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4710.0 - Housing and Infrastructure in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities, Australia, 2006  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 20/08/2007  Reissue
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CHAPTER 3 - A PROFILE OF DISCRETE ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER COMMUNITIES


INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents the main characteristics of the discrete Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities enumerated in the 2006 CHINS. For the purposes of this survey, a discrete Indigenous community is defined as a geographic location, bounded by physical or cadastral boundaries, and inhabited predominantly by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. For more details, refer to Discrete Indigenous Community in the Glossary. The survey included discrete communities located in urban and sparsely populated areas across Australia.


The 2006 CHINS includes summary information on the number and reported usual population of these communities, as well as details of their housing and related infrastructure such as water, electricity, sewerage system, drainage, and rubbish collection and disposal. Information is also presented on transport, communication, sporting facilities, and the education and health services available to these communities.


Detailed community infrastructure data were collected from all discrete Indigenous communities with either a reported population of 50 or more people or self-administered communities with a population of less than 50 people. In an attempt to reduce the reporting load on respondents, all other communities with a population of less than 50 people and administered by a larger discrete Indigenous community or Resource Agency were asked a subset of questions from the community questionnaire. For this reason, care should be taken when interpreting community data presented in this publication. Footnotes have been included to assist users interpret data and identify data inclusions and exclusions from the various data items.


In 2006, a total of 376 (32%) communities completed the detailed community questionnaire and 811 (68%) completed a subset of questions from this questionnaire.



POPULATION

A total of 1,187 discrete Indigenous communities were enumerated in the 2006 CHINS, a reduction of 29 communities from 1,216 in 2001. The change in the number of discrete communities reflects a number of small discrete Indigenous communities being abandoned. Almost three quarters of total discrete Indigenous communities had a population of less than 50 people. A total of 17 discrete Indigenous communities had a reported population of 1,000 people or more.

3.1 Remoteness area of discrete Indigenous communities, by population - 2001 and 2006

Communities with a population of
Less than 50
50-99
100-199
200-499
500-999
1,000 or more
All communities
Reported usual population
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

2001

Remoteness Area
Major cities
-
1
3
1
-
-
5
645
Inner regional
1
7
5
6
-
-
19
2 776
Outer regional
14
13
12
11
-
3
53
11 838
Remote
69
17
9
11
1
2
109
12 146
Very remote
805
64
51
77
17
16
1 030
80 680
Australia
889
102
80
106
18
21
1 216
108 085

2006

Remoteness Area
Major cities
2
-
2
-
-
-
4
346
Inner regional
5
5
8
1
-
-
19
1 870
Outer regional
20
9
16
4
-
3
52
10 254
Remote
71
14
8
7
2
2
104
11 237
Very remote
767
95
58
59
17
12
1 008
69 253
Australia
865
123
92
71
19
17
1 187
92 960

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)


A total of 92,960 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were reported as living in discrete Indigenous communities, down 15,125 people from the 108,085 people reported in 2001. Decreases were noted across all remoteness areas.


The decreases in population counts from 2001 to 2006 can be attributed to the change in data collection and improvements in data quality. In 2006, computer assisted interviewing was introduced allowing in-field edit checks to be incorporated into the data collection. For more details on data collection and data quality, refer to paragraphs 11 to 36 of the Explanatory Notes.


A total of 1,008 (85%) discrete Indigenous communities were located in very remote localities, of which 767 (76%) had a population of less than 50. The number of very remote discrete Indigenous communities with a population of less than 50 decreased, down 38 (5%) communities from 805 reported in 2001 to 767 in 2006. The decrease in the number of very remote communities is largely attributed to outstations being abandoned and homelands no longer being supported by regional IHOs as they are being used for cultural activities only. The total number of reported Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders living in very remote communities was 69,253, which was 74 per cent of the total Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population living in communities.


A total of 104 (9%) discrete Indigenous communities were located in remote Australia, compared to 109 reported in the 2001 CHINS. The total number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders living in remote communities was 11,237, down 8 per cent from 12,146 reported in 2001.


The number of urban discrete Indigenous communities decreased by 2 (3%) from 77 in 2001 to 75 in 2006. A total of 12,470 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people lived in urban discrete communities (i.e. major cities, inner regional and outer regional), down 2,789 (22%) people from the 15,259 reported in 2001.


Community locations

As previously stated, almost three quarters of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in discrete communities were located in very remote communities, followed by those in remote Australia 11,237 (12%). Those populations living in outer regional Australia totalled 10,254 (11%), with inner regional Australia and major cities as the remainder.


The highest proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in discrete communities were located in the Northern Territory, 41,681 (45%) followed by Queensland, 27,446 (30%) and Western Australia, 13,838 (15%).

3.2 Reported usual population for discrete Indigenous communities, by State or Territory - by remoteness area - 2006

Major cities
Inner regional
Outer regional
Remote
Very remote
Australia
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

State or Territory
New South Wales
340
1 687
2 158
407
490
5 082
Victoria
-
120
150
-
-
270
Queensland
-
-
6 184
5 213
16 049
27 446
South Australia
-
63
858
119
3 527
4 567
Western Australia
6
-
163
1 148
12 521
13 838
Tasmania
-
-
-
-
76
76
Northern Territory
-
-
741
4 350
36 590
41 681
Australia
346
1 870
10 254
11 237
69 253
92 960

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)


Temporary population increases

The size and duration of short term increases in the populations of discrete communities can create stress on community infrastructure which needs to support the visitors for some period of time, in addition to the community's usual population. In 2006, 248 (21%) discrete Indigenous communities reported a population increase for two weeks or more during the 12 months prior to the survey. Of all the communities which experienced a population increase, just over a third reported increases of a size similar to, or greater than, their usual population. Cultural reasons accounted for the majority of increases (53%), followed by visitors over holiday periods (25%), and changes in wet/dry season (9%).

3.3 Reported population increases in discrete Indigenous communities(a)(b), by reported usual population - 2006

Communities with a population of
Less than 50
50-99
100-199
200-499
500-999
1,000 or more
All communities
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Population increase
Less than 20 people
13
12
3
4
2
-
34
20-49 people
9
27
19
15
1
1
72
50-99 people
9
18
21
14
5
3
70
100-199 people
1
11
6
11
3
2
34
200 people or more
-
6
15
9
4
4
38
Total with increase in population
32
74
64
53
15
10
248
Reason for increase in population
Cultural reasons
12
35
31
34
13
7
132
Wet season
-
7
3
5
2
2
19
Dry season
-
1
2
-
-
-
3
Sporting or recreational events
-
2
5
3
-
-
10
Holidays
13
23
20
6
-
-
62
Seasonal work
1
1
-
1
-
-
3
Better facilities
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
Meetings
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
Other
6
4
2
4
-
1
17
No increase in population
22
42
25
18
4
6
117
All communities(c)(d)
865
123
92
71
19
17
1 187

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Largest population increase lasting 2 weeks or more in the 12 months prior to the survey.
(b) Data not collected in 'administered' communities with a population of less than 50. Refer to Explanatory Notes paragraph 16 for further details.
(c) Includes communities where population increase was not collected.
(d) Components may not add to totals as more than one response may be specified.



