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The relationship between codes and classification levels is illustrated in the following example of the categories in the 'Southern and Eastern Europe' major group:
Minor group categories have two-digit codes where the first digit represents the parent major group code and the second digit represents the sequence of minor groups within the parent major group (e.g. '3 Southern and Eastern Europe' contains '31 Southern Europe', '32 South Eastern Europe' and '33 Eastern Europe').
Countries have four-digit codes where the first two digits represent the parent minor group code and the final two digits represent the sequence of countries within a minor group (e.g. '31 Southern Europe' contains '3101 Andorra', '3102 Gibraltar', '3103 Holy See', '3104 Italy', '3105 Malta', '3106 Portugal', '3107 San Marino' and '3108 Spain').
Neither countries nor minor groups have codes ending with '0' or '9' because these codes have specific functions within the code scheme, as explained below.
RESIDUAL 'NEC' CODES
Residual or 'not elsewhere classified' (nec) categories are designed to capture specific geographic or national entities that are not separately identified in the main structure of the classification due to their low statistical significance. These categories are assigned four digit codes where the first two digits identify the parent minor group and the final two digits are '99'. Four residual categories are included in the classification:
The purpose of 'nec' categories is to ensure the classification is exhaustive of all geographic areas and national entities of the world, including those with very small populations and those with limited or obscure national sovereignty. For example, the French southern territory islands between Madagascar and Mozambique have insufficient populations to justify their separate inclusion within the main structure of the SACC. However, these territories are included within the SACC in the 'Southern and East Africa, nec' category so that the 'Southern and East Africa' minor group remains exhaustive of all national entities in the region.
The 'nec' codes are part of the main structure of the SACC and these codes have equal status with all other country codes.
SUPPLEMENTARY 'NFD' CODES
Supplementary or 'not further defined' (nfd) codes are used to code responses that are insufficiently specific for the main classification structure to be used. For example, the response 'Southern Europe' to a question about country of birth could not be coded to any of the particular countries of the 'Southern Europe' minor group due to its lack of specific country level information. Nevertheless, such a response should be coded to the minor group level '3100 Southern Europe, nfd' because sufficient geographic specificity was provided for this level of the classification. Major groups also have 'nfd' codes to accommodate responses that may be more general than those allocated to minor group 'nfd' codes (e.g. the country of birth response 'Americas' could be coded to '8000 Americas, nfd').
The 'Not further defined' codes for minor groups and major groups can be distinguished by the number of '0' digits in the final digits of the code. Minor group 'nfd' codes end with '00' and major group 'nfd' codes end with '000'. The 'nfd' codes are supplementary codes which means these codes are not part of the SACC main structure.
OTHER SUPPLEMENTARY CODES
In addition to 'nfd' supplementary codes, other types of supplementary codes are used for inadequate data responses, former political entities and for economic statistics.
Four-digit codes commencing with '000' are used for inadequate data. These codes facilitate the coding of survey responses and other data which cannot be coded to categories in the classification (including 'nfd' codes). For example, '0000' is used to code inadequately described or unintelligible responses and '0003' is used to code 'not stated' responses. The '000' supplementary codes are not part of the classification structure and these codes are designed only to record responses where there is inadequate data.
Four-digit codes commencing with '09' are designed to code responses relating to defunct political entities. Supplementary codes are included for these entities because the information may still be regarded as useful for statistical purposes (e.g. continuity of historical time series). These codes facilitate precise coding of data that would otherwise be lost or coded to a broader category of the classification, providing a higher level of precision compared to 'nfd' supplementary codes (e.g. '0913 Former Yugoslavia, nfd' has greater specificity compared to '3200 South Eastern Europe, nfd').
Supplementary codes for selected economic entities are described in the 'Economic Classifications' page of the SACC classification.
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