4530.0 - Crime Victimisation, Australia, 2015-16  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 02/02/2017   
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GLOSSARY

Alcohol and/or any other substance
Includes any illegal or legal drugs or mood altering substances that the person believed contributed to the most recent incident of physical assault or face-to-face threatened assault. Other substances include marijuana, cocaine, ice, heroin, ecstasy, steroids, pharmaceuticals, inhalants, kava etc. Either the respondent or offender may have been under the influence of alcohol and/or any other substance at the time of the incident. This also includes:

  • incidents that occurred when the respondent or offender was ‘hungover’
  • incidents where the respondent believe that their drink had been spiked.

Attempted break-in
An incident where an attempt was made to forcibly enter a home or other private residence. Includes attempts to break into a caravan (if the caravan was the person's permanent residence), garage, shed or any detached secure building such as games/hobby rooms or granny flats. Attempted break-in also includes incidents where a person saw someone acting suspiciously around the property, if it was suspected that their intent was to break in and steal property. Excludes any attempted break-in that resulted in an actual break-in (e.g. where someone attempted to break in through a door but then gained entry through a window) and attempted break-ins to a motor vehicle.

Assault
In this survey, assault includes both physical assault and threatened assault (both face-to-face threatened assault and non face-to-face threatened assault).

Audio/visual equipment
Includes televisions, DVD players and stereos.

Balance of state/territory
Comprises statistical areas outside the Greater Capital City Statistical Areas of states and territories as defined in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas, July 2011 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001).

Break-in
An act of unauthorised forced entry into a home or other private residence. Includes forced entry to a caravan (if the caravan was the person's permanent residence), garage, shed or any detached secure building such as games/hobby rooms or granny flats. Excludes forced entry into motor vehicles or front or rear yards and incidents where attempts to gain unlawful entry were not successful (see attempted break-in above).

Capital City
Refers to the Greater Capital City Statistical Areas of states and territories as defined in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas, July 2011 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001).

Computer equipment
Includes PCs, printers, scanners, modems and tablet PCs / handheld devices, such as iPads.

Confront
Where the offender or offenders came into contact with someone during a break-in.

Employed
All people aged 15 years and over who, during the week prior to interview,:
  • worked for one hour or more for pay, profit, commission or payment in kind in a job or business, or on a farm (comprising employees, employers and own account workers)
  • worked for one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm (i.e. contributing family workers)
  • were employees who had a job but were not at work and were:
    • away from work for less than four weeks up to the end of the reference week
    • away from work for more than four weeks up to the end of the reference week and received pay for some or all of the four week period to the end of the reference week
    • away from work as a standard work or shift arrangement
    • on a strike or locked out
    • on workers' compensation and expected to return to their job
    • employers or own account workers, who had a job, business or farm, but were not at work.

Exterior items
Includes walls, windows, doors, fences, gardens, letter boxes, statues, and outdoor furniture settings.

Face-to-face threatened assault
Any verbal and/or physical threat to inflict physical harm, made face-to-face, where the person being threatened believed the threat was likely and able to be carried out. Excludes any incident where the person being threatened did not encounter the offender in person (e.g. threats made via telephone, text message, e-mail, in writing or through social media).

Family member
Includes parent, child, sibling or other family member.

Full-time (employed)
Employed people who usually worked 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs) and those who, although usually working less than 35 hours a week, worked 35 hours or more during the reference week (i.e. the week before the interview).

Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSA)
Represent the socioeconomic area of each of the eight state and territory capital cities as defined in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas, July 2011 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001). These boundaries are built from aggregations of whole Statistical Areas Level 4. GCCSA boundaries represent a broad socioeconomic definition of each capital city. They contain not only the urban area of the capital city but also surrounding and non-urban areas where much of the population has strong links to the capital city (e.g. through commuting to work).

Household
A group of two or more related or unrelated people who usually reside in the same dwelling, who regard themselves as a household, and who make common provision for food or other essentials for living; or a person living in a dwelling who makes provision for their own food and other essentials for living, without combining with any other person.

Household crime
Crimes that were committed with the intent to deprive another person of, or deliberately damage, their personal property. The selected household crimes included in the survey are break-in, attempted break-in, motor vehicle theft, theft from a motor vehicle, malicious property damage and other theft. Includes incidents occurring in all households in Australia that the person lived in during the 12 months prior to interview. For the purposes of this survey, the household is considered the victim where anyone living in the house (not only the respondent) may have experienced an incident of household crime during the 12 months prior to interview. Excludes incidents where personal property was stolen by force or threat from a person in the household, as these are included in robbery (personal crime).

Incident
A single occurrence of a crime event, which may involve one or more crime types.

Interior furnishings
Includes walls, floors, and ceilings.