KEY COMMUNITY CHARACTERISTICS

Housing

In the 2006 CHINS, a total of 17,177 permanent dwellings were reported as being located in 1,187 discrete Indigenous communities of which 15,655 (91%) permanent dwellings were managed by IHOs and the remaining were state government owned, owned by other organisations or privately owned permanent dwellings. The number of IHO managed permanent dwellings increased by 427 (3%), from 15,228 permanent dwellings reported in 2001. A total of 13,105 (76%) permanent dwellings located in discrete Indigenous communities were located in very remote areas, followed by non-remote and remote with 2,244 (13%) and 1,828 (11%) respectively.


In 2006, 4,039 (4%) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders were reported as living in temporary dwellings, of which 3,886 persons (96%) required permanent housing. The number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people requiring permanent housing decreased by 1,234 persons (24%) from 2001.


A total of 1,596 occupied temporary dwellings were reported in the 2006 CHINS, down 286 (15%) from the reported 1,882 occupied temporary dwellings reported in 2001. Two thirds of occupied temporary dwellings were located in very remote areas, followed by non-remote and remote reporting 17 per cent each.


Education

In 2006, a total of 245 (21%) of the 1,187 discrete Indigenous communities reported that they had a primary school located within the community, down slightly from the 249 reported in 2001. Around 87 per cent of discrete Indigenous communities with primary schools located in the community were located in very remote Australia.


A total of 49 discrete Indigenous communities reported that they had a secondary school up to year 10 located within the community, down from 67 reported communities in 2001. While there was a decrease of 18 (27%) in the number of communities with a secondary school up to year 10, 14 of these communities are now reporting a secondary school up to Year 12 located in the community, indicating an improvement in the education services provided.


The number of discrete Indigenous communities that had a secondary school up to year 12 increased, up 23 (135%) from 17 discrete Indigenous communities in 2001 to 40 communities in 2006.


Access to medical facilities

In 2006, a total of 10 of the 1,187 discrete Indigenous communities reported that they had a hospital located within the community, one more than the 9 reported in 2001.


In CHINS 2006, data for community health centres are now presented in two separate categories, Aboriginal primary health care centres and Other (state funded) community health centres. Aboriginal Primary Health Care Centres are community controlled health facilities that provide health care services and health care support to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.


In 2006, a total of 107 communities reported an Aboriginal Primary Health Care Centre located within the community, of which 76 were located in very remote communities, 21 in non-remote communities and 10 in remote communities.


A total of 104 Indigenous communities reported that an 'Other (state funded) community health centre' was located in the community. Of these, 89 were located in very remote communities, 9 in non-remote communities and 6 in remote communities.


Access to health professionals

Indigenous health workers are trained to certificate level and generally provide first point of contact for health services within the community. Indigenous health workers provide assistance and information on health issues such as alcohol and mental health, diabetes, ear and eye health, sexual health, hospital education and as liaison officers with other health professionals. Indigenous health workers are often required within communities for cultural and sensitivity reasons.


In 2006, 302 (25%) discrete Indigenous communities reported having a male Indigenous health worker visit or work in the community, up 37 (14%) from the 265 communities reported in 2001. Very remote discrete Indigenous communities accounted for 236 (78%) of communities reporting male Indigenous health workers visiting or working in the community followed by remote and non-remote with 39 (13%) and 27 (9%) respectively.


The number of discrete Indigenous communities that reported having a female Indigenous health worker visit or work in the community decreased, down 17 (5%) from 349 in 2001 to 332 in 2006. Very remote discrete Indigenous communities accounted for 283 (85%) of communities reporting female Indigenous health workers visiting or working in the community followed by non-remote and remote with 28 (8%) and 21 (6%) respectively.


In 2006, registered nurses worked or visited a total of 368 (31%) discrete Indigenous communities, a decrease of 66 (15%) from 434 communities in 2001. Very remote discrete Indigenous communities accounted for 328 (89%) of communities reporting registered nurses visiting or working in the community, followed by non-remote and remote with 23 (6%) and 17 (5%) respectively.


A total of 293 (25%) discrete Indigenous communities reported doctors visiting or working within the community, a decrease of 109 (27%) communities from 402 in 2001. Of these communities, 239 (82%) were located in very remote localities.


Water supply

The number of discrete Indigenous communities with no organised water supply decreased from 21 communities in 2001 to 9 in 2006. Eight of these communities were located in very remote areas.


In 2006, a total of 209 (18%) discrete Indigenous communities reported the main source of drinking water as a town water supply, an increase of 23 (12%) communities from 186 in 2001. Bore water was the most common source of drinking water with 694 (58%) communities reporting it as the main source of drinking water, down 90 (11%) communities from 784 in 2001.


Electricity supply

No organised electricity supply was reported in 32 (3%) discrete Indigenous communities in 2006, fewer than the 80 (7%) communities reported in 2001. The number of communities connected to state grid as the main source of electricity increased, up 5 per cent from 260 communities in 2001 to 274 communities in 2006.


The number of communities relying on community generators as the main electricity supply decreased from 480 communities in 2001 to 377 communities in 2006. Care should be taken when comparing these decreases as a total of 106 (9%) discrete Indigenous communities did not report their main source of electricity.


The number of communities reporting the use of solar or solar hybrid as main source of electricity remained consistent with 212 communities reporting this supply in 2006 compared to 215 communities in 2001. Care should be taken when comparing solar and solar hybrid as, while total solar remains consistent, the reported numbers for these categories vary considerably between 2001 and 2006. This may indicate respondent difficulty in interpreting the response categories for this item.


Sewerage system

In the 2006 CHINS, 25 discrete Indigenous communities reported having no organised sewerage system, an improvement on the 91 communities reported in 2001. The total population affected by the lack of sewerage facilities was 1,969 people (table 3.9).


Septic tanks with leach drain were the most common type of sewerage system in discrete Indigenous communities, with half the communities reporting this type of system.


The number of communities connected to a town sewerage system improved between 2001 and 2006, with an increase of 32 (36%) communities now reporting this system.


Community water-borne systems also improved slightly, recording an increase of 12 (13%) communities now using this type of sewerage system.


Rubbish collection

Organised rubbish collection was carried out in 337 discrete Indigenous communities in 2006 compared to 363 reported in 2001. Decreases in communities with this service were recorded for all Remoteness Areas. In 2006, a total of 29 communities reported having no organised rubbish collection.


Telecommunications

A total of 630 (53%) discrete Indigenous communities reported public access to telephones within the community. Of these, 547 (87%) were located in very remote localities.


In 2006, 180 communities reported community access to a satellite dish for general broadcasts, Internet access and the like, of which 167 (93%) were located in very remote localities.

3.4 Selected characteristics of discrete Indigenous communities, by Remoteness Area - 2001 and 2006

Non-remote
Remote
Very remote
All communities
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Number of dwellings (no.)

Dwellings
Permanent dwellings
Total
2 355
2 244
1 822
1 828
12 789
13 105
16 966
17 177
IHO managed
2 200
2 208
1 667
1 711
11 361
11 736
15 228
15 655
Other
155
36
155
117
1 428
1 369
1 738
1 522
Temporary dwellings
Total temporary dwellings
140
274
256
269
1 486
1 053
1 882
1 596

Number of people (no.)

