4510.0 - Recorded Crime - Victims, Australia, 2016  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 06/07/2017   
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GLOSSARY

It should be noted that the definitions used in Recorded Crime – Victims collection are not necessarily the same as those used for concepts or data items in other collections; care should be taken when comparing data from different sources to ensure they are similarly defined.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
An Aboriginal person is defined as a descendant of an indigenous inhabitant whose traditional cultures and lands lie on the mainland and most of the islands of Australia; who identifies as an Aboriginal person; and is recognised as an Aboriginal person by members of the community in which she or he lives. In statistical and most administrative collections, it is not feasible to collect information on the community acceptance component of the definition. Therefore, the community acceptance criterion is not included in the operational definition. Torres Strait Islander people are the descendants of the indigenous peoples of the Torres Strait, between the tip of Cape York and Papua New Guinea.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status

This data item indicates whether the victim has or has not identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin. The status is determined by self-identification.

Administrative/Professional location

A location where the main activity is the provision of clerical, administrative or professional service(s) including:

  • office blocks or single offices
  • incorporating government departments
  • private organisations
  • sole proprietors

This definition may encompass any surrounding land/yard/car parking area, together with any other structures existing at the location.

Age

The age of the victim (in years) at the time they become known to the police or at the time of report.

Armed robbery

Instances of robbery where a weapon was used in the commission of the offence.

Assault

The direct (and immediate/confrontational) infliction of force, injury, or violence upon a person or persons, or the direct (and immediate/confrontational) threat of force, injury or violence where there is an apprehension that the threat could be enacted.

Attempted murder

Attempted unlawful killing of another person, where there is either the intent to kill or to cause grievous bodily harm with the knowledge that it was probable that death or grievous bodily harm would occur (reckless indifference to life), not resulting in death.

Australian and New Zealand Standard Offence Classification (ANZSOC)

The ANZSOC is a hierarchical classification system developed by the ABS for use in the collection and publication of crime and justice statistics. It provides a classificatory framework for the comparison of statistics on offences across Australia. For more information see the Australian and New Zealand Standard Offence Classification (third edition) (cat. no. 1234.0).

Bat/bar/club

Includes items such as a cricket bat, baseball bat, other bat, crowbar, iron bar, jemmy bar, club, baton, stick, or length of timber used in the commission of an offence.

Blackmail/extortion

The unlawful demanding with intent to gain money, property or any other benefit from, or with intent to cause detriment to, another person, accompanied by the use of coercive measures, to be carried out at some point in the future if the demand is not met. This may also include the use and/or threatened use of face-to-face force or violence, provided there is a threat of continued violence if the demand is not met. Coercive measures include, but are not limited to: the threat of force or violence; the misuse of authority; criminal prosecution; the destruction of a person's reputation or social standing; or the destruction of a person's property.

Bottle/glass

A bottle or glass either broken or unbroken that has been used in the commission of an offence.

Chemical

Any noxious or irritant liquid, powder, gas, or spray that is used to immobilise, incapacitate or injure another person either temporarily or permanently that has been used in the commission of an offence.

Community location

Any location where the primary activity is the provision of services/facilities for public use including:
  • schools and other educational facilities
  • hospitals and other health facilities
  • churches and other religious establishments
  • car parks, buses, trains, terminals and other transport facilities
  • police stations, court houses, and other justice facilities
  • streets and footpaths
  • open spaces not reserved for specific functions or attached to some other facility

Dwelling
A room or suite of rooms, both private and non-private, which may or may not be self-contained. A dwelling can be a house, flat, tent, or residential quarters attached to shops or offices, and also includes motels, hostels, nursing homes, etc.

Educational location

A location where the main activity is the provision of educational service(s) including:
  • academies
  • colleges (excluding residential colleges)
  • education or training centres
  • kindergarten/preschool
  • playground of educational institution
  • schools
  • universities

This definition may encompass any surrounding land/yard/car parking area, together with any other structures existing at the location.

Ex-partner

Where the victim and the offender were no longer in a partner relationship at the time of the offence. This includes where the relationship has ended through separation or divorce or where the offender was the ex-boyfriend or ex-girlfriend of the victim.

Family and Domestic Violence (FDV) related offence
Within the context of national Recorded Crime – Victims statistics, a Family and Domestic Violence (FDV) -related offence is defined as “An offence involving at least two persons who were in a specified family or domestic relationship at the time of the offence; or where the offence was determined by a police officer to be to be family and/or domestic violence related as part of their investigation”.

For the purposes of this release, a specified family or domestic relationship includes:
  • Partner (spouse, husband, wife, boyfriend, and girlfriend)
  • Ex-partner (Ex-spouse, ex-husband, ex-wife, ex- boyfriend, ex-girlfriend)
  • Parent (including step- parents)
  • Other family member (including, but not limited to, child, sibling, grandparent, aunt, uncle, cousin, niece, nephew)
  • Other non-family member (carer, guardian, kinship relationships)

Selected offences are limited to the following ANZSOC Divisions and Sub-division offences:
  • Murder
  • Attempted Murder
  • Manslaughter
  • Assault
  • Sexual assault
  • Kidnapping and abduction

Family member
This is where the offender is a family member of the victim. The group includes partners, parents, children, siblings, boyfriends/girlfriends and other related family members.