Intimate partner
Includes current partner, previous partner, boyfriends/girlfriends/ex-boyfriends/ex-girlfriends and dates.

Known by sight only
Where the person recognised the offender/s by sight only, but did not have a personal relationship with them.

Labour force status
A classification of the civilian population aged 15 years and over, including employed, unemployed or not in the labour force, as defined in Labour Force, Australia (cat. no. 6202.0). These definitions conform closely to the international standard definitions adopted by the International Conferences of Labour Statisticians.

Level of highest non-school qualification
Non-school qualifications are awarded for education attainments other than those of pre-primary, primary or secondary education. They include qualification at the following levels: Postgraduate degree, Master degree, Graduate Diploma and Graduate Certificate, Bachelor degree, Advanced Diploma and Diploma, and Certificates I, II, III and IV. Non-school qualifications may be attained concurrently with school qualifications.

Malicious property damage
Intentional or wilful (not accidental) damage, defacement or destruction of any part of the person's home or anything usually kept at home. Property is something tangible in nature, including land, conveyances, animals or other objects capable of being privately owned. Destruction can mean any alteration that may render something imperfect or inoperative, including destruction of property, graffiti or vandalism, partial destruction, killing or harming an owned animal and removing or destroying a plant or other part of an owned landscape. Excludes any rental, investment or holiday properties owned by a member of the household. Excludes acts such as turning off water meters and flicking safety switches if no damage to the item occurred.

Marital status
A person's social marital status as reflected by their current living arrangements. That is, whether or not they are living with another person in a couple relationship, either in a registered marriage or a de facto marriage.

Medical treatment
Includes incidents where a person was admitted to hospital and incidents where a person was seen by a doctor or other medical practitioner but not admitted to hospital.

Motor vehicle parts
Includes license plates, tyres, wheels/rims, car audio and DVD equipment.

Motor vehicle theft
An incident where a motor vehicle was stolen from any member of the household. This includes cars, SUVs, motorcycles (including motorised scooters), buses, trucks and motor homes. Includes privately owned vehicles and business/employer/company owned vehicles, only if the vehicle was used exclusively by members of the household. Excludes vehicles used mainly for business purposes, boats, trailers and company vehicles not used exclusively by household members. For the purpose of this survey, motor vehicle theft incidents are considered to be household crimes.

Multiple victimisation
Persons who experienced more than one incident of the same crime type within the 12 months prior to interview.

Non face-to-face threatened assault
Any threat to inflict physical harm where the person being threatened believed the threat was likely and able to be carried out, and where the victim did not encounter the offender face-to-face (e.g. via telephone, text message, e-mail, in writing or through social media).

Not in the labour force
Persons who were not included in the categories of employed or unemployed, as defined by Labour Force Status.

Offender
A person who commits a crime, as identified by the person who experienced the crime. There may be one or more offenders involved in any single crime incident.

Other known person
Used to describe the relationship of the offender to the victim where the offender was known to the victim, but the relationship did not match any of the categories specified in the survey.

Other personal items
Refers to a type of property stolen in a crime incident. Includes any personal items not specifically listed in the property type category in the survey, such as handbag, jewellery, and clothing.

Other theft
Any unlawful taking of money or goods owned by a household member (other than from motor vehicles owned by a household member) with the intent to permanently deprive the owner of the money or goods, without the use, or threat, of force or violence, coercion or deception. Includes:
  • property belonging to a member of the household not covered by the other types of crime included in the survey
  • property belonging to a household member stolen from a vehicle not owned by a household member
  • property stolen from a yard or garden (e.g. statues or plants).

Excludes any incidents involving theft covered in other crime types in the survey (e.g. break-in or robbery). Other theft is considered to be a household crime for the purpose of this survey.

Part-time (employed)
Employed people who usually worked less than 35 hours a week (in all jobs) and either did so during the reference week, or were not at work in the reference week (i.e. the week before the interview).

Personal crime
Crimes that were committed against a person which threatened or caused physical harm to their person. The types of personal crime included in the survey are physical assault, threatened assault (including face-to-face threatened assault and non face-to-face threatened assault), robbery (including attempts), and sexual assault (including attempts).

Personal electronic equipment
Includes laptops, MP3 players, digital cameras, iPads, and other electronic devices. Excludes mobile phones and smartphones.

Physical assault
An act of physical force or violence committed by an offender/s against another person. Examples of physical force or violence include being beaten, pushed, grabbed, shoved, slapped, hit with an open hand or fist, kicked, bitten, choked, stabbed, shot, burnt, being hit with something such as a bat or being dragged or hit deliberately by a vehicle. Includes assault that occurred while the person was at work. Excludes incidents that occurred during the course of play on a sporting field or organised sport, verbal abuse, incidents where the person did not encounter the offender face-to-face, and incidents of sexual assault or threatened sexual assault which also involved physical assault.