Population living in temporary dwellings
316
684
608
532
4 678
2 823
5 602
4 039
Population requiring permanent housing
308
666
534
511
4 278
2 709
5 120
3 886

Number of communities (no.)

All communities
77
75
109
104
1 030
1 008
1 216
1 187
Population
Reported usual population
Less than 50
15
27
69
71
805
767
889
865
50-99
21
14
17
14
64
95
102
123
100-199
20
26
9
8
51
58
80
92
200-499
18
5
11
7
77
59
106
71
500-999
-
-
1
2
17
17
18
19
1,000 or more
3
3
2
2
16
12
21
17
Education
Education facilities located in communities
Primary school
12
19
11
14
226
212
249
245
Secondary school up to Year 10(a)
7
3
3
3
57
43
67
49
Secondary school up to Year 12(a)
2
3
-
2
15
35
17
40
Pre-primary(a)
23
22
11
10
119
94
153
126
Other education services(a)
23
29
7
13
90
126
120
168
Health facilities
Medical facilities located in communities
Hospital located in community
4
4
1
1
4
5
9
10
Aboriginal Primary Health Care Centre
na
21
na
10
na
76
na
107
Other (state funded) community health centre
na
9
na
6
na
89
na
104
Health professionals visiting or working in communities
Male Indigenous health worker
21
27
33
39
211
236
265
302
Female Indigenous health worker
29
28
15
21
305
283
349
332
Doctor
31
22
19
32
352
239
402
293
Registered nurse
25
23
17
17
392
328
434
368
Utilities
Water supply
Main source of drinking water
Connected to town supply
54
57
62
57
70
95
186
209
Bore water
13
10
27
21
744
663
784
694
Rain water tank(s)
2
2
7
7
44
32
53
41
River/reservoir etc
7
6
5
3
87
48
99
57
Well or spring
1
-
4
2
46
37
51
39
Carted water
na
-
na
12
na
15
na
27
Other organised water supply
-
-
4
-
18
3
22
3
No organised water supply
-
-
-
1
21
8
21
9
Electricity supply
Main source of electricity
State grid/transmitted supply
74
70
70
69
116
135
260
274
Community generators
-
1
15
8
465
368
480
377
Domestic generators
2
3
3
7
162
168
167
178
Solar
-
-
1
6
89
99
90
105
Solar hybrid
-
1
16
12
109
94
125
107
Other organised electricity supply
-
-
1
-
13
8
14
8
No organised electricity supply
1
-
3
1
76
31
80
32
Sewerage system
Type of sewerage system
Connected to town system
38
43
26
30
25
48
89
121
Community water-borne system
7
10
10
9
79
89
96
108
Septic tanks with common effluent disposal
16
12
15
7
73
82
104
101
Septic tanks with leach drain
14
13
46
57
537
523
597
593
Pit toilets
-
-
7
7
217
195
224
202
Pan toilets
-
-
2
-
1
1
3
1
Other organised sewerage system
-
-
-
-
12
9
12
9
No organised sewerage system
2
3
3
2
86
20
91
25
Rubbish disposal(a)
Community has organised rubbish collection
66
57
48
41
249
239
363
337
Community does not have organised rubbish collection
7
6
2
1
19
22
28
29
Telecommunication facilities
Public access to community telecommunication facilities
Telephones
21
34
44
49
532
547
597
630
Satellite dish(a)
na
5
na
8
na
167
na
180
Radio(a)
70
62
49
42
238
233
357
337
Television(a)(b)
69
63
49
42
245
244
363
349
Internet(a)
na
19
na
7
na
110
na
136

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
na not available
(a) Data not collected in 'administered' communities with a population of less than 50. Refer to Explanatory Notes paragraph 16 for further details.
(b) Excludes cable television in 2001.



COMMUNITY HOUSING

In 2006, a total of 17,177 permanent dwellings were reported as being located in discrete Indigenous communities. IHO managed permanent dwellings accounted for 91 per cent of total permanent dwellings.


Discrete Indigenous communities with a population of less than 50 accounted for the highest proportion of temporary dwellings. A total of 719 temporary dwellings was reported for small communities, down 284 (28%) from the 1,003 reported in 2001.


Of the 15,655 IHO managed permanent dwellings, 10,319 (66%) were reported as needing minor or no repair, 3,911 (25%) required major repair and 1,425 (9%) required replacement. The proportion of dwellings needing only minor or no repair was highest in the small communities, decreasing from 75 per cent for communities with a population of less than 50 to an average of 57 per cent for communities with a population of 50 or more.


Compared to the 2001 survey, the proportion of IHO managed permanent dwellings requiring major repair or replacement increased slightly from 31 per cent in 2001 to 34 per cent in 2006.

3.5 Discrete Indigenous community housing, by reported usual population - 2006

Less than 50
50-99
100-199
200-499
500-999
1,000 or more
All communities

Number of dwellings (no.)

Permanent dwellings
IHO managed
2 653
1 572
2 464
3 649
1 943
3 374
15 655
Other
25
75
235
508
325
354
1 522
Total
2 678
1 647
2 699
4 157
2 268
3 728
17 177
Temporary dwellings
Total temporary dwellings
719
187
182
214
43
251
1 596
Condition
Minor or no repairs
2 004
1 004
1 562
2 384
1 229
2 136
10 319
Major repairs
497
423
638
816
582
955
3 911
Replacement
152
145
264
449
132
283
1 425

Number of communities (no.)

All communities
865
123
92
71
19
17
1 187

Number of people (no.)

Population living in temporary dwellings
1 803
531
391
591
140
583
4 039
Population requiring permanent housing
1 722
510
365
570
136
583
3 886
Reported usual population
10 701
8 121
12 748
21 140
12 940
27 310
92 960



WATER SUPPLY

In 2006, 209 discrete Indigenous communities reported being connected to a town water supply. These communities represented a combined population of 28,084 people. Of these 209 communities, small communities with a population of less than 50 accounted for almost 40 per cent, followed by communities with a population between 50 and 99 (25%) and communities with a population between 100 and 199 (22%).


A total of 694 (58%) communities reported bores as the main source of water. Of these, 541 (78%) had a population of less than 50 people. A total of 20 communities reporting bores as the main source had a population of 500 or more.


A total of 27 communities relied on carted water as the main supply of water. The majority of these had a population of less than 50. One large community with a population of over 200 reported carted water as the main source due to problems with the bore.


Nine small communities with a population of less than 50 reported no organised water supply.


Of all discrete Indigenous communities not connected to a town water supply (self administered or reporting a population of 50 or more), 48 communities reported that the community's drinking water had failed testing. These communities had a combined population of 12,059 people.


A total of 141 discrete Indigenous communities, representing a combined total of 46,114 people, reported that drinking water was treated. Chlorination accounted for the highest proportion of water treatments, with 112 communities reporting this type of treatment.


A total of 68 Indigenous communities, either self administered or reporting a population of 50 or more, and not connected to a town water supply, reported they did not use any water treatments in the drinking water.

