4519.0 - Recorded Crime - Offenders, 2015-16  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 08/02/2017   
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GLOSSARY

Abduction, harassment and other offences against the person

Acts intended to threaten or harass, or acts that unlawfully deprive another person of their freedom of movement, that are against that person's will or against the will of any parent, guardian or other person having lawful custody or care of that person. This is a division of ANZSOC which includes the following subdivisions: Abduction and kidnapping (051), Deprivation of liberty/false imprisonment (052) and Harassment and threatening behaviour (053).

For ease of reading, Abduction, harassment and other offences against the person appears as ‘Abduction/harassment’ throughout this publication.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander offender

An offender who identifies as being of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin, or both, on at least one occasion on which they are proceeded against by police during the reference period.

Acts intended to cause injury

Acts, excluding attempted murder and those resulting in death, which are intended to cause non-fatal injury or harm to another person and where there is no sexual or acquisitive element. This is a division of ANZSOC which includes the following subdivisions: Assault (021) and Other acts intended to cause injury (029).

Age

Age is calculated at the earliest date a person was proceeded against by police during the reference period.

Age standardisation

Age standardisation is a statistical method that adjusts crude rates to account for age differences between study populations. Age standardisation enables better comparisons between populations with differing age structures (see Explanatory Notes 23–26). In the context of such a comparison, the key variable of interest is the ratio of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander to non-Indigenous age standardised rates, rather than the rates in isolation.

Assault

The direct (and immediate/confrontational) infliction of force, injury or violence upon a person or persons or the direct (and immediate/confrontational) threat of force, injury or violence where there is an apprehension that the threat could be enacted. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 021 within Division 2 Acts intended to cause injury.

Attempted murder

The attempted unlawful killing of another person, where there is either the intent to kill or to cause grievous bodily harm with the knowledge that it was probable that death or grievous harm would occur (reckless indifference to life), not resulting in death. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 012 within Division 1 Homicide and related offences.

Australian and New Zealand Standard Offence Classification (ANZSOC)

The ANZSOC is a hierarchical classification developed by the ABS for use in the collection and publication of crime and justice statistics. It provides a classificatory framework for the comparison of statistics on offences across Australia and in New Zealand. Within the classificatory structure of ANZSOC, divisions represent the broadest categories of offences. The subdivision and group levels provide increasingly detailed dissections of the broad categories. The 2011 version of ANZSOC is used to classify offence data within this publication. For details of the classification refer to the Appendix, or Australian and New Zealand Standard Offence Classification, 2011 (cat. no. 1234.0).

Blackmail and extortion

The unlawful demanding with intent to gain money, property, or any other benefit from, or with intent to cause detriment to, another person, accompanied by the use of coercive measures, to be carried out at some point in the future if the demand is not met. This may also include the use and/or threatened use of face-to-face force or violence, provided there is a threat of continued violence if the demand is not met. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 062 within Division 6 Robbery, extortion and related offences.

Breach of violence and non-violence orders

An act or omission breaching the conditions of a violence order or non-violence related restraining order. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 153 within Division 15 Offences against justice procedures, government security and government operations.

Crude offender rates

Crude offender rates are the basic measure of the prevalence of offenders within a population. They are published as the number of offenders per 100,000 of the target population, and are calculated using the following formula:

Image: Offender rate per 100,000 persons is equal to the number of offenders divided by the related Estimated Resident Population multiplied by 100,000.

Crude offender rates are the actual rates of offending and are not adjusted for any differences in population distributions that may influence the rates. As such, it is preferable to use age standardised rates when comparing rates of offending for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous populations.

Dangerous or negligent acts endangering persons


Dangerous or negligent acts which, though not intended to cause harm, actually or potentially result in injury to oneself or another person. This is a division of ANZSOC which includes the following subdivisions: Dangerous or negligent operation of a vehicle (041) and Other dangerous or negligent acts endangering persons (049). Data relating to subdivision 041 are not included in this publication, due to incomplete data availability in some jurisdictions.

For ease of reading Dangerous or negligent acts endangering persons appears as ‘Dangerous/negligent acts’ throughout this publication.

Deal or traffic in illicit drugs


The supply or purchase of an illicit drug or controlled substance of any quantity, or the possession of an illicit drug or controlled substance where the amount involved is deemed to be of a quantity for commercial activity. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 102 within Division 10 Illicit drug offences.

Deceptive business/government practices

Actions carried out by deceitful or dishonest conduct as part of trade or commercial business activity, with the intent to avoid liability or obtain an advantage, financial or otherwise. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 093 within Division 9 Fraud, deception and related offences.

