. Fines and infringements classified as written off may also include a range of administrative cases, such as fines and infringements issued in error.


INDUSTRY

Building Approvals

115 Data for building work approvals are compiled from:
  • permits issued by local government authorities;
  • contracts let or day labour work authorised by Commonwealth, State, semi-government and local government authorities;
  • major building activity in areas not subject to normal administrative approval (e.g. building on remote mine sites).

116 The data included in this profile relate to all residential building approvals valued at $10,000 or more and all approved non-residential building jobs valued at $50,000 or more.

117 Construction activity not defined as building (eg. construction of roads, bridges, railways etc) is excluded from building statistics.

118 The data are for the financial year ended 30 June.

119 Data for Jervis Bay Territory are included in the state total for New South Wales, while data for Christmas Island and Cocos-Keeling Islands are included in state total data for Western Australia.

120 For further information see Building Approvals, Australia (cat. no. 8731.0).


New Motor Vehicle Sales

121 New motor vehicle sales data are based on the Vehicle Facts (VFACTS) service produced by the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries (FCAI). VFACTS data are based on retail sales of new vehicles by all FCAI members.

122 Included are passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, vehicles with diplomatic and consular plates, State/Territory and Commonwealth owned vehicles and vehicles belonging to the defence forces. Excluded are motor cycles, plant and equipment and unpowered vehicles.

123 Data are for the financial year ended 30 June.

124 The data have been presented on Australian Standard Geographical Classification 2006 boundaries, using a postcode concordance and some additional suburb information. Data have been provided to the ABS in aggregate form only. Further information on the postcode Geographic Concordances can be found in paragraphs 150 to 155.

125 Data for Jervis Bay Territory are included in the SLA 'Unknown AUST', and so included in the Australian total only. Data for Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Island are included in the Western Australia SLA 'Offshore Areas & Migratory', and so included in the Western Australia state total.

126 Detailed monthly figures can be obtained by making inquiries to the Manager, VFACTS, Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries on (03) 9829 1234. Some information is also available by viewing the industry summary presented on the VFACTS web site http://www.autoweb.com.au.

127 New Motor Vehicle Sales and Motor Vehicle Census data (paragraphs 129 to 134) are both presented in the National Regional Profile. The major differences in these two series are:
  • New Motor Vehicle Sales is the number of sales of new vehicles during a financial year, while the Motor Vehicle Census is the count of registered vehicles at a point in time (31 March in each year);
  • the Motor Vehicle Census includes some vehicle types not included in New Motor Vehicle Sales (motor cycles, and recreational vehicles in some states)

128 A comparison of Motor Vehicle Census data and New Motor Vehicle Sales can be found in the Explanatory Notes of Motor Vehicle Census, Australia (cat. no. 9309.0).


Motor Vehicle Census

129 Motor Vehicle Census data refer to vehicles registered with a motor vehicle registration authority at 31 March in the reference year.

130 The Motor Vehicle Census includes all vehicles registered with a state, territory or other government motor vehicle registry for unrestricted use on public roads with the following exceptions:
  • recreational vehicles such as trail bikes and sand dune buggies intended for off-road use in most states (in Victoria and Queensland these vehicles must be registered and are included in the statistics)
  • consular vehicles
  • vehicles registered by the defence forces.

131 Vehicles on register are those vehicles registered at the date of the census, or had registration expire less than one month before that date.

132 Motor vehicle Census data are presented by region of owner, and based on the postcode of the owner. A geographic concordance has been used in order to present the postcode data on Australian Standard Geographical Classification 2006 boundaries. Further information on Geographic Concordances can be found in paragraphs 150 to 155.

133 Note: The Australia total includes records that could not be allocated to a state or territory. Therefore aggregating state and territory totals will not equal the Australia total.

134 Further information can be found in Motor Vehicle Census, Australia (cat. no. 9309.0). Note that data in that release are by state of registration, and so state/territory totals will not be the same as in this National Regional Profile (which is presented by state of owner).


Agriculture

135 Agricultural Commodities data are estimates obtained from the 2005-06 Agricultural Census.

136 The estimates are subject to sampling variability because not all selected units responded to the Census; that is, the estimates may differ from the figures that would have been produced if all farms or farm businesses had responded. One measure of the likely difference is given by the Standard Error (SE). There are about two chances in three that a 'sample' estimate will differ by less than one SE from the figure that would have been obtained if all farms has responded, and about nineteen chances in twenty that the difference will be less than two SEs.

137 In Agriculture data, 'sampling' variability of the estimates is measured by the Relative Standard Error (RSE) which is obtained by expressing the Standard Error as a percentage of the estimate to which it refers. In the National Regional Profile, only Agriculture data with an RSE less than 50% are presented. Information on RSEs for each item can be found in Agricultural Commodities, Small Area Data (cat. no. 7125.0).

138 For further information see Agricultural Commodities, Australia (cat. no. 7121.0) and Agricultural Commodities, Small Area Data (cat. no. 7125.0).