3.6 Water supply and testing in discrete Indigenous communities, by reported usual population - 2006

Communities with a population of
Less than 50
50-99
100-199
200-499
500-999
1,000 or more
All communities
Reported usual population
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Main source of water
Connected to town supply
81
53
46
19
4
6
209
28 084
Bore water
541
57
38
38
12
8
694
48 511
Rain water tank(s)
31
4
1
5
-
-
41
2 378
River/reservoir
37
3
4
7
3
3
57
11 667
Well or spring
37
-
1
1
-
-
39
887
Carted water
26
-
-
1
-
-
27
637
Other organised water supply
2
1
-
-
-
-
3
104
No organised water supply
9
-
-
-
-
-
9
20
Water sent away for testing(a)(b)(c)
Drinking water failed testing
5
10
15
12
4
2
48
12 059
Drinking water did not fail testing
10
27
21
27
9
6
100
29 104
Total communities water sent away for testing(d)
15
42
38
45
13
11
164
50 043
Drinking water not sent away for testing(a)(b)
10
22
6
6
1
-
45
4 796
Treatment of drinking water(a)(b)
Chlorination
5
22
26
40
11
8
112
38 566
Disinfectants
-
5
4
1
-
-
10
1 193
Direct filtration
-
8
6
3
-
2
19
6 492
Sedimentation or filtration
2
2
4
9
2
3
22
11 561
Aeration
-
2
1
1
1
-
5
1 412
Activated carbon
-
1
1
1
-
-
3
500
Other treatments
2
6
10
6
2
1
27
6 282
Total communities treating drinking water(e)
8
31
36
45
11
10
141
46 114
Total communities not treating drinking water
17
33
8
6
3
1
68
8 725
All communities
865
123
92
71
19
17
1 187
92 960

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Excludes communities connected to town supply.
(b) Data not collected in 'administered' communities with a population of less than 50. Refer to Explanatory Notes paragraph 16 for further details.
(c) In the 12 months prior to the survey.
(d) Total includes don't know if failed testing.
(e) Components may not add to totals as more than one response may be specified.


Of the communities not connected to a town water supply in 2006, a total of 76 communities, either self administered or reporting a population of 50 or more, experienced water restrictions in the 12 months prior to the survey. A total of 25,557 people were affected by these water restrictions.


There were 182 communities that experienced water interruptions, largely due to equipment breakdown, affecting a combined population of 44,563 people. In 69 communities, water supply had been interrupted at least five times affecting a total population of 21,291 people.

3.7 Water restrictions and interruptions in discrete Indigenous communities(a)(b)(c), by reported usual population - 2006

Communities with a population of
Less than 50
50-99
100-199
200-499
500-999
1,000 or more
All communities
Reported usual population
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Water restrictions
Experienced water restrictions
Drought
7
8
12
4
1
2
34
8 267
Normal dry season
-
4
4
6
3
3
20
8 129
Lack of storage containment
-
3
2
2
2
2
11
6 853
Poor water quality
-
4
3
-
-
1
8
3 634
Other reason
3
4
5
4
1
2
19
7 222
Total communities experienced water restrictions(d)
8
19
21
14
7
7
76
25 557
Did not experience water restrictions
46
97
68
57
12
10
290
57 173
Water interruptions
Experienced water interruptions
Equipment breakdown
14
38
38
39
9
7
145
36 139
Ran out of water
2
6
5
4
2
-
19
3 879
Poor water quality
-
3
3
2
2
-
10
2 706
Lack of power
-
3
6
4
4
1
18
6 825
Planned interruption
4
18
18
16
5
5
66
18 943
Other water interruption
3
2
1
4
1
1
12
3 235
Total communities experienced water interruptions(d)
17
52
47
45
12
9
182
44 563
Did not experience water interruption
37
64
42
26
7
8
184
38 167
Frequency of water interruption
Once
4
8
9
6
1
1
29
5 366
Twice
2
13
8
13
1
1
38
7 403
Three times
4
8
8
5
-
1
26
4 178
Four times
2
4
7
3
2
2
20
6 325
Five times or more
5
19
15
18
8
4
69
21 291
All communities
865
123
92
71
19
17
1 187
92 960

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) In the 12 months prior to the survey.
(b) Data not collected in 'administered' communities with a population of less than 50. Refer to Explanatory Notes paragraph 16 for further details.
(c) Excludes communities connected to town supply.
(d) Components may not add to totals as more than one response may be specified.



ELECTRICITY

A total of 1,049 (88%) discrete Indigenous communities reported access to an organised electricity supply. Communities with a population of less than 50 people relied on community and domestic generators, with 217 and 172 communities respectively reporting these electricity sources. A total of 275 communities, either self administered or with a population of 50 or more people, reported interruptions to the electricity supply, mainly due to storms and equipment breakdown.

3.8 Electricity supply and interruptions in discrete Indigenous communities, by reported usual population - 2006

Communities with a population of
Less than 50
50-99
100-199
200-499
500-999
1,000 or more
All communities
Reported usual population
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Main source of electricity
State grid/transmitted supply
132
60
46
23
5
8
274
35 217
Community generators
217
53
39
46
13
9
377
50 317
Domestic generators
172
3
2
1
-
-
178
2 061
Solar
102
3
-
-
-
-
105
1 658
Solar hybrid
102
3
1
1
-
-
107
2 021
Other organised electricity supply
5
1
1
-
1
-
8
1 030
Total communities with an organised electricity supply
730
123
89
71
19
17
1 049
92 304
Total communities with no organised electricity supply
31
-
1
-
-
-
32
284
Electricity interruptions(a)(b)
Reason for electricity interruption
Storms
22
46
39
37
13
11
168
45 738
Equipment breakdown
13
45
36
39
10
7
150
39 364
No fuel
3
10
3
1
1
-
18
2 509
Planned outage for maintenance
8
29
32
31
11
5
116
32 848
Vandalism
1
3
5
4
-
-
13
2 417
System overload
7
18
15
16
1
2
59
14 235
Other reason
2
4
4
5
2
2
19
6 743
Total communities experienced electricity interruptions(c)
29
82
68
65
18
13
275
67 849
Total communities experienced no electricity interruption
25
34
20
6
1
4
90
14 761
Frequency of electricity interruption(a)(b)
1-4 times
14
37
31
23
8
4
117
24 183
5-9 times
7
21
19
16
3
2
68
13 867
10-14 times
5
10
7
9
1
3
35
12 561
15-19 times
1
4
2
5
2
-
14
3 896
20 times or more
2
10
9
12
4
4
41
13 342
All communities
865
123
92
71
19
17
1 187
92 960

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Data not collected in 'administered' communities with a population of less than 50. Refer to Explanatory Notes paragraph 16 for further details.
(b) In the 12 months prior to the survey.
(c) Components may not add to totals as more than one response may be specified.



SEWERAGE AND OVERFLOWS/LEAKAGES

Communities connected to a town sewerage system varied in size and accounted for a total population of 32,256 people. The number of communities connected to a town system increased to 121, up by 32 (36%) communities from 89 in 2001.


Community water-borne systems also improved slightly, with 108 communities reporting the use of this system compared to 96 in 2001. Community water-borne systems involve flush toilets and closed sewerage pipe systems using gravity and pumping stations to a common sewerage treatment plant.


Septic tanks, both with common effluent disposal and leach drains, and pit toilets continue to be the main sewerage system in small communities. Of discrete Indigenous communities with a population of less than 50, a total of 554 communities reported the use of a septic system and 193 communities reported using pit toilets.


