Australian Bureau of Statistics

Rate the ABS website
ABS Home > Statistics > By Catalogue Number
ABS @ Facebook ABS @ Twitter ABS RSS ABS Email notification service
8163.0 - Patterns of Innovation in Australian Businesses, 2005  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 01/11/2007   
   Page tools: Print Print Page Print all pages in this productPrint All RSS Feed RSS Bookmark and Share Search this Product

INNOVATION IN AUSTRALIAN INDUSTRY


The ABS survey identifies three main categories of innovation in Australian industry:

  • The introduction of any new or significantly improved goods or services. Examples are: a change in materials such as a breathable textile material and the introduction of a telephone or internet bill payment system.
  • The introduction of new operational processes (the methods of producing or delivering goods or services). Examples are: the digitalisation of printing processes and the introduction of an automated ticketing system.
  • The implementation of new organisational/managerial process (meaning strategies, structures or routines that aim to improve business performance). Examples are: changed corporate directions and significant workplace reorganisation.

Businesses were considered as "Innovators" if they had introduced or implemented at least one of the above types of innovation at any time during the calendar years 2004 to 2005. Any business included in the survey could report more than one type of innovation.


Figure 1 illustrates how the businesses are distributed across the innovation categories. During 2004 to 2005, about 66% of businesses have been identified as non-innovators. The total number of innovating businesses is estimated to be approximately 48,000 (or about 34% of all businesses). Amongst innovating businesses, about 22% were involved in two or more types of innovative activity. The businesses involved in innovation across all three types (ie new goods or services, new operational process or new organisational processes) had the highest innovation proportion amongst all innovating businesses.

Figure 1: Extent and Type of Innovation - 2004 to 2005 Calendar Years
Graph 1: Extent and Type of Innovation - 2004 to 2005 Calendar Years



The results of the 2005 Innovation Survey show that about 34% of Australian businesses undertook one or more of the main types of innovation (see Figure 2) during the 2004 to 2005 calendar years. In contrast, this was about 30% in 2002 to 2003. In the 2004 to 2005 calendar years, approximately 19% of businesses undertook goods or services innovation. For the same period, around 22% of businesses undertook operational processes innovation and about 25% of businesses undertook organisational processes innovation. Both goods or services innovation and organisational processes innovation showed about a 6 percentage point increase since the 2002 to 2003 reference period. The proportion of businesses undertaking operational processes innovation increased by about 3 percentage points since the 2002 to 2003 period.

Figure 2: Proportion of Innovating Businesses in Australia, by Type of Innovation - 2002 to 2003 and 2004 to 2005 Calendar Years
Graph: Figure 2: Proportion of Innovating Businesses in Australia, by Type of Innovation - 2002 to 2003 and 2004 to 2005 Calendar Years



Table 1 summarises the total estimated businesses and the proportions of innovating businesses in each State and Territory. South Australia recorded the highest proportion (about 40%) of innovating businesses out of 9,100 estimated total businesses in scope of the Innovation Survey. Western Australia had the second highest proportion (about 37%) of innovating businesses. Out of the 49,600 estimated businesses in New South Wales, around 31% were innovators. The proportion of innovation amongst Victorian and Queensland businesses was about 34% each. Tasmania, Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory all had around 30% of total businesses innovating.

Table 1: Innovation in Australian Businesses(a), by State/Territory - 2004 to 2005(b)

Total estimated businesses
Proportion of businesses that innovated
no.
%

State/Territory
NSW
49 600
31
Vic
35 800
34
Qld
26 400
34
SA
9 100
^40
WA
14 000
37
Tas
2 700
^30
NT
1 300
^32
ACT
2 400
^28
Total
141 300
34

^ estimate has a relative standard error of 10% to less than 25% and should be used with caution
(a) Total number of estimated businesses is rounded to the nearest 100
(b) Calendar years


Figure 3 shows the distribution of innovation activity across Australian industries between the 2002 to 2003 calendar years and the 2004 to 2005 calendar years. The ANZSIC divisions for Electricity, gas and water supply (49%), Wholesale trade (43%) and Manufacturing (42%) were the leading industries in terms of innovating businesses in the 2004 to 2005 calendar years. The Retail trade industry (27%) showed the lowest percentage amongst innovating businesses.

