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4710.0 - Housing and Infrastructure in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities, Australia, 2006  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 20/08/2007  Reissue
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CHAPTER 2 - A PROFILE OF ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER HOUSING ORGANISATIONS


INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents the main characteristics of the IHOs identified in the 2006 CHINS. It includes summary information on the number and type of IHOs in Australia, the characteristics and condition of permanent dwellings managed by these IHOs, as well as summary information on dwelling management and IHO income and expenditure.



INDIGENOUS HOUSING ORGANISATION CHARACTERISTICS

The 2006 CHINS collected information from 496 IHOs, a decrease of 120 (19%) from 616 IHOs in the 2001 survey. While the number of IHOs decreased, the total number of permanent dwellings managed by IHOs increased by 567 (3%) from 21,287 permanent dwellings in 2001 to 21,854 permanent dwellings in 2006. Fewer IHOs are delivering services to a wider area incorporating more localities and permanent dwellings.


In 2006, non-remote IHOs accounted for 47 per cent of all IHOs and managed 32 per cent of total IHO managed housing stock; very remote IHOs accounted for 42 per cent of all IHOs and managed 57 per cent of IHO managed housing stock; and remote IHOs accounted for 11 per cent of all IHOs and 11 per cent of total IHO managed housing stock.


Over the period 2001 to 2006, the number of IHO managed permanent dwellings decreased in remote areas, but increased in non-remote and very remote areas. The number of non-remote IHOs decreased by 55 (19%), down from 287 in 2001 to 232 in 2006. The total number of permanent dwellings managed by non-remote IHOs increased by 711 (11%) from 6,295 permanent dwellings to 7,006 permanent dwellings. The number of remote IHOs decreased by 16 (23%) from 71 to 55, and the number of permanent dwellings managed by remote IHOs also decreased, down 217 (8%) from 2,658 permanent dwellings in 2001 to 2,441 in 2006. Very remote IHOs decreased by 49 (19%), down from 258 in 2001 to 209 in 2006. The number of permanent dwellings managed by very remote IHOs increased slightly by 73 (1%) from 12,334 in 2001 to 12,407 in 2006.

2.1 Permanent dwellings managed by Indigenous Housing Organisations, by Remoteness Area - 2001 and 2006

2001
2006
All IHOs(a)
All IHO managed
permanent dwellings
All IHOs(a)
All IHO managed
permanent dwellings
no.
no.
no.
no.

Remoteness Area
Major cities
43
818
37
777
Inner regional
92
1 828
82
2233
Outer regional
152
3 649
113
3 996
Remote
71
2 658
55
2 441
Very remote
258
12 334
209
12 407
Australia
616
21 287
496
21 854

(a) Includes IHOs with no permanent dwellings.


Almost two thirds of all non-remote IHOs were located in New South Wales (64%) followed by Queensland and Victoria, 17 per cent and 9 per cent respectively. The highest proportion of remote IHOs were located in Western Australia (33%), Northern Territory (24%), New South Wales (20%) and Queensland (18%). The highest proportion of very remote IHOs were located in Western Australia (33%), Northern Territory (32%) and Queensland (20%).


Decreases in the number of IHOs were recorded in all States and Territories, except South Australia which saw an increase from 31 IHOs to 37, and Tasmania which remained unchanged at 3 IHOs. The number of IHOs decreased by 36 (18%) in New South Wales, 33 (26%) in Western Australia, 29 (26%) in Northern Territory, and 25 (22%) in Queensland.


The largest increases in IHO permanent dwellings managed were recorded in Queensland and Western Australia, up 557 (10%) and 189 (6%) respectively. The Northern Territory recorded the largest decrease in permanent dwellings managed, down by 267 (4%) from 6,715 in 2001 to 6,448 in 2006.