In large communities with a population of 50 or more people, a sewerage system was reported to be connected to all permanent dwellings. A total of 192 small communities with a population of less than 50 people reported that a sewerage system was not connected to all permanent dwellings, of which 69 were located in Western Australia, 61 in the Northern Territory, 51 in Queensland and 10 in South Australia (table 4.18).


In the 12 months prior to the survey, 142 communities reported sewerage overflows and leakages. Blocked drains and equipment failure accounted for the largest proportion of overflows and leakages, 95 and 62 communities respectively. The total population in communities affected by sewerage overflows and leakages was 30,140 people.

3.9 Sewerage systems in discrete Indigenous communities, by reported usual population - 2006

Less than 50
50-99
100-199
200-499
500-999
1,000 or more
All communities
Reported usual population
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Sewerage system
Type of sewerage system
Connected to town system
25
36
31
11
7
11
121
32 256
Community water-borne system
12
17
26
39
9
5
108
32 355
Septic tanks with common effluent disposal
53
19
12
14
1
2
101
10 356
Septic tanks with leach drain
501
51
26
13
2
-
593
18 710
Pit toilets
193
6
2
1
-
-
202
3 703
Pan toilets
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
4
Other organised sewerage system
9
-
-
-
-
-
9
79
Total communities with an organised sewerage system(a)
742
122
90
71
19
16
1 060
90 842
Total communities with no organised sewerage system
22
1
1
-
-
1
25
1 969
Sewerage system overflows or leakages(b)(c)
Reason for overflows or leakages
Blocked drains
7
28
29
23
7
1
95
19 527
Equipment failure
3
18
19
15
4
3
62
14 970
Insufficient capacity of septic system
2
14
6
3
2
1
28
5 360
Wet season
1
3
6
8
2
2
22
7 070
Population increases
-
8
10
2
1
1
22
4 722
Design or installation problems
3
15
15
7
2
1
43
7 614
Inappropriate use
-
7
7
10
7
1
32
10 837
Other
1
-
-
4
-
-
5
968
Total communities experienced overflows or leakages
12
41
45
30
10
4
142
30 140
Total communities experienced no overflows or leakages
38
74
44
41
9
13
219
52 461
Communities with permanent dwellings affected by overflows or leakages
No dwellings affected
1
5
4
3
3
2
18
6 520
1-4 dwellings affected
7
17
18
11
-
-
53
6 982
5-9 dwellings affected
3
12
5
5
6
-
31
7 054
10 or more dwellings affected
1
7
18
11
1
2
40
9 584
Total communities with dwellings affected by overflows or leakages
11
36
41
27
7
2
124
23 620
All communities
865
123
92
71
19
17
1 187
92 960

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Components may not add to totals as more than one response may be specified.
(b) Data not collected in 'administered' communities with a population of less than 50. Refer to Explanatory Notes paragraph 16 for further details.
(c) In the 12 months prior to the survey.



FLOODING AND PONDING

For the purpose of CHINS, flooding is defined as instances where watercourses overflow and inundate either part or all sections of the community.


A total of 94 discrete Indigenous communities reported flooding in the 12 months prior to the survey. Thirty nine of these communities had a population of less than 50 people, 48 had a population of more than 50 but less than 500 people, and 7 had a population of more than 500 people. The total population in communities affected by flooding was 18,752 people.


Referring to Table 4.24, thirty two of the communities were located in Northern Territory followed by Western Australia and Queensland, reporting 28 and 18 communities respectively. The total number communities with dwellings affected by flooding was 47. Sixteen of these communities experienced five or more flood events affecting a total population of 7,617 people.


Ponding refers to pools of water that remain stagnant for a period of one or more weeks and cover an area of at least 10 square metres.


In 2006, a total of 122 discrete Indigenous communities reported instances of ponding. Around 80 per cent of communities affected by ponding had a reported population of between 50 and 499 people. The total population in communities affected by ponding was 28,985 people.

3.10 Flooding and drainage occurrences in discrete Indigenous communities(a), by reported usual population - 2006

Communities with a population of
Less than 50
50-99
100-199
200-499
500-999
1,000 or more
All communities
Reported usual population
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Flooding
Frequency of flooding
Once
3
5
4
6
1
-
19
3 628
Twice
2
3
3
4
1
1
14
4 642
Three times
1
1
2
3
-
-
7
1 300
Four times
1
1
2
2
-
-
6
1 036
Five times or more
1
3
3
5
3
1
16
7 617
Total
8
13
14
20
5
2
62
18 223
Total communities experienced flooding(b)
39
14
14
20
5
2
94
18 752
Total communities did not experience flooding
725
109
76
51
14
15
990
73 874
Ponding(c)
Frequency of ponding
Once
4
7
6
6
2
2
27
6 816
Twice
-
9
2
7
-
1
19
4 857
3 times
3
8
7
5
-
-
23
2 936
4 times
1
1
4
2
1
-
9
2 051
5 times or more
5
6
12
15
5
1
44
12 325
Total communities experienced ponding
13
31
31
35
8
4
122
28 985
Total communities did not experience ponding
41
85
58
36
11
13
244
53 745
All communities(d)
865
123
92
71
19
17
1 187
92 960

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Data not collected in 'administered' communities with a population of less than 50. Refer to Explanatory Notes paragraph 16 for further details.
(b) Includes communities with flooding frequency not stated.
(c) In the 12 months prior to the survey.
(d) Includes communities with flooding and ponding not stated.



TRANSPORT AND COMMUNITY ACCESS

In 2006, 63 discrete Indigenous communities were reported to be located in towns that provide major services such as banking and shopping services.


For the remaining communities, the usual means of travel to the nearest town that provided major services was by road. A total of 894 (88%) communities reported main mode of transport as road and represented a combined population of 63,529 people.


A total of 54 discrete Indigenous communities indicated that public transport was available to travel to and from the community into towns that provide major services. These represented a combined population of 23,407 people. Community transport to travel to and from the community into towns that provide major services was available in 72 communities.


Of the discrete Indigenous communities, either self administered or reporting a population of 50 or more and located outside of towns, 139 had their road access cut at least once in the last 12 months prior to the 2006 CHINS. In 42 communities, road access had been cut at least five times affecting a total population of 12,074 people. A total of 122 communities reported the community was inaccessible by road.


A total of 147 communities, either self administered or reporting a population of 50 or more, indicated that an airstrip was located within the community. Around a quarter of these (38) did not have all year round access.