Disorderly conduct

Offences involving personal conduct that is disorderly or is indicative of criminal intent. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 131 within Division 13 Public order offences.

Fare evasion

The act of travelling on public transport without a valid ticket for the specified journey in disregard of the relevant laws and/or regulations. While fare evasion is not a category in the ANZSOC classification, it has been included in the publication as a subset of ANZSOC subdivision 082 Theft (except motor vehicles), in order to enhance the comparability of theft statistics between states and territories.

Family and domestic violence offence

An offence involving at least two persons who are in a specified family or domestic relationship and which has been determined by police officers to be family and/or domestic violence related as part of their investigation. A specified family or domestic relationship includes:

  • Partner/spouse/husband/wife (including former)
  • Boyfriend/girlfriend (including ex-boyfriend/girlfriend)
  • Parent (including step-parents)
  • Child (including step-children)
  • Other relatives (including but not limited to grandparents, siblings, aunt/uncle, cousin, niece/nephew)
  • Carer
  • Kinship relationships

FDV flagged offence

An offence which has been flagged by police officers on their agency crime recording system as Family and Domestic Violence related.

Forgery and counterfeiting

Actions involving the making or use of false currency or the falsifying of official documents with an intention to deceive, obtain money, goods or services, or obtain a benefit or advantage. This includes the possession of equipment to make false/illegal instruments. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 092 within Division 9 Fraud, deception and related offences.

Fraud, deception and related offences

Offences involving a dishonest act or omission carried out with the purpose of deceiving to obtain a benefit. This is a division of ANZSOC which includes the following subdivisions: Obtain benefit by deception (091), Forgery and counterfeiting (092), Deceptive business/government practices (093) and Other fraud and deception offences (099).

For ease of reading Fraud, deception and related offences appears as ‘Fraud/deception’ throughout this publication.

Homicide and related offences

Unlawfully kill, attempt to unlawfully kill or conspiracy to kill another person. This is a division of ANZSOC which includes the following subdivisions: Murder (011), Attempted murder (012) and Manslaughter and driving causing death (013).

Illicit drug offences

The possessing, selling, dealing or trafficking, importing or exporting, manufacturing or cultivating of drugs or other substances prohibited under legislation. This is a division of ANZSOC which includes the following subdivisions: Import or export illicit drugs (101), Deal or traffic in illicit drugs (102), Manufacture or cultivate illicit drugs (103), Possess and/or use illicit drugs (104) and Other illicit drug offences (109).

Manslaughter and driving causing death

The unlawful killing of another person while deprived of the power of self-control by provocation, or under circumstances amounting to diminished responsibility or without intent to kill, as a result of a careless, reckless, negligent, unlawful or dangerous act. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 013 within Division 1 Homicide and related offences.

Manufacture or cultivate illicit drugs

Actions resulting or intended to result in either the manufacture of controlled substances, or growing of plants used to make illicit drugs. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 103 within Division 10 Illicit drug offences.

Mean

The arithmetic average.

Median

The middle value of a set of values when the values are sorted in order.

Method of proceeding

The method of proceeding describes the type of legal action (court or non-court) initiated by police against a person as a result of an investigation of an offence(s). For details of the classification hierarchy, refer to the Appendix.

Miscellaneous offences

Offences involving the breach of statutory rules or regulations governing activities that are prima facie legal, where such offences are not explicitly dealt with under any other division of ANZSOC. This is a division of ANZSOC which includes the following subdivisions: Defamation, libel and privacy offences (161), Public health and safety offences (162), Commercial/industry/financial regulation (163) and Other miscellaneous offences (169).

Motor vehicle theft

The taking of another person's motor vehicle illegally and without permission, with the intent of temporarily or permanently depriving the owner/possessor of the use of the motor vehicle. Additionally, the taking of another person's motor vehicle parts or its contents illegally, whether or not this also involves the taking of the motor vehicle. A motor vehicle is defined as any self-propelled vehicle that runs on the land surface and is eligible for registration for use on public roads. This includes, but is not limited to: car, motorcycle, motorised caravan/campervan, truck, lorry, tractor, bus, grader, etc. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 081 within Division 8 Theft and related offences.

Murder

Unlawfully kill another person where there is one or more of the following: the intent to kill; the intent to cause grievous bodily harm, with the knowledge that it was probable that death or grievous bodily harm would occur (reckless indifference to life); or without intent to kill in the course of committing a crime (felony murder). This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 011 within Division 1 Homicide and related offences.