Figure 3:Proportion of Innovating Businesses, by ANZSIC Division-2002 to 2003 and 2004 to 2005 Calendar Years
Graph: Figure 3:Proportion of Innovating Businesses, by ANZSIC Division-2002 to 2003 and 2004 to 2005 Calendar Years



Innovation amongst businesses in the Accommodation, cafes and restaurants industry exhibited the highest increase in the proportion of innovation (13 percentage points) since the 2002 to 2003 calendar years.


The innovation proportion for the Mining and Wholesale trade industries showed an increase of seven percentage points each since the 2002 to 2003 calendar years. The growth in the incidence of innovation in Wholesale trade is mainly due to its innovation in operational and organisational processes. Innovation in the Communication and Finance and insurance industries has decreased by eight and one percentage points respectively during the 2004 to 2005 calendar years.


Table 2 summarises the proportions of innovating businesses by ANZSIC divisions for a selected number of States. Tasmania, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded from Table 2 to preserve confidentiality.


The breakdown of innovating businesses by State and industry division results in the majority of estimates having RSEs greater than 10%. As a result, the estimates should be used with caution. The manufacturing industry has a relatively large number of businesses in each State and around 40% of these businesses have been identified as innovative. The proportion of innovating businesses in the construction industry was 38% in Victoria, 35% in Queensland and 39% in South Australia. In terms of the Accommodation, cafes and restaurants industry division, Queensland recorded the highest proportion (about 50%) of businesses classed as innovative in this industry. The Transport and Storage industry division also identified around 56% of businesses in this division in Queensland as being innovative.

Table 2: Proportion of Innovating Businesses, by ANZSIC Division in Selected States - 2004 to 2005(a)

NSW
Vic
Qld
SA
WA
%
%
%
%
%

Industry
Mining
^27
*48
^37
*38
^26
Manufacturing
42
43
38
42
^47
Electricity, gas & water supply
^47
^45
^59
^55
^43
Construction
^20
^38
^35
*39
^30
Wholesale trade
^41
^48
^45
*50
^31
Retail trade
^23
^40
^13
*32
*41
Accommodation, cafes & restaurants
^28
^33
^50
*38
^38
Transport & storage
^35
^22
^56
^27
^23
Communication services
^36
^39
^21
*27
^43
Finance & Insurance
^38
^38
^36
*52
^36
Property & Business services
^32
^20
^37
*47
^37
Cultural & Recreational services
^28
^35
^35
*40
^27
Total
31
34
34
^40
37

^ estimate has a relative standard error of 10% to less than 25% and should be used with caution
* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
(a) Calendar years



2.1. Type of innovation

Table 3 shows the proportions of innovating businesses by types of innovation across all ANZSIC divisions. The majority of industry divisions, except the Communication services division, indicated that they were innovating most in organisational process innovation compared to the other two types of innovation. Among those industry divisions who were innovating in organisational processes, the Electricity, gas and water supply division exhibited the highest proportion of innovation (41%). The Communication services industry division was the only division that showed a higher proportion of innovating businesses that were producing new goods or services compared to the other two types of innovation.

Table 3:Proportion of Innovating Businesses by Type of Innovation and Industry(a) - 2004 to 2005(b)

Goods or services
Operational process
Organisational process
%
%
%

Mining
11
18
22
Manufacturing
27
27
28
Electricity, gas & water supply
23
32
41
Construction
16
22
26
Wholesale trade
26
26
33
Retail trade
16
15
19
Accommodation, cafes & restaurants
24
25
28
Transport & storage
18
25
27
Communication services
29
25
27
Finance & Insurance
19
26
31
Property & Business services
16
20
23
Cultural & Recreational services
18
19
26
Total
19
22
25

(a) Industry refers to ANZSIC division
(b) Calendar years


Figure 4 illustrates the proportions of innovating businesses producing new goods or services across industry divisions. In the 2004 to 2005 calendar years, the Mining industry showed the lowest proportion (about 11%) when compared to other industry divisions producing new goods or services. However, this figure has increased by 3 percentage points since the 2002 to 2003 calendar years. The Communication Services industry division showed the highest proportion (about 29%) when compared to other industry divisions in the production of new goods or services. This was followed by the Manufacturing industry (about 27%), Wholesale trade (about 26%), Accommodation, cafes and restaurants (about 24%) and Electricity, gas and water supply services (23%).