3.11 Discrete Indigenous communities access to nearest town with major services, by reported usual population - 2006

Communities with a population of
Less than 50
50-99
100-199
200-499
500-999
1,000 or more
All communities
Reported usual population
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Community located within town
8
30
16
6
1
2
63
10 876
Access to community not located in town
Main mode of transport
Road
669
83
70
49
13
10
894
63 529
Air
70
4
1
11
4
5
95
15 363
Sea
17
1
3
5
1
-
27
2 520
Usual method of transport(a)
Private
43
80
62
48
16
11
260
56 558
Public
-
2
5
13
2
4
26
12 708
Community owned vehicle
3
4
4
2
-
-
13
1 588
Other
-
-
2
2
-
-
4
1 000
Whether transport services available to/from community(a)
Public
5
6
10
23
3
7
54
23 407
Community
9
17
21
19
3
3
72
18 011
Road access(a)(b)
Frequency road access cut
Once
4
13
10
11
5
2
45
12 840
Twice
5
3
5
5
1
2
21
6 432
Three times
3
7
4
1
-
-
15
1 460
Four times
-
10
3
2
1
-
16
2 075
Five times or more
2
9
17
10
2
2
42
12 074
Road access not cut
32
38
30
19
4
4
127
19 966
Inaccessible by road
87
5
4
16
5
5
122
17 883
Airstrip(a)
Airstrip located in community
6
29
37
47
16
12
147
49 655
Access to airstrip
Airstrip open all year round
3
22
29
31
16
8
109
37 702
Airstrip not open all year round
3
7
8
16
-
4
38
11 953
All communities(c)
865
123
92
71
19
17
1 187
92 960

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Data not collected in 'administered' communities with a population of less than 50. Refer to Explanatory Notes paragraph 16 for further details.
(b) In the 12 months prior to the survey.
(c) Includes communities with access to nearest town not stated.



TELECOMMUNICATIONS

In most discrete Indigenous communities, telecommunication services are generally provided by the community rather than managed on an individual household basis.


In 2006, 180 communities reported use of community based satellite for purposes of broadcasting, telephone and Internet services. Seventeen of these communities had a population of less than 50 people, 131 had a population of more than 50 but less than 500 people, and 32 had a population of 500 or more people. The total combined population with access to community satellite was 56,083 people.


Radio and television broadcasts were received in most Indigenous communities, with a total of 353 communities, either self administered or with a population of 50 people or more, reporting that they received broadcasts. Of those communities receiving broadcasts, Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC) television (95%), commercial television (95%) and ABC radio (93%) were most commonly reported.


A total of 454 discrete Indigenous communities did not have access to public telephones. These communities represented a total population of 14,847 people. Eighty eight per cent of communities with no access to public telephones had a population of less than 50. Northern Territory reported 224 communities without access to public telephones, Western Australia reported 94 communities, and Queensland reported 63 communities (table 4.27).


Access to the Internet within Indigenous communities is becoming vital to ensure delivery of services, particularly in education and health, and to keep abreast of technological advancement.


In 2006, a total of 230 communities, either self administered or with a population of 50 or more, did not have public access to the Internet. These comprised 45 communities with a population of less than 50 people, 174 communities with a population of 50 or more but less than 500 people, and 11 with a population of 500 or more people. The total combined population with no access to the Internet was 34,882 people.


Of the 136 communities reporting public access to the Internet available within the community, 77 communities had only one public Internet access point. Around two thirds of communities had the public Internet access point located in the council office or building, 31 had access points in education facilities, and 29 had access points in other localities.

3.12 Telecommunication facilities within discrete Indigenous communities(a), by reported usual population - 2006

Communities with a population of
Less than 50
50-99
100-199
200-499
500-999
1,000 or more
All communities
Reported usual population
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Satellite for community use
17
39
40
52
18
14
180
56 083
Broadcasts
Radio broadcasts
ABC radio
50
100
77
66
18
17
328
77 878
Commercial radio
41
80
58
48
16
10
253
56 957
Indigenous radio
31
72
59
66
18
17
263
73 299
Television broadcasts
ABC television
50
99
81
70
19
17
336
80 112
Commercial television
51
100
82
68
19
15
335
77 127
SBS television
41
80
73
65
17
15
291
71 704
Indigenous television
21
63
46
57
18
14
219
61 277
Cable television
22
40
42
22
9
5
140
29 886
Total communities receiving specified broadcasts(b)
52
107
87
71
19
17
353
81 829
Community did not receive any of the specified broadcasts
2
9
2
-
-
-
13
901
Public telephone access
Number of public telephones
One telephone
18
77
46
16
3
3
163
22 024
Two telephones
2
11
21
22
5
6
67
25 803
Three telephones
1
2
4
17
5
4
33
15 516
Four or more telephones
-
-
4
7
5
2
18
8 371
Total communities with number of phones
21
90
75
62
18
15
281
71 714
Total community access to a public telephone(c)
364
95
76
62
18
15
630
77 779
Total community no access to a public telephone(d)
400
28
14
9
1
2
454
14 847
Public Internet access
Number of access points
One
7
13
17
23
8
9
77
27 361
Two
1
10
6
7
1
2
27
7 848
Three
-
1
5
1
1
-
8
2 023
Four or more
1
2
8
9
1
3
24
10 616
Location of access points
Council office or building
7
20
27
26
6
6
92
26 659
Education facility
1
3
9
10
4
4
31
16 291
Cultural centre
-
4
3
1
1
2
11
4 954
Other
1
4
9
7
2
6
29
12 263
Total communities with access to Internet(b)
9
26
36
40
11
14
136
47 848
Total communities with no access to internet
45
90
53
31
8
3
230
34 882
All communities
865
123
92
71
19
17
1 187
92 960

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Data not collected in 'administered' communities with a population of less than 50. Refer to Explanatory Notes paragraph 16 for further details.
(b) Components many not add to totals as more than one response may be specified.
(c) Includes communities with number of public telephones not stated.
(d) Excludes all communities with telephone access not stated.



OTHER FACILITIES

In 2006, 178 communities, either self administered or with a population of 50 or more, reported that they did not have accommodation facilities in the community such as hostel accommodation, aged care accommodation, women's refuge or singles accommodation. A total population of 16,882 people lived in these communities.


Visitor accommodation accounted for the highest proportion of other accommodation facilities with 119 communities reporting this type of accommodation within the community. Accommodation for contract workers accounted for the second highest proportion, followed by camping facilities with 85 and 52 communities respectively.


A total of 89 communities, either self administered or with a population of 50 or more, reported that they did not have public facilities such as a hall, meeting area, administration area, store or cultural centre. A total of 222 communities had access to either a store or canteen, 224 to an administration building, 208 to a hall or meeting area.


A total of 141 communities, either self administered or with a population of 50 or more, reported that there were no sporting facilities within the community. Around half were communities with a population of between 50 and 99 people. Of the communities reporting sporting facilities within the community, 177 communities reported outdoor basketball or netball courts and 169 communities had a sports ground.