2.2 Permanent dwellings managed by Indigenous Housing Organisations, by State or Territory - by Remoteness Area - 2001 and 2006

2001 Remoteness Area of IHO
2006 Remoteness Area of IHO
Non-remote IHOs
Remote IHOs
Very remote IHOs
All IHOs(a)
All IHO
managed
permanent
dwellings
Non-remote
IHOs
Remote IHOs
Very remote IHOs
All IHOs(a)
All IHO
managed
permanent
dwellings
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

State or Territory
New South Wales(b)
172
19
14
205
4 088
149
11
9
169
4 176
Victoria
25
-
-
25
416
22
-
-
22
469
Queensland
56
13
47
116
5 673
40
10
41
91
6 230
South Australia
8
2
21
31
1 004
12
3
22
37
935
Western Australia
18
18
89
125
3 273
6
18
68
92
3 462
Tasmania
1
-
2
3
118
1
-
2
3
134
Northern Territory
7
19
85
111
6 715
2
13
67
82
6 448
Australia
287
71
258
616
21 287
232
55
209
496
21 854

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Includes IHOs with no permanent dwellings.
(b) Includes Australian Capital Territory.


The emerging trend of fewer IHOs managing more permanent dwellings is illustrated by Table 2.3.


Around a quarter of IHOs managed 50 or more permanent dwellings in 2006 compared with 19 per cent in 2001. The number of IHOs managing 20 to 49 permanent dwellings decreased by 39 (19%) IHOs from 207 in 2001 to 168 in 2006.


In 2006, a total of 199 (40%) IHOs managed less than 20 permanent dwellings each, compared with 293 (48%) in 2001. The number of IHOs managing less than 20 permanent dwellings in Western Australia decreased by 33 (46%) from 71 IHOs in 2001 to 38 IHOs in 2006. New South Wales IHOs decreased by 32 (25%) for the same period.


The Northern Territory also reported decreases in the number of IHOs managing more than 50 permanent dwellings, indicating the merging of a number of larger IHOs since the 2001 survey. In 2006, a total of 50 IHOs managed 100 or more permanent dwellings of which almost half (24 IHOs) were located in the Northern Territory. Queensland reported the next highest number of IHOs managing 100 or more permanent dwellings at 17 IHOs.

2.3 Permanent dwellings managed by Indigenous Housing Organisations, by State or Territory - 2001 and 2006

Less than 20 permanent dwellings
20-49 permanent dwellings
50-99 permanent dwellings
100 or more permanent dwellings
Total IHOs
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

State or Territory
New South Wales(a)
130
98
66
59
8
10
1
2
205
169
Victoria
16
12
9
8
-
2
-
-
25
22
Queensland
34
15
53
39
15
20
14
17
116
91
South Australia
21
27
5
6
4
3
1
1
31
37
Western Australia
71
37
36
30
15
19
3
6
125
92
Tasmania
1
-
1
2
1
1
-
-
3
3
Northern Territory
20
8
37
25
37
25
17
24
111
82
Australia
293
197
207
169
80
80
36
50
616
496

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Includes Australian Capital Territory.



INDIGENOUS HOUSING ORGANISATION INCOME AND EXPENDITURE

Detailed financial data were collected for the first time in 2006, though on a voluntary basis. The financial reference period is 2004-05. Care should be taken when analysing income and expenditure data as no adjustments were made to data to account for any under reporting.


To assist users in analysing financial data, the relevant tables include counts of the number of IHOs where income and expenditure were 'not stated' and the proportion of total IHOs that did not report data for these items. For more details on using the CHINS financial data, including a discussion of data quality, refer to paragraphs 23 to 30 of the Explanatory Notes.


Income

In 2006, 401 (81%) IHOs reported income data totalling $141.9 million. Grants accounted for the largest income source with $83.4 million (59%) followed by rental income at $47.5 million (33%).


Very remote IHOs reported a total income of $65.1 million which was 46 per cent of total IHO reported income. Around two thirds of very remote IHO income was sourced from grants at $41.4 million (64%). Rental income accounted for the majority of the remaining income at $21.0 million (32%).