The 2004 to 2005 calendar year data shows that all industry divisions increased their proportions of innovation for new goods or services since the 2002 to 2003 calendar years. In terms of the proportions of innovation among all industry divisions, Accommodation, cafes and restaurants recorded the highest increase since the 2002 to 2003 period (about 15 percentage points). The Construction and Retail trade industry divisions increased by eight and nine percentage points respectively. The Finance and insurance industry division exhibited the lowest percentage increase since 2002 to 2003, which was about one percentage point. A chi-square test result indicated that type of industry may have an influence on the goods or services innovation (see Appendix 2, Table A1).

Figure 4: Proportion of Businesses Undertaking New Goods or Services Innovation, by ANZSIC Division-2003 to 2003 and 2004 to 2005 Calendar Years
Graph: Figure 4: Proportion of Businesses Undertaking New Goods or Services Innovation, by ANZSIC Division-2003 to 2003 and 2004 to 2005 Calendar Years



The proportions of businesses undertaking operational process innovation across ANZSIC divisions are shown below in Figure 5. The lowest proportion for this type of innovation occurs for the Retail trade industry (15%) in the 2004 to 2005 calendar years. In the 2002 to 2003 calendar years, the proportion of innovation was two percentage points higher at 17%.


The Electricity, gas and water supply industry division showed the highest proportional increase in operational process innovation (32%) in the 2004 to 2005 calendar years. The average proportion of innovation for operational processes across all ANZSIC divisions was about 23%. The following industry divisions recorded innovation proportions above the all industry average for operational process innovation in the 2004 to 2005 calendar years: Manufacturing (27%); Wholesale trade and Finance and insurance ( 26% each); Accommodation, cafes and restaurants, Transport and storage, and Communication services (25% each).


Interestingly, the Communication services industry division exhibited a seven percentage point reduction in operational process innovation since the 2002 to 2003 calendar years. In addition, the Retail trade industry showed a two percentage point reduction since the previous period. The eight percentage point decline in the overall innovation proportion for the Communication services industry division (previously shown in Figure 3) can be attributed to the decline in operational process innovation for this industry division.


The Accommodation, cafes and restaurants and the Wholesale trade industry divisions recorded the largest increase in operational process innovation (about ten and seven percentage points respectively) since the 2002 to 2003 calendar years.

Figure 5: Proportion of Businesses Undertaking Operational Process Innovation, by ANZSIC Division-2002 to 2003 and 2004 & 2005 calendar Years
Graph: Figure 5: Proportion of Businesses Undertaking Operational Process Innovation, by ANZSIC Division-2002 to 2003 and 2004 & 2005 calendar Years



Figure 6 shows the proportion of businesses undertaking organisational innovation by ANZSIC division. When examining all industry divisions, Electricity, gas and water supply showed the largest proportion of businesses undertaking organisational innovation (about 41%), while the Retail trade industry showed the lowest proportion of businesses (about 19%). The average proportion of innovation for organisational innovation across all industries was about 25%.


The majority of industry divisions, except Communication services, showed an increase in the proportion of businesses undertaking organisational innovation compared to the 2002 to 2003 calendar years. The Accommodation, cafes and restaurants industry division had the largest increase in organisational innovation (about 14 percentage points) followed by Electricity, gas and water supply (about ten percentage points) and Wholesale trade (about nine percentage points). A chi-square test result indicated that type of industry may have influenced organisational innovation (see Appendix 2. Table A1).

Figure 6: Proportion of Businesses Undertaking Organisational Innovation, by ANZSIC Division-2002 to 2003 and 2004 to 2005 Calendar Years
Graph: Figure 6: Proportion of Businesses Undertaking Organisational Innovation, by ANZSIC Division-2002 to 2003 and 2004 to 2005 Calendar Years




2.2. Innovation novelty

This section investigates the degree of innovation novelty amongst Australian businesses classed as innovators, in order to understand how competitive these businesses are in the marketplace.


The four types of innovation novelty measured by the ABS Innovation Survey 2005 are innovations that are:

  • New to the business
  • New to the industry
  • New to Australia
  • New to the world.