National Offence Index (NOI)

The National Offence Index is a ranking of the ANZSOC codes from most serious to least serious, and is used to determine a principal offence where a person is proceeded against for more than one offence type during the reference period. Offences are allocated a ranking and the highest ranking offence (i.e. the offence closest to 1) is selected as the principal offence. The 2009 version of the NOI has been used for this publication. For a copy of the Index refer to the Appendix, and for further detail refer to National Offence Index, 2009 (cat. no. 1234.0.55.001).

Non-assaultive sexual offences

Offences of a sexual nature, or intent thereof, against another person that do not involve physical contact with the person and where the person does not give consent, gives consent as a result of intimidation or deception, or consent is proscribed (i.e. the person is legally deemed incapable of giving consent because of youth, temporary/permanent (mental) incapacity or there is a familial relationship). This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 032 within Division 3 Sexual assault and related offences.

Non-Indigenous

Offenders who identify as neither Aboriginal nor Torres Strait Islander.

Not stated Indigenous Status

Where the Indigenous Status of the offender is not able to be identified or recorded.

Obtain benefit by deception

The use of deception or impersonation with the intent of dishonestly obtaining property, goods, services or other benefit, or to avoid disbenefit. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 091 within Division 9 Fraud, deception and related offences.

Offence

Any act or omission by a person or persons for which a penalty could be imposed by the Australian legal system.

Offences against justice procedures

An act or omission prejudicial to the effective carrying out of justice procedures other than justice orders. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 156 within Division 15 Offences against justice procedures, government security and government operations.

Offences against justice procedures, government security and government operations

An act or omission that is deemed to be prejudicial to the effective carrying out of justice procedures or any government operations. This includes general government operations as well as those specifically concerned with maintaining government security. This is a division of ANZSOC which includes the following subdivisions: Breach of custodial order offences (151), Breach of community-based orders (152), Breach of violence and non-violence orders (153), Offences against government operations (154), Offences against government security (155) and Offences against justice procedures (156). Breach of bail offences (ANZSOC group 1523) are excluded from the data in this publication, due to issues with data comparability between the states and territories.

For ease of reading ‘Offences against justice procedures, government security and government operations’ appears as ‘Offences against justice’ throughout this publication.

Offender

A person aged 10 years or over who is proceeded against and recorded by police for one or more criminal offences. An offender is only counted once during the reference period irrespective of the number of offences committed or the number of separate occasions that police proceeded against that offender.

Offender of Family and Domestic Violence

An offender recorded as having at least one offence that was flagged by police as being FDV-related.

Offender rates

Offender rates are expressed as the number of offenders per 100,000 of the relevant Estimated Resident Population (ERP). See Explanatory Notes 16–19.

Offensive conduct

Offences involving personal conduct that is deemed by police to be offensive to members of the public. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 133 within Division 13 Public order offences.

Other acts intended to cause injury

Acts involving the indirect and non-confrontational infliction of harm, injury or violence upon a person. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 029 within Division 2 Acts intended to cause injury.

Other fraud and deception offences

Other fraud and deception offences not included elsewhere in Division 9. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 099 within Division 9 Fraud, deception and related offences.

Other theft (except motor vehicles)

This category refers to Theft, excluding the theft of motor vehicles and fare evasion offences. While this is not a category in the ANZSOC classification, it has been included in the publication as a subset of ANZSOC subdivision 082 Theft (except motor vehicles), in order to enhance the comparability of theft statistics between states and territories. It is calculated by subtracting Fare evasion from ANZSOC subdivision 082 Theft (except motor vehicles). See the definition of Fare evasion above.

Police proceeding

A proceeding is a legal action initiated against an alleged offender for an offence(s). In this publication, police proceedings represent a count for each separate occasion on which police initiate a legal action against an offender. Each proceeding is classified to a principal offence and principal method of proceeding. It does not represent a count of offences, as multiple offences can occur within a proceeding.

Police proceedings - court actions

A type of legal action initiated by police against an offender. Court actions largely comprise the laying of charges against an alleged offender that must be answered in court. Offenders may be taken into custody, granted bail or issued with a summons for these charges pending an appearance in court.

Police proceedings - non-court actions

A type of legal action initiated by police against an offender. Non-court actions comprise legal actions such as informal or formal cautions/warnings, conferencing, counselling such as drug diversionary schemes, or the issuing of penalty or infringement notices, which do not require an appearance in court.

Possess and/or use illicit drugs

The possession of a non-commercial quantity and/or use of an illicit drug or other controlled substance. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 104 within Division 10 Illicit drug offences.

Principal method of proceeding

The main legal action (court or non-court) initiated by police for an offender based on the hierarchy of the Method of Proceeding Classification (see the Appendix).