VIC - Road Traffic Injuries

139 Statistics on the number of road traffic collisions involving major injuries in Victoria are provided by the Victoria Police Statistical Services Division. Data on collisions and injuries are obtained from accident report forms (VP Form 510). Due to compliance with the Federal Office of Road Safety guidelines and delays in the supply of collision data, the data may be subject to revision at a later date. For more information, refer to the Victoria Police web site at http://www.police.vic.gov.au.


QLD - House Sales

140 The house sales information for Queensland has been compiled from data provided by the Real Estate Institute of Queensland (REIQ). REIQ is the state’s professional association for the real estate industry and exists to support member real estate agents with information, products and resources. The base data are sourced from the Queensland Valuation and Sales database, which is maintained by the Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Water.

141 House sales data refer to sales of detached dwellings on land less than 2,400sqm; the data do not include sales of units, townhouses or Group Titled properties.

142 All figures are subject to further revision. All house sales data have been suppressed if there have been less than 3 sales in an area; both median and mean values have been suppressed if there have been less than 25 sales in an area.


SA - Property Sales

143 The property sales information has been compiled from data provided by the South Australian Department of Administrative and Information Services, Land Services Group, Office of the Valuer-General. The statistics included only relate to sales for which payment was received equivalent to the full value of the property, and have been shown according to the land use categories prescribed by the Local Government (Land Use) Regulations, 1989.


SA - Property Valuations

144 The property valuations information has been compiled from data provided by the South Australian Department of Administrative and Information Services, Land Services Group, Office of the Valuer-General.


WA - Average Water Use

145 Average water use information displayed in this profile is derived from information supplied by the Water Corporation, Western Australia. Data relate to Water Corporation clients and their consumption of water. The data do not include private suppliers or the use of water tanks.


TAS - Property Sales and Property Valuations

146 Property Sales and Property Valuations data are produced by the Land Services Division of the Tasmania Department of Primary Industries and Water (DPIW). Data are extracted from the Land Information System Tasmania (LIST) data base. The LIST is a whole of government, integrated land information infrastructure with a web based delivery system. Property transaction information is updated on the LIST data base on a day to day basis.

147 The LIST is governed by the Land Information Coordination Committee. The committee is made up of representatives from State and Local Governments and Government Business Enterprises with an interest in land management. The committee has the responsibility for developing policies and strategies relating to data quality.

148 More information about the LIST can be found at http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au.


ENVIRONMENT/ENERGY

Land Area

149 The land area data are based upon the boundaries of the Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in the 2006 edition of the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The areas of the SLAs were calculated using ABS standard Geographic Information Systems software from the digital boundaries of the SLAs. Higher level spatial unit area figures are aggregations of the SLA areas.


GEOGRAPHIC CONCORDANCES

150 The data in the National Regional Profile are shown for boundaries as described in the 2006 edition of the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), (cat. no 1216.0).

151 Where data were originally available by other geographic areas or based on a previous edition of the ASGC a geographic concordance has been applied to convert the data to ASGC 2006 boundaries.

152 These concordances (or conversions) use factors based on population to produce estimates on the desired region. For example, aggregated postcode data can be used to produce estimates at the Statistical Local Area level by using postcode to Statistical Local Area conversion factors. The conversion factors are based on the estimated resident population for each particular year. The conversion factors are derived by using the population counts in Census of Populations and Housing Collection Districts (which are all allocated a postal area) to calculate the population within a postal area within a particular Statistical Local Area.

153 The following example shows how the concordances are applied. An SLA covers three postcode areas; all of postcode 0001 and parts of postcodes 0002 and 0003. Based on the preliminary estimated resident population at 30 June 2006, the proportions of the population, or concordance factors, in each postcode that make up the SLA were: 100.00% for postcode 0001, 26.71% for postcode 0002 and 62.60% for postcode 0003. By applying these factors to the relevant total population for each postcode, in this case for example, counts of tax payers, an estimate of 8,530 for the SLA was derived.

EXAMPLE - POSTCODE TO SLA CONCORDANCE

Tax payers
Conversion factor
SLA share
Postcode
no.
no.
no.

0001
3,294
1.0000
3,294
0002
2,680
0.2671
716
0003
7,221
0.6260
4,520
SLA Total
8,530


154 When analysing concorded data the following limitations of this methodology need to be taken into account:
  • in applying the concordances it is assumed that the particular characteristics of any data item are uniformly distributed across an area and therefore concorded data may not truly reflect the distribution of the characteristics of the population. In some cases, where one area is split across two or more SLAs and there are no other contributing areas, distinct numerical estimates will be derived but rates or averages will be identical for each SLA (as these will be equivalent to the original rate or average of the contributing area);
  • the conversion factors are based on total population only;
  • some official postcodes (such as PO boxes, etc.) do not correspond to residential areas but may still be reported in the current home address field. Data for these and other ‘invalid’ postcodes, such as those due to incorrect reporting or processing errors, have been included in an ‘unknown’ category for each state and territory and for Australia where the state or territory was not known.

155 While care was taken in producing and applying the concordances the ABS will not guarantee the accuracy of concorded data.

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