Non-remote IHOs reported a total income of $56.2 million which represented 40 per cent of total IHO reported income. Over half of non-remote IHO income was sourced from grants at $30.6 million (54%), while rental income contributed $21.3 million (38%). Remote IHOs reported a total income of $20.6 million which was 14 per cent of total IHO reported income. Income from grants at $11.5 million accounted for more than half (56%) of remote IHO income, followed by rental income at $5.3 million (26%).

2.4 Source of Income of Indigenous Housing Organisations(a)(b), by Remoteness Area - 2006

Non-remote IHOs
Remote IHOs
Very remote IHOs
All IHOs

Income ($'000)

Source of income
Rent
21 279
5 269
20 999
47 546
Housing grants
30 552
11 471
41 407
83 430
Business enterprises
2 065
1 895
956
4 916
Royalties
236
-
10
246
Property sales(c)
1 141
-
-
1 141
Other income sources
952
1 933
1 766
4 651
Total source of income(d)
56 225
20 568
65 138
141 931

Number of IHOs (no.)

All IHOs(e)
232
55
209
496
IHOs with total income not stated
43
11
41
95

Proportion (%)

IHOs with income sources not stated
19
20
20
19

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) For the financial year 2004-05.
(b) Includes discrete community IHOs with no permanent dwellings.
(c) Data collected in town localities only.
(d) Components may not add to totals due to rounding.
(e) Includes IHOs where income not stated.


Rental income

Financial data in the 2006 CHINS are valued on a current price basis, that is values are presented as stated by the IHO key informant at the time data were collected. When comparing the 2001 data with 2006 results, no attempt has been made to adjust IHO income and expenditure data to present data on a constant price basis. As a result, care should be taken when making these comparisons. Refer to paragraphs 25 to 30 in the Explanatory Notes for further details.


The total rental income reported by IHOs for the financial year 2004-05 was $47.5 million, compared to $42.1 million in the 2001 survey. The average weekly rent received for all IHO managed permanent dwellings was $42, compared to the $38 reported in 2001.


Table 2.5 shows that in 2006, over 80 per cent of very remote IHOs reported an average rental income per dwelling of below $50, and almost two thirds of non-remote IHOs reported an average rental income per dwelling $50 or more.


Non-remote IHO average weekly rent was 27 per cent higher than in 2001, at $71 compared to $56. Remote IHO average weekly rent was 38 per cent higher, at $47 in 2006 compared to $34 in 2001. Very remote IHO average weekly rent was 23 per cent higher over the period, at $37 compared to $30 in 2001.

2.5 Average weekly rent per permanent dwelling managed by Indigenous Housing Organisations(a)(b)(c), by Remoteness Area - 2001 and 2006

Non-remote IHOs
Remote IHOs
Very remote IHOs
All IHOs
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006

Number of IHOs (no.)

Average weekly rent
$0
7
45
6
12
18
44
31
101
$1-$24
45
11
14
7
118
51
177
69
$25-$49
71
31
26
12
82
78
179
121
$50-$74
90
46
13
13
22
26
125
85
$75-$99
48
56
8
5
11
6
67
67
$100 or more
26
43
4
6
7
4
37
53
All IHOs
287
232
71
55
258
209
616
496

Average weekly rent ($)

Average weekly rent
56
71
34
47
30
37
38
48

(a) Includes discrete Indigenous community IHOs with no permanent dwellings.
(b) Financial data are reported in current prices. Refer to Explanatory Notes paragraphs 25 to 30 for further details.
(c) Data for 2001 was reported on a financial year 1999-2000 and calendar year January to December 2000 basis. Data for 2006 was reported for the financial year 2004-05. Refer to Explanatory Notes paragraph 30 for further details.


Expenditure

A total of 390 (79%) IHOs reported total expenditure data of $128.6 million. Other expenditure accounted for the largest proportion at $38.0 million (30%) followed by repairs and maintenance of $37.4 million (29%), salaries of $21.7 million (17%), and administration costs of $14.1 million (11%).