Place of entertainment/recreation
Includes, for example, pubs, nightclubs, cinemas, community centres, sports clubs.

Police
State and territory police agencies. Excludes federal police, except in the Australian Capital Territory.

Prevalence
The number of people in the total population who have experienced a given crime type at least once in the 12 months prior to interview. In this publication, prevalence is referred to as the 'victimisation rate', and is expressed as a percentage of the total population.

Private vehicle
Any motor vehicle used mainly for private purposes (i.e. non-business purposes).

Professional relationship
A relationship where the offender was known to the person primarily through the course of the person's occupation. Includes where the person was working in a business for which the offender was a client at the time of the incident; relationships between medical professionals and patients; and relationships between police/security officers and offenders.

Public transport or public vehicle
Includes buses, trains, trams, ferries and taxis.

Qualification
Refers to a formal certification, issued by a relevant approved body, in recognition that a person has achieved an appropriate level of learning outcomes or competencies relevant to identified individual, professional, industry or community needs. Excludes statements of attainment awarded for partial completion of a course of study at a particular level.

Relationship to offender
Refers to the relationship of the offender to the respondent at the time of the incident. More than one response could be provided if there were multiple offenders involved in the incident.

Reporting rate
The total number of persons/households that reported the most recent incident of a crime type to police, expressed as a percentage of the total number of persons/households that experienced the crime type. Includes incidents where the person who experienced the crime did not report the incident themselves, but were aware of another person who did.

Relative standard error
A measure of the extent to which an estimate might have varied by chance because only a sample of dwellings was surveyed, and not the entire in-scope population. Relative standard error (RSE) is obtained by expressing the standard error as a percentage of the estimate. For more details refer to the Technical Note.

Robbery
An act of stealing (or attempting to steal) property from a person by physically attacking them or threatening them with force or violence. Includes incidents that occurred at the person's place of work. Excludes pickpocketing or other types of theft that did not involve physical or threatened violence.

Sexual assault
An act of a sexual nature carried out against a person's will or without their consent, through the use of physical force, intimidation or coercion and/or involving physical contact. Includes any actual or attempted forced sexual activity such as rape, attempted rape or indecent assault (e.g. being touched inside clothing or intentional rubbing of genitals against the person) and assault with the intent to sexually assault. Includes incidents that occurred at the person's place of work. Excludes sexual harassment that did not involve or lead to an actual sexual assault. For this survey, only persons aged 18 years and over were asked questions about sexual assault.

Theft from a motor vehicle
Where property owned by any member of the household was stolen from a motor vehicle owned (for private use) by any member of that household. Excludes property stolen that belonged to someone not living in the household (e.g. a friend or other relative) and property owned by a business or employer (e.g. a computer, mobile phone or work tools). Also excludes property stolen from commercial vehicles (e.g. a self-employed business operator whose vehicle is mainly used for work purposes) and any break-in to a motor vehicle where nothing was stolen. For the purpose of this survey, incidents of theft from a motor vehicle are considered to be household crimes.

Threatened assault
A verbal, written and/or physical threat to inflict physical harm where the person being threatened believed the threat was likely and able to be carried out. Threatened assault may occur face-to-face or via non face-to-face methods (such as SMS, email or over the phone). Includes any threat or attempt to strike the person which could cause pain; situations where a gun or other weapon was left in an obvious place (including fake or toy guns/weapons where the threatened person thought it was real) or if the person knew the perpetrator had access to a gun (including toy guns, starter pistol, etc.). Also includes incidents where the person was threatened in their line of work. Excludes any incident of name calling or swearing which did not involve a physical threat, and threats that resulted in an actual assault.

Unemployed
People aged 15 years and over who were not employed during the reference week, and:
  • had actively looked for full-time or part-time work at any time in the four weeks up to the end of the reference week and were available for work in the reference week, or
  • were waiting to start a new job within four weeks from the end of the reference week and could have started in the reference week if the job had been available then.

Victim
A person or household who has experienced at least one incident of a selected type of crime within 12 months prior to the interview in 2015–16. A victim may experience more than one incident of a type of crime, but is only counted once for each type of crime experienced.

Victimisation rate
The total number of persons/households that experienced a crime type, expressed as a percentage of all persons/households. This is a measure of how prevalent a crime type is in a given population.

Weapon used
Where the person believed a weapon was present during the crime incident (even if they did not see a weapon), or where a weapon was not used during the incident but the person was threatened that a weapon might be used. Examples include knife, gun, bat/bar, bottle/glass and syringe/hypodermic needle.