The concept of innovation measured in the ABS Innovation Survey focuses primarily on new or significantly improved goods or services, operational and/or organisational processes that have been developed or put in place by the business. This means that innovators are not necessarily engaged in the development of new to the world goods or services, or operational/organisational processes. The businesses identified as innovators may be reproducing goods that are already in the marketplace, perhaps using off the shelf technology inputs or making small incremental improvements in their goods or services. Alternatively they may be implementing well-understood forms of operational or organisational change adopted by other businesses. Therefore, innovation is used in the broad sense to capture a range of activities including technology diffusion and small-scale incremental changes. As a result, the proportion of innovators provides a basic indicator of how many businesses are innovating, but it does not capture the complexity of novelty of the innovation introduced. However, distinctions between the degrees of novelty can be made when analysing goods or services innovation, operational process innovation and organisational innovation in the 2005 survey. Businesses were asked to distinguish between new goods or services innovation that was "New to the business", "New to the industry", "New to Australia" or "New to the world". In this analysis, to avoid multiple counting only the highest degree of novelty reported is considered, rather than each individual business' response to innovation novelty.


Figure 7 shows the degree of novelty of innovation in goods or services in the two Innovation Survey reference periods, 2002 to 2003 and the 2004 to 2005 calendar years. Goods or services innovation that was identified as being "New to the business" showed a very high proportion (about 74%) compared to the other three categories of innovation novelty in the 2004 to 2005 calendar year period. It is also about 19 percentage points higher than the proportion in the 2002 to 2003 calendar year period.

Figure 7: Novelty of Goods or Services Innovation for Businesses, 2002 to 2003 and 2004 to 2005 Calendar Years
Graph 7: Novelty of Goods or Services Innovation for Businesses, 2002 to 2003 and 2004 to 2005 Calendar Years



In the 2002 to 2003 calendar years, the proportion of businesses each introducing or implementing "New to the industry", "New to Australia" and "New to the world" goods or services innovation was over 10%. In the 2004 to 2005 calendar years, these three categories recorded proportions of businesses innovating at 10% or below (about 8%, 10% and 8% respectively).


The total number of estimated businesses under these novelty types has decreased over the two Innovation Surveys. In the 2004 to 2005 calendar years, the total number of estimated businesses introducing or implementing "New to the industry" goods or services innovation was about 2,300 businesses compared to 3,100 businesses in the 2002 to 2003 calendar years. A similar drop was seen in "New to Australia" novelty innovation. In the 2004 to 2005 calendar years, the total number of estimated businesses introducing or implementing new goods or services innovation that was "New to Australia" was about 2,800. In the 2002 to 2003 calendar years, it was about 3,300. The total number of estimated businesses in the "New to the world" category has slightly increased in the 2004 to 2005 calendar years to 2,100 businesses. This compares with around 2,000 businesses in the 2002 to 2003 period.


Table 4 shows the novelty of goods or services innovation occurring across ANZSIC divisions. All divisions showed more than 50% of businesses introducing new goods and services innovation with highest degree of novelty being "New to the business". The Wholesale trade division reported a negligible proportion (less than 1%) of businesses introducing goods and services innovation categorised as "New to the industry". However, the same division showed the highest proportion (about 23%) of businesses introducing goods or services innovation categorised as "New to Australia". The Construction, Retail trade and Transport and storage divisions also recorded negligible proportions of businesses (less than 1%) introducing or implementing goods or services innovation categorised as "New to the world" in the 2004 to 2005 calendar years. The Manufacturing and Property and business services divisions showed the highest proportions (about 14% each) of goods or services innovation categorised as "New to the world" goods or services. A chi-square test result indicated that type of industry may have an influence on the degree of novelty in goods or services (see Appendix 2, Table A1).

Table 4: Novelty of Goods or Services Innovation for Businesses by Industry(a) - 2002 to 2003 and 2004 to 2005(b)

New to business
New to industry
New to Australia
New to the world
%
%
%
%

2004 to 2005

Mining
*66
^13
*16
5
Manufacturing
64
8
14
14
Electricity, gas & water supply
83
5
7
5
Construction
^89
4
7
-
Wholesale trade
^67
-
^23
10
Retail trade
^78
^15
^7
-
Accommodation, cafes & restaurants
^85
^9
3
3
Transport & storage
^81
^11
8
-
Communication services
^53
^20
^20
7
Finance & Insurance
^74
9
11
6
Property & Business services
^72
7
7
^14
Cultural & Recreational services
^67
^13
^12
^8
Total
74
8
10
8