Very remote IHOs reported a total expenditure of $60.1 million and accounted for 47 per cent of total IHO reported expenditure. Repairs and maintenance accounted for the largest proportion of very remote IHO expenditure at $21.9 million (36%), followed by other expenditure of $15.9 million (26%) and salaries of $11.6 million (19%).


Non-remote IHOs reported a total expenditure of $49.7 million of which other expenditure was $12.9 million, followed by repairs and maintenance at $11.9 million, administration costs $9.5 million and salaries $7.7 million. Remote IHOs reported a total expenditure of $18.8 million of which almost half was other expenditure $9.3 million.


Other expenditure consists primarily of upgrades and capital expenditure, though care should be taken in interpreting these data as some respondents reported upgrade expenditure under repairs and maintenance expenditure. Salary expenditure may also include payments to contractors for upgrades as well as contract payments for repair and maintenance work.


Care should be also taken when comparing land rates and administration costs across non-remote, remote and very remote IHOs. In many remote and very remote IHOs, land rates and administration costs are not always recorded against housing operations and may be considered as part of the costs of the larger governing Community Council or Aboriginal Corporation.

2.6 Types of expenditure stated by Indigenous Housing Organisations(a)(b), by Remoteness Area - 2006

Non-remote IHOs
Remote IHOs
Very remote IHOs
All IHOs

Expenditure ($'000)

Type of expenditure
Salaries
7 727
2 371
11 608
21 706
Staff training
121
92
170
382
Repairs and maintenance
11 859
3 685
21 857
37 401
Land rates
4 627
580
997
6 204
Insurance
2 159
1 105
6 420
9 684
Administration costs
9 545
1 592
2 953
14 090
Management fees
846
104
187
1 137
Other expenditure
12 861
9 268
15 912
38 041
Total expenditure(c)
49 745
18 796
60 103
128 644

Number of IHOs (no.)

All IHOs(d)
232
55
209
496
IHOs with total expenditure not stated
50
13
43
106

Proportion (%)

IHOs with total expenditure not stated
22
24
21
21

(a) For the financial year 2004-05.
(b) Includes discrete community IHOs with no permanent dwellings.
(c) Components may not add to totals due to rounding.
(d) Includes IHOs where expenditure not stated.


Housing repairs and maintenance expenditure

The total repairs and maintenance expenditure reported by IHOs in the financial year prior to the 2006 CHINS was $37.4 million, compared to $39.6 million in the 2001 survey. The average repairs and maintenance expenditure for each IHO managed permanent dwelling was $2,060, which was 10 per cent more than reported in the 2001 CHINS.


Around 42 per cent of IHOs reported their total repairs and maintenance expenditure as being $50,000 or more and 41 per cent reported their total repairs and maintenance expenditure as being below $25,000.

2.7 Repairs or maintenance expenditure (a)(b)(c), by permanent dwellings managed by Indigenous Housing Organisations - 2001 and 2006

Less than 20 permanent dwellings
20-49 permanent dwellings
50-99 permanent dwellings
100 or more permanent dwellings
Total IHOs
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Maintenance expenditure
$1-$24,999
187
102
70
47
6
5
2
1
265
155
$25,000-$49,999
45
24
52
25
12
13
1
3
110
65
$50,000-$99,999
11
10
45
34
21
18
2
2
79
64
$100,000 or more
6
3
33
28
38
30
30
37
107
98
Total IHOs with repairs and maintenance expenditure stated
249
139
200
134
77
66
35
43
561
382
IHOs with no repairs or maintenance expenditure stated
44
58
7
35
3
14
1
7
55
114
All IHOs
293
197
207
169
80
80
36
50
616
496

(a) Includes discrete community IHOs with no permanent dwellings.
(b) Financial data are reported in current prices. Refer to Explanatory Notes paragraphs 25 to 30 for further details.
(c) Data for 2001 was reported on a financial year 1999-2000 and calendar year January to December 2000 basis. Data for 2006 was reported for the financial year 2004-05. Refer to Explanatory Notes paragraph 30 for further details.