3.13 Other facilities within discrete Indigenous communities(a), by reported usual population - 2006

Communities with a population of
Less than 50
50-99
100-199
200-499
500-999
1,000 or more
All communities
Reported usual population
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Accommodation facilities
Visitor accommodation
5
15
33
38
16
12
119
46 974
Camping facilities
4
16
16
10
4
2
52
10 757
Single men's accommodation
6
10
10
14
3
5
48
16 337
Single women's accommodation
2
8
3
5
3
4
25
10 724
Hostel accommodation
1
1
2
3
1
-
8
2 150
Accommodation for contract workers
1
12
12
30
16
14
85
44 468
Accommodation for people with a disability
-
5
4
9
2
3
23
11 315
Aged accommodation
2
6
7
15
1
13
44
28 447
Women's refuge
-
-
3
8
8
13
32
28 835
Other accommodation facilities
-
1
-
1
1
1
4
2 675
No accommodation facilities
42
77
40
18
1
-
178
16 882
Public facilities
Hall/meeting area
17
50
58
53
15
15
208
62 740
Administration building
17
46
62
65
18
16
224
70 721
Store
4
29
47
61
18
16
175
66 153
Library
1
1
4
16
10
12
44
31 143
Arts/cultural centre
6
19
29
32
14
14
114
46 736
Women's centre
3
17
32
34
14
13
113
46 027
Child care centre
2
9
28
41
13
15
108
48 257
Youth centre
-
6
21
25
6
13
71
36 321
Canteen
1
6
7
11
11
11
47
28 893
Broadcasting facilities
2
8
22
49
17
15
113
52 291
Other
6
5
11
10
4
3
39
13 634
No public facilities
30
45
11
3
-
-
89
5 583
Sporting facilities
Sports grounds
4
24
49
58
17
17
169
65 265
Outdoor basketball/netball courts
7
30
55
59
12
14
177
59 865
Indoor or covered sporting facilities
2
1
6
15
11
11
46
32 437
Swimming pool(s)
1
1
6
6
5
8
27
19 328
Other buildings used for sport
1
8
10
19
11
8
57
30 406
Other community sporting facilities
1
5
4
7
1
4
22
8 443
No sporting facilities
44
70
22
4
1
-
141
10 050
All communities(b)
865
123
92
71
19
17
1 187
92 960

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Data not collected in 'administered' communities with a population of less than 50. Refer to Explanatory Notes paragraph 16 for further details.
(b) Includes communities with other public facilities not stated.



EDUCATION

A total of 497 (42%) discrete Indigenous communities are located 25 kilometres or more from the nearest primary school and represent a combined population of 7,484 people. Over half the communities where distance to the nearest primary school is 25 kilometres or more were located in the Northern Territory, accounting for 289 (58%), followed by Western Australia 120 (24%) and Queensland 56 (11%). A total of 30 communities with a population of 50 or more people were reported as being 25 kilometres or more from the nearest primary school with Northern Territory, Western Australia and South Australia reporting 16, 7 and 4 communities respectively (table 4.29).


There were 741 (62%) discrete Indigenous communities located 25 kilometres or more from the nearest secondary school up to year 10: of which 447 (60%) were located in the Northern Territory; 144 (19%) in Western Australia; and 86 (12%) in Queensland. A total of 374 (38%) discrete Indigenous communities were located 100 kilometres or more from the nearest secondary school up to year 10. Over two thirds of these discrete Indigenous communities were located in the Northern Territory (table 4.30).


In 2006, there were 841 discrete Indigenous communities located more than 25 kilometres from the nearest secondary school up to year 12, of which the Northern Territory and Western Australia reported 485 (58%) and 185 (22%) respectively (table 4.31).

3.14 Discrete Indigenous communities access to education facilities, by reported usual population - 2006

Communities with a population of
Less than 50
50-99
100-199
200-499
500-999
1,000 or more
All communities
Reported usual population
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Primary school
Located within the community
62
41
51
58
17
16
245
67 405
Distance to nearest primary school
Less than 10 km
96
50
27
11
2
-
186
12 838
10-24 km
139
7
7
2
-
1
156
4 899
25-49 km
178
9
4
-
-
-
191
3 112
50-99 km
175
11
1
-
-
-
187
2 559
100-249 km
91
5
-
-
-
-
96
1 530
250 km or more
23
-
-
-
-
-
23
283
Total
702
82
39
13
2
1
839
25 221
Secondary school up to Year 10
Located within the community
-
11
11
14
5
8
49
21 909
Distance to secondary school up to Year 10
Less than 10 km
62
38
22
12
1
1
136
12 020
10-24 km
87
8
12
5
-
1
113
6 012
25-49 km
133
12
10
4
-
1
160
6 599
50-99 km
182
11
4
7
3
-
207
7 485
100-249 km
149
13
9
12
3
-
186
9 491
250 km or more
148
22
10
6
2
-
188
7 559
Total
761
104
67
46
9
3
990
49 166
Secondary school up to Year 12
Located within the community
3
3
12
11
5
6
40
21 213
Distance to secondary school up to Year 12
Less than 10 km
46
36
22
10
1
1
116
11 112
10-24 km
56
9
11
4
1
1
82
6 094
25-49 km
76
8
8
3
-
2
97
8 751
50-99 km
96
12
1
9
3
1
122
8 329
100-249 km
211
19
15
19
3
3
270
16 844
250 km or more
276
31
21
15
6
3
352
19 945
Total
761
115
78
60
14
11
1 039
71 075
Educational services other than school
Pre-primary
5
16
34
49
12
10
126
46 426
Homework centre
1
5
10
11
-
2
29
8 366
TAFE courses
6
8
23
18
3
12
70
30 978
Other adult education
1
4
17
18
6
4
50
17 678
Other educational services
2
4
3
5
3
1
18
5 757
All communities(a)
865
123
92
71
19
17
1 187
92 960

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Includes communities with access to education facilities not stated.



HEALTH

A total of 755 (64%) discrete Indigenous communities were located 100 kilometres or more from the nearest hospital, compared to 841 reported in 2001. On a population basis, 25 per cent of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in communities were 100 kilometres or more from the nearest hospital. Almost two thirds of the communities where distance to the nearest hospital was 100 kilometres or more were located in the Northern Territory, accounting for 470 (62%), followed by Western Australia 169 (22%) and Queensland 64 (8%) (table 4.33).


Aboriginal Primary Health Care Centres and Other state funded community health centres were more likely to be located within the community. In addition to the 8 per cent of discrete Indigenous communities with a hospital located either in, or within 10 kilometres of the community, 211 (18%) had an Aboriginal Primary Health Care Centre located either in, or within 10 kilometres of the community, and 217 (18%) had an Other state funded community health centre.


A number of discrete Indigenous communities, including larger communities with a population of 50 or more people, reported being 100 kilometres or more from the nearest Aboriginal Primary Health Care Centre. A total of 417 (35%) discrete Indigenous communities were located 100 kilometres or more from the nearest Aboriginal Primary Health Care Centre and of these, 92 (22%) were larger communities. The Northern Territory accounted for almost half the communities followed by Western Australia, with 190 (46%) and 146 (35%) respectively (table 4.34).


A total of 372 (31%) discrete Indigenous communities were located 100 kilometres or more from the nearest Other state funded community health centre and of these, 90 (24%) were larger communities with a population of 50 or more people. Almost three quarters of communities located 100 kilometres or more from the nearest Other state funded community health centre were located in the Northern Territory followed by Western Australia, with 268 (72%) and 67 (18%) respectively (table 4.35).