2002 to 2003

Mining
*47
7
*33
^13
Manufacturing
51
16
18
15
Electricity, gas & water supply
38
30
14
18
Construction
*54
*22
^23
1
Wholesale trade
^51
14
^21
^14
Retail trade
*56
^20
*24
-
Accommodation, cafes & restaurants
*66
*28
6
-
Transport & storage
^71
^16
3
^10
Communication services
^22
^20
^32
^26
Finance & Insurance
^47
^28
^17
^8
Property & Business services
^58
10
^18
^14
Cultural & Recreational services
^59
^20
^13
8
Total
55
16
18
11

^ estimate has a relative standard error of 10% to less than 25% and should be used with caution
* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Industry refers to ANZSIC division
(b) Calendar years


All divisions showed an increase in the proportion of "New to the business" innovation for goods or services over the 2004 to 2005 period compared with the proportions for the 2002 to 2003 period. The most significant divisions were Electricity, gas and water supply and the Communications industry, which showed an increase in their proportions by more than double between the two survey reference periods (Table 4). In terms of "New to the industry" innovation proportions, both Electricity, gas and water supply and the Construction divisions dropped by about six times since the 2002 to 2003 calendar years, while it was about three times for the Finance and insurance services division. The Mining, Electricity, gas and water supply, Transport and storage and Communication services divisions were the most significant groups which showed more than double in the drop of proportions in "New to the world" goods or services innovation (Table 4).


Similar to the novelty in goods or services innovation, operational processes also exhibited a significantly high proportion (87%) of "New to the business" innovation during the 2004 to 2005 period (see Figure 8). The total number of estimated businesses introducing or implementing "New to the business" operational processes innovation was about 26,700 businesses in the 2004 to 2005 calendar years. In contrast, this estimate was about 19,400 businesses in the 2002 to 2003 period.


Unlike novelty in goods or services innovation, operational processes innovation showed very few businesses (about 1%) introducing "New to the world" processes. The total number of estimated businesses introducing or implementing "New to the world" operational processes innovation was about 700 in the 2002 to 2003 calendar years and only about 200 in the 2004 to 2005 period. A similar trend was seen in the "New to industry" operational process category (estimated total businesses around 4,500 in the 2002 to 2003 period and about 2,700 businesses in the 2004 to 2005 period) and the "New to Australia" operational process category (estimated total businesses around 1,200 in the 2002 to 2003 period and about 1,000 businesses in the 2004 to 2005 period).

Figure 8: Novelty of Operational Processes Innovation for Businesses, 2002 to 2003 and 2004 to 2005 Calendar Years
Graph: Figure 8: Novelty of Operational Processes Innovation for Businesses, 2002 to 2003 and 2004 to 2005 Calendar Years



Novelty in operational processes innovation for 2004 to 2005 also showed very high proportions (over 70%) of "New to the business" processes across all industry divisions. The Construction, Retail trade and Accommodation, cafes and restaurants divisions had none or few (less than 1%) businesses innovating in operational processes innovation that was "New to Australia". The Mining industry division had the highest proportion (about 8%) of businesses involved in "New to the world" operational processes innovation, perhaps reflecting Australia's comparative advantage in mining activities.

Table 5: Novelty of Operational Process Innovation for Businesses by Industry(a) - 2002 to 2003 and 2004 to 2005(b)

New to business
New to industry
New to Australia
New to the world
%
%
%
%

2004 to 2005

Mining
^71
^13
8
8
Manufacturing
84
6
8
2
Electricity, gas & water supply
74
14
12
-
Construction
^84
^16
-
-
Wholesale trade
89
6
5
-
Retail trade
^86
^14
-
-
Accommodation, cafes & restaurants
94
6
-
-
Transport & storage
^85
8
3
4
Communication services
87
8
4
1
Finance & Insurance
88
4
6
2
Property & Business services
90
9
1
-
Cultural & Recreational services
^87
6
^7
-
Total
87
9
3
1