Permanent dwellings

Almost all IHO managed permanent dwellings were separate houses (91%) and around three quarters of all permanent dwellings had three or four bedrooms.


In the 12 months prior to being surveyed, permanent dwelling acquisitions exceeded dwelling disposals. A total of 670 acquisitions were reported, of which 516 (77%) were newly built and 154 (23%) were purchased dwellings. A total of 490 permanent dwellings were disposed of. Almost all disposals (95%) were the result of permanent dwellings being written-off or demolished. A total of 25 dwellings were sold, nearly half of these (48%) were sold to former tenants.


Permanent dwelling occupancy

A total of 1,447 IHO managed permanent dwellings were unoccupied. The majority of unoccupied dwellings were located in very remote areas (68%), with the next largest proportion in non remote areas (22%). Uninhabitable dwellings or dwellings being repaired accounted for almost half the unoccupied dwellings (48%). Other reasons given were that it was the wet season (12%), and that the dwelling was between tenants or unoccupied for cultural reasons (each 11%).

2.8 Selected characteristics of permanent dwellings managed by Indigenous Housing Organisations, by Remoteness Area - 2001 and 2006

Non-remote IHOs
Remote IHOs
Very remote IHOs
All IHOs
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Number of IHO managed permanent dwellings (no.)

Total permanent dwellings(a)
6 295
7 006
2 658
2 441
12 334
12 407
21 287
21 854
Dwelling structure
Separate house
5 321
6 048
2 253
2 202
11 553
11 699
19 127
19 949
Semi-detached, row or terrace house
149
692
56
126
133
414
338
1 232
Flat, unit or apartment
749
237
167
106
563
195
1 479
538
House or flat attached to a shop or office
2
29
-
7
13
99
15
135
Total
6 221
7 006
2 476
2 441
12 262
12 407
20 959
21 854
Number of bedrooms
One
291
211
193
269
628
786
1 112
1 266
Two
913
1 017
445
467
2 196
2 026
3 554
3 510
Three
3 572
3 818
1 468
1 297
7 220
7 336
12 260
12 451
Four
1 346
1 665
318
365
1 588
1 999
3 252
4 029
Five or more
173
293
52
43
191
227
416
563
Total
6 295
7 004
2 476
2 441
11 823
12 374
20 594
21 819
Acquisitions and disposals(b)
Total acquisitions
na
225
na
61
na
384
na
670
Built
na
118
na
37
na
361
na
516
Purchased(c)
na
107
na
24
na
23
na
154
Total disposals
na
120
na
89
na
281
na
490
Written off or demolished
na
97
na
89
na
279
na
465
Sold(c)
na
23
na
-
na
2
na
25
Sold to former tenants
na
12
na
-
na
-
na
12
Unoccupied dwellings(d)
Total permanent dwellings unoccupied
402
325
144
139
1 123
983
1 669
1 447
Reason due to:
Being between tenants
113
71
18
15
118
80
249
166
Cultural reasons
15
2
10
25
169
130
194
157
Uninhabitable
124
93
58
51
229
327
411
471
Wet season
44
1
4
16
230
160
278
177
Being repaired
91
136
33
15
80
71
204
222
Water equipment failure
1
-
10
3
44
11
55
14
Tenant being away
-
3
-
2
49
52
49
57
Lack of facilities and services
-
-
-
4
43
65
43
69
Lack of transport and road access
-
-
-
-
43
26
43
26
Awaiting approval or certification
na
8
na
-
na
8
na
16
Other
14
11
11
8
118
53
143
72

Proportion of IHO managed permanent dwellings (%)

Permanent dwellings unoccupied(d)
6
5
5
6
9
8
8
7

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
na not available
(a) Includes dwelling structure not stated.
(b) In the 12 months prior to being surveyed.
(c) Data collected in town localities only.
(d) Unoccupied 2 weeks or more.