3.15 Discrete Indigenous communities access to medical facilities, by reported usual population - 2006

Communities with a population of
Less than 50
50-99
100-199
200-499
500-999
1,000 or more
All communities
Reported usual population
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Hospital
Located within the community
-
1
1
-
1
7
10
14 090
Distance to nearest hospital
Less than 10 km
35
29
15
9
1
-
89
7 743
10-24 km
44
7
14
2
1
1
69
5 634
25-49 km
54
5
7
5
-
1
72
4 766
50-99 km
57
8
5
9
3
1
83
7 968
100-249 km
227
31
22
22
3
3
308
21 080
250 km or more
347
36
26
24
10
4
447
30 912
Total
764
116
89
71
18
10
1 068
78 103
Aboriginal Primary Health Care Centre
Located within the community
5
20
31
26
14
11
107
41 450
Distance to nearest Aboriginal Primary Health Care Centre
Less than 10 km
46
34
16
7
1
-
104
7 743
10-24 km
88
13
8
1
-
-
110
3 402
25-49 km
141
10
2
3
-
-
156
3 572
50-99 km
138
9
5
7
-
1
160
6 464
100-249 km
214
18
16
19
1
-
268
12 552
250 km or more
111
12
12
8
2
4
149
12 934
Total
738
96
59
45
4
5
947
46 667
Other (state funded) community health centre
Located within the community
3
19
28
39
5
10
104
35 737
Distance to nearest other (state funded) community health centre
Less than 10 km
59
31
14
8
1
-
113
8 101
10-24 km
101
7
13
2
1
1
125
6 358
25-49 km
153
11
6
3
-
-
173
4 442
50-99 km
145
9
5
3
3
-
165
5 441
100-249 km
131
21
12
3
4
-
171
8 505
250 km or more
151
19
12
13
4
2
201
14 803
Total
740
98
62
32
13
3
948
47 650
All communities(a)
865
123
92
71
19
17
1 187
92 960

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Includes communities with access to medical facilities not stated.


Access to medical emergency air services

In 2006, a total of 663 (56%) discrete Indigenous communities reported that they did not have access to medical emergency air services, of which 487 (73%) communities were located 100 kilometres or more from the nearest hospital. The number of communities without access to medical emergency air services and located 100 kilometres or more from the nearest hospital increased by 77 communities from the 410 communities reported in the 2001 CHINS. The total population represented by communities with no access to medical emergency air services was 17,424 people, an increase of 28 per cent from that reported in 2001.

3.16 Discrete Indigenous communities access to medical emergency air services, by number of communities and reported usual population - 2006

Access to medical emergency air services
No access to medical emergency air services
Total
Total communities
Reported usual population
Total communities
Reported usual population
Total communities
Reported usual population
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Distance to nearest hospital
10-24 km
10
1 789
59
3 845
69
5 634
25-49 km
9
1 857
63
2 909
72
4 766
50-99 km
29
6 635
54
1 333
83
7 968
100-249 km
114
15 932
194
5 148
308
21 080
250 km or more
154
26 723
293
4 189
447
30 912
Total
316
52 936
663
17 424
979
70 360
All communities(a)(b)
316
52 936
871
40 024
1 187
92 960

(a) Total includes 'Distance to nearest hospital' not stated/collected.
(b) Total includes communities located less than 10km from nearest hospital.


Access to medical professionals

In 2006, 302 discrete Indigenous communities reported having a male Indigenous health worker visiting or working in the community, leaving 885 communities without a male Indigenous health worker visiting or working in the community. The total population represented by communities with a male Indigenous health worker visiting or working in the community was 42,976 people. A total of 75 communities reported daily access to a male Indigenous health worker and 47 with weekly or fortnightly access.


The number of discrete Indigenous communities that reported having a female Indigenous health worker visit or work in the community was 332 in 2006, leaving 855 communities without a female Indigenous health worker visiting or working in the community. The total population with access to a female Indigenous health worker visiting or working in the community was 51,137 people. A total of 121 communities reported daily access to a female Indigenous health worker and 38 with weekly or fortnightly access.


In 2006, registered nurses worked or visited in a total of 211 discrete Indigenous communities, leaving 976 communities without a registered nurse visiting or working in the community. Over half of the communities that reported a registered nurse worked in the community on a daily basis and a further 30 per cent communities reported that the registered nurse worked in the community on a weekly or fortnightly basis.


A total of 192 discrete Indigenous communities reported doctors visiting or working within the community. Most communities reported a doctor visiting or working in the community on a weekly or fortnightly basis.

3.17 Selected medical professionals working within discrete Indigenous communities, by reported usual population - 2006

Communities with a population of
Less than 50
500-99
100-199
200-499
500-999
1,000 or more
All communities
Reported usual population
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Male Indigenous health worker
Daily
2
6
19
23
16
9
75
34 300
Weekly/fortnightly
7
18
18
4
-
-
47
4 991
Monthly
np
3
np
3
-
-
10
1 331
3 monthly
np
np
np
-
-
-
5
448
Less than 3 monthly
np
np
3
5
-
-
11
1 906
Female Indigenous health worker
Daily
2
15
32
45
17
10
121
45 587
Weekly/fortnightly
np
18
12
np
-
-
38
3 256
Monthly
3
8
np
np
-
-
14
1 355
3 monthly
np
np
-
-
-
-
4
119
Less than 3 monthly
-
-
np
np
-
-
3
820
Registered nurse
Daily
3
11
31
49
17
9
120
44 923
Weekly/fortnightly
np
26
19
7
-
np
64
8 054
Monthly
np
12
np
np
-
-
17
1 663
Every 3 months
np
np
np
np
np
np
2
150
Less than 3 months
np
4
np
np
-
-
8
933
Doctor
Daily
np
np
-
np
4
6
14
11 344
Weekly/fortnightly
9
22
34
26
10
3
104
25 969
Monthly
np
15
14
25
np
-
58
11 478
Every 3 months
-
np
np
np
-
np
6
2 550
Less than 3 months
-
3
4
np
np
-
10
1 860
All communities(a)
865
123
92
71
19
17
1 187
92 960

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Includes communities with selected medical professionals not stated.



COMMUNITY NEEDS

A total of 189 discrete Indigenous communities reported a community needs plan outlining priority needs for services and infrastructure for the community. Additional housing accounted for the highest proportion of need with 170 communities reporting it as a priority, followed by sports facilities with 105 communities reporting this as a priority.


A further 129 communities were in the process of developing a community needs plan and 48 communities indicated no plans were in progress.

3.18 Priority planning needs in discrete Indigenous communities(a), by reported usual population - 2006

Communities with a population of
Less than 50
50-99
100-199
200-499
500-999
1,000 or more
All communities
Reported usual population
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Total communities with a Community Priority Needs Plan
19
56
46
46
12
10
189
48 688
Community Priority Planning Needs(b)
More housing
15
49
41
44
12
9
170
45 716
Upgrade to water supply
7
28
21
20
6
4
86
22 775
Upgrade to electricity supply
6
26
16
17
4
2
71
15 676
Upgrade sewerage
7
30
16
19
5
5
82
22 480
Rubbish collection or disposal
7
23
22
25
6
2
85
19 524
Transport
8
19
20
20
8
2
77
19 635
Communication facilities
4
10
14
15
5
3
51
16 060
Education facilities
3
14
16
16
6
4
59
18 155
Sports facilities
6
21
29
34
10
5
105
30 620
Health care facilities
6
21
20
19
8
5
79
23 025
Animal control
3
16
19
22
7
6
73
24 725
Broadcasting capabilities
3
10
13
15
7
3
51
17 222
Other
4
8
16
13
5
2
48
13 082
Communities developing a Community Priority Needs Plan
23
41
32
21
6
6
129
28 348
No Community Priority Needs Plan being developed
12
19
11
4
1
1
48
5 694
All communities
865
123
92
71
19
17
1 187
92 960

(a) Data not collected in 'administered communities with a population of less than 50. Refer to Explanatory Notes paragraph 16 for further details.
(b) Components may not add to total as multiple response allowed.


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