Principal offence

The offence category, based on ANZSOC, which describes the most serious offence type for which a person has been proceeded against by police during the reference period. The principal offence is determined by the ranking of offences in the NOI (see National Offence Index).

Prohibited and regulated weapons and explosives offences

Offences involving prohibited or regulated weapons and explosives. This is a division of ANZSOC which includes the following subdivisions: Prohibited weapons/explosives offences (111) and Regulated weapons/explosives offences (112).

For ease of reading Prohibited and regulated weapons and explosives offences appears as ‘Prohibited/regulated weapons’ throughout this publication.

Property damage and environmental pollution


The wilful and unlawful destruction, damage or defacement of public or private property, or the pollution of property or a definable entity held in common by the community. This is a division of ANZSOC which includes the following subdivisions: Property damage (121) and Environmental pollution (122).

Public order offences

Offences involving personal conduct that involves, or may lead to, a breach of public order or decency, or that is indicative of criminal intent, or that is otherwise regulated or prohibited on moral or ethical grounds. In general these offences do not involve a specific victim or victims; however some offences, such as offensive language and offensive behaviour, may be directed towards a single victim. This is a division of ANZSOC which includes the following subdivisions: Disorderly conduct (131), Regulated public order offences (132) and Offensive conduct (133).

Ratio

A way of concisely showing the relationship of one quantity relative to another.

Receive or handle proceeds of crime

Receive, handle, possess money or goods taken or obtained illegally. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 083 within Division 8 Theft and related offences.

Regulated public order offences

Offences involving behaviour that is regulated or prohibited on moral or ethical grounds. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 132 within Division 13 Public order offences.

Robbery, extortion and related offences

Acts intended to unlawfully gain money, property or any other thing of value from, or to cause detriment to, another person by using the threat of force or any other coercive measure. This is a division of ANZSOC which includes the following subdivisions: Robbery (061) and Blackmail and extortion (062).

For ease of reading Robbery, extortion and related offences appears as ‘Robbery/extortion’ throughout this publication.

Sexual assault

Physical contact, or intent of contact, of a sexual nature directed towards another person where that person does not give consent, gives consent as a result of intimidation or deception, or consent is proscribed (i.e. the person is legally deemed incapable of giving consent because of youth, temporary/permanent (mental) incapacity or there is a familial relationship). This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 031 within Division 3 Sexual assault and related offences.

Sexual assault and related offences

Acts, or intent of acts, of a sexual nature against another person, which are non-consensual or where consent is proscribed. This is a division of ANZSOC which includes the following subdivisions: Sexual assault (031) and Non-assaultive sexual offences (032).

Theft and related offences

The unlawful taking or obtaining of money or goods, not involving the use of force, threat of force or violence, coercion or deception, with the intent to permanently or temporarily deprive the owner or possessor of the use of the money or goods, or the receiving or handling of money or goods obtained unlawfully. This is a division of ANZSOC which includes the following subdivisions: Motor vehicle theft and related offences (081), Theft (except motor vehicles) (082), Receive or handle proceeds of crime (083) and Illegal use of property (except motor vehicles) (084).

For ease of reading Theft and related offences appears as ‘Theft’ throughout this publication.

Theft (except motor vehicles)


The unlawful taking or obtaining of money, goods, services (other than from motor vehicles) or non-motorised vehicles, without the use of force, threat of force or violence, coercion or deception, with the intent to permanently deprive the owner or possessor of the use of the money or the goods. The definition of a vehicle (other than a motor vehicle) includes but is not limited to: tram, train, ship, aircraft, vessel or any other (non-motorised) vehicle. This offence category is ANZSOC subdivision 082 within Division 8 Theft and related offences.

Traffic and vehicle regulatory offences


Offences relating to vehicles and most forms of road traffic, including offences pertaining to licensing, motor vehicle registration, roadworthiness or use of vehicles, bicycle offences and pedestrian offences. This is a division of ANZSOC which includes the following subdivisions: Driving licence offences (141), Vehicle registration and roadworthiness offences (142), Regulatory driving offences (143) and Pedestrian offences (144). Data for this division are not presented in this publication due to issues of data availability in some jurisdictions.

Unlawful entry with intent/burglary, break and enter


The unlawful entry of a structure with the intent to commit an offence, where the entry is either forced or unforced. This is a division of ANZSOC which includes the following subdivision: Unlawful entry with intent/burglary, break and enter (071).

For ease of reading Unlawful entry with intent/burglary, break and enter appears as ‘Unlawful entry with intent/burglary/ throughout this publication.

Youth offenders


Alleged offenders aged 10–17 years proceeded against by police during the reference period. This term was used to refer to offenders aged 10–19 years in previous publications.