Permanent dwelling condition

In the 2006 CHINS, 69 per cent of IHO managed permanent dwellings were reported as needing minor or no repair, 23 per cent in need of major repair and 7 per cent in need of replacement. The proportion in need of major repair has increased since 2001 where 19 per cent of dwellings were reported as needing major repair.


In the 2006 survey, permanent dwellings managed by IHOs in remote areas were more in need of major repairs and replacement (36%) than dwellings managed by IHOs in very remote (30%) and non-remote (29%) areas.

2.9 Condition of permanent dwellings managed by Indigenous Housing Organisations, by Remoteness Area - 2001 and 2006

Non-remote IHOs
Remote IHOs
Very remote IHOs
All IHOs
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006

Proportion of IHO managed permanent dwellings (%)

Dwelling condition
Minor or no repairs
77
72
65
64
68
69
70
69
Major repairs
18
24
26
26
18
22
19
23
Replacement
5
4
9
10
10
8
8
7
Not stated
-
-
-
-
4
-
2
-
Total(a)
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

Number of IHO managed permanent dwellings (no.)

All IHO managed permanent dwellings
6 295
7 006
2 658
2 441
12 334
12 407
21 287
21 854

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Components may not add to totals due to rounding.


In 2006, around 70 per cent of permanent dwellings in need of major repairs or replacement reported an average weekly rent of less than $50. A total of 2,922 (13%) permanent dwellings reported $0 rent.

2.10 Average weekly rent range per permanent dwelling managed by Indigenous Housing Organisations(a), by condition - 2001 and 2006

Minor or no repairs
Major repairs
Replacement
Total
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Average weekly rent
$0
280
1 980
85
771
55
171
485
2 922
$1-$24
4 512
3 075
1 759
1 191
683
402
6 954
4 668
$25-$49
5 710
4 821
1 111
1 577
683
626
7 711
7 024
$50-$74
2 380
2 822
569
906
192
225
3 352
3 953
$75-$99
1 427
1 316
262
479
143
67
1 832
1 862
$100 or more
561
1 166
193
187
30
72
784
1 425
All IHO managed permanent dwellings(b)
14 990
15 180
4 024
5 111
1 790
1 563
21 287
21 854
IHOs that did not receive rent income
na
72
na
54
na
26
na
100

na not available
(a) Financial data are reported in current prices. Refer to Explanatory Notes paragraphs 25 to 30 for further details.
(b) Includes IHOs where income not stated.


In the 2006 CHINS, a total of 6,973 IHO managed permanent dwellings reported an average maintenance expenditure of $2,000 or more. Of these, 1,779 permanent dwellings remained in need of major repairs and 434 permanent dwellings were in need of replacement.

2.11 Average expenditure on repairs and maintenance per Indigenous Housing Organisations managed permanent dwellings(a)(b), by condition - 2001 and 2006

Minor or no repairs
Major repairs
Replacement
Total
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006
2001
2006
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.

Average maintenance expenditure
$0
467
2 584
165
875
114
239
746
3 698
$1-$499
1 855
1 726
682
712
232
235
2 971
2 673
$500-$999
2 487
2 408
857
687
264
178
3 608
3 273
$1,000-$1,999
6 057
3 702
1 296
1 058
673
477
8 091
5 237
$2,000-$9,999
4 044
4 547
987
1 670
504
432
5 742
6 649
$10,000 or more
80
213
37
109
3
2
129
324
All IHO permanent dwellings
14 990
15 180
4 024
5 111
1 790
1 563
21 287
21 854
IHOs that did not state expenditure on repairs or maintenance(a)
na
86
na
62
na
30
na
111

na not available
(a) Financial data are reported in current prices. Refer to Explanatory Notes paragraphs 25 to 30 for further details.
(b) Components may not add to totals as more than one response may be specified for dwelling condition.


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Commonwealth of Australia 2014

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