2002 to 2003

Mining
^68
11
^19
2
Manufacturing
74
13
9
4
Electricity, gas & water supply
75
10
8
7
Construction
^68
^32
-
-
Wholesale trade
^81
^13
6
-
Retail trade
^78
^16
6
-
Accommodation, cafes & restaurants
^78
^18
4
-
Transport & storage
88
7
2
3
Communication services
^65
^17
8
^10
Finance & Insurance
^71
^24
3
2
Property & Business services
^70
^20
3
7
Cultural & Recreational services
^87
6
3
4
Total
75
17
5
3

^ estimate has a relative standard error of 10% to less than 25% and should be used with caution
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Industry refers to ANZSIC division
(b) Calendar years


Apart from the Electricity, gas and water supply division, all other divisions have increased their proportion of operational process innovation categorised as "New to the business" since the 2002 to 2003 calendar years. However, the increases were not relatively large when compared to some other industry divisions for goods or services innovation (Table 5). The Electricity, gas and water supply division showed a slight decrease from the 2002 to 2003 period when compared to the 2004 to 2005 period (about 75% and 74% respectively). Similar to the goods or services innovations, operational process innovation also showed a decrease in the "New to world" innovation since the 2002 to 2003 period. Only the Mining and Transport and storage industry divisions have increased (about six and one percentage points respectively).


The total number of estimated businesses introducing or implementing new organisational processes in the 2004 to 2005 calendar years was about 35,100 businesses. The novelty in organisational processes innovation in the 2004 to 2005 period was mainly concentrated in the "New to the business" category (about 94% of total businesses introducing or implementing new organisational processes) and "New to industry" (about 5%). "New to Australia" and "New to the world" novelty were each less than 1%.


Innovation novelty data shows that Australia has relatively low proportions in introducing or implementing innovations which are categorised as "New to Australia" or "New to the world". The Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources (2006) found that companies that collaborated in innovation with other businesses or entities had a much greater chance of achieving a "New to the world" degree of novelty.



2.3. Share of Turnover from New Goods or Services Innovation

This section examines the contribution of innovation activity in terms of turnover for businesses. The Innovation Survey 2005 asked businesses to report the proportion of total turnover that arises from new products (i.e. not including products that were unchanged or products that had been changed in minor ways). This indicator provides data that facilitates the comparison of innovative performance across businesses and industries. It also reflects the scale of goods and service replacement over the period covered, providing some indication of technological renewal and upgrading, in value terms. Comparison with 2002-2003 turnover data was not possible due to the unreliability of the data for this period.


Table 6 shows how the proportion of turnover attributed to new goods or services innovation varies across industry divisions. A higher proportion (over 40%) of businesses in all industry divisions reported turnover attributed to goods or services innovation "10% or less". The turnover "Greater than 10 to 25%" category ranged between 11% (in Construction and Electricity, gas and water supply) to 34% (Accommodation, cafes and restaurants). The Property and business services industry division recorded the highest proportion for the "Greater than 50%" turnover category (about 17%) while the Mining industry division recorded the lowest (0%). The remaining industry divisions reported 10% or less for this turnover category.


The overall turnover attributed to new goods or services innovation in 2004-05 was about 7%, which is below the average value for the European Union members (EU-27) in 2004 which was about 8.6% (Eurostat (b), 2007).

Table 6: Proportion of Businesses (a), by Degree of Turnover Attributed to New Goods or Services Innovation by Industry(b) - 2004-05(c)

Less than 10%
Between 10% and 25%
Between 25% and 50%
Greater than 50%
%
%
%
%

Mining
*61
^14
*25
-
Manufacturing
56
29
10
5
Electricity, gas & water supply
^84
11
-
5
Construction
^83
^11
-
6
Wholesale trade
^78
^14
5
3
Retail trade
^82
^14
-
4
Accommodation, cafes & restaurants
^54
^34
6
6
Transport & storage
^63
^18
^12
^7
Communication services
^55
^29
13
3
Finance & Insurance
^80
^17
1
2
Property & Business services
^48
^25
9
^17
Cultural & Recreational services
^61
^23
5
^10
Total
65
22
6
7

^ estimate has a relative standard error of 10% to less than 25% and should be used with caution
* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Proportion related to Innovating Businesses Only
(b) Industry refers to ANZSIC division
(c) Financial year


Bookmark and Share. Opens in a new window

Commonwealth of Australia 2014

Unless otherwise noted, content on this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia Licence together with any terms, conditions and exclusions as set out in the website Copyright notice. For permission to do anything beyond the scope of this licence and copyright terms contact us.