Firearm

A device designed or adapted to discharge shots, bullets, or other projectiles by means of an explosive charge or a compressed gas. This includes but is not limited to:
  • pistol
  • revolver
  • rifle
  • automatic/semi-automatic rifle
  • shotgun
  • military firearm
  • air gun
  • nail gun
  • cannon
  • imitation firearm
  • implied firearm

Firearm excludes bow and arrow, cross bow, spear gun, and blowgun.

Homicide and related offences

The unlawful killing or the attempted unlawful killing of another person including the ANZSOC groups of:
  • Murder (0111)
  • Attempted Murder (0121)
  • Manslaughter (0131)

For Recorded Crime – Victims output, this excludes conspiracy to murder offences and Driving causing death (0132).

Intimate partner
The offender is a partner, ex-partner, boyfriend, girlfriend, ex-boyfriend or ex-girlfriend of the victim.

Investigation finalised – no offender proceeded against
Cases where the investigation has been finalised but no offender has been proceeded against, either due to the circumstances of the alleged offenders or because the offence could not be verified. These cases are unlikely to be reopened.

Investigation finalised – offender proceeded against

Cases where the investigation has been finalised by the offender(s) being proceeded against, either through court proceedings or non-court proceedings.

Investigation not finalised
Cases where the investigation has not been finalised and no offender has been proceeded against at the time of recording the outcome. This includes cases where the investigation is ongoing or pending/suspended.

Kidnapping/abduction

The unlawful confinement of a person against that person's will, or against the will of any parent, guardian or other person having lawful custody or care of that person.

Knife
Any cutting instrument consisting essentially of a thin blade (usually made of steel and with a sharp edge) attached to a handle which has been used in the commission of an offence. This includes, but is not limited to:
  • ballistic knife
  • sheath knife
  • kitchen knife
  • implied knife

Knife excludes: butterfly knife, razor, star knife, trench knife, cleaver, machete, scythe, sickle, sword, and axe.

Known to victim

This is where the offender is known to the victim at the time of the offence. This includes both family and non-family members.

Location

The initial site where an offence occurred, determined on the basis of use or function. Any surrounding land, yard or parking area connected to the building or facility, as well as any other structures existing at the location are assigned to the same category of use. Locations which are multi-functional are categorised according to their primary function, with the exception of a multi-functional location which includes the provision of residential accommodation. Those parts used for residential purposes are classified to 'residential' regardless of the main function of the location. Thus, a residential college within university grounds is coded to 'residential' and not 'educational'.

Manslaughter

The unlawful killing of another person while deprived of the power of self-control by provocation, or under circumstances amounting to diminished responsibility or without intent to kill, as a result of a careless, reckless, negligent, unlawful or dangerous act (other than the act of driving).

Motor vehicle theft

The taking of another person's motor vehicle illegally and without permission, with the intent of temporarily or permanently depriving the owner/possessor of the use of the motor vehicle. Excludes attempted motor vehicle theft.

Murder

The unlawful killing of another person where there is one or more of the following:
  • the intent to kill
  • the intent to cause grievous bodily harm, with the knowledge that it was probable that death or grievous bodily harm would occur (reckless indifference to life)
  • without intent to kill in the course of committing a crime (felony murder)

No offender identified
This is used in cases where no information is available about the offender. This may include where police have recorded an offender, however, due to other circumstances (e.g. death of victim) further details were unable to be obtained; or where the victim was knocked unconscious, blindfolded, etc. and was unable to identify the offender.

Non-family member
This is where the offender is known to the victim and is not a family member. The group includes ex-partners, ex-boyfriends/girlfriends, and other non-family members.

Non-Indigenous

A victim who does not self-identify as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin. See Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status.

Non-person victim

A non-person victim can either be an organisation, premise or motor vehicle. See definition for Victim.

Not applicable

For the variables of age, sex, Indigenous status and relationship of offender to victim, this is where the victim is not a person (i.e. a victim is an organisation, premises or motor vehicle).

Not stated/inadequately described

For the variables of age, sex, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status and relationship of offender to victim, this is where the information has not been recorded, or the information supplied is insufficient to classify elsewhere.

Offence

Any act or omission by a person, persons, organisation, or organisations, for which a penalty could be imposed by the Australian legal system.

Open space
A location which is public space and is not reserved for specific functions. Including:
  • beaches
  • bushland
  • forests
  • grasslands
  • harbour
  • ocean
  • river
  • scrub
  • sea

Other family member
Where the offender is known and related to the victim but is not a partner or parent. This includes child and sibling relationships, as well as step siblings. Also included is other related family members such as grandparents, grandchildren, nieces, nephews, aunts, uncles and other family members related by marriage, for example, in laws and step grandparents. For the presentation of experimental data about victims of family and domestic violence related offences parent relationships are included in Other family member.

Other location

Any location where the primary function does not fit into either the 'Residential' or 'Community' categories. This may encompass any surrounding land/yard/car parking area, together with any other structures existing at the location. This includes, but is not limited to:
  • Administrative/professional
  • Banking
  • Retail
  • Wholesale
  • Manufacturing
  • Agricultural
  • Recreational

Other non-family member
Where the offender is known to the victim and is not a relative, partner or ex-partner. This includes a variety of relationships such as foster parents, teachers, acquaintances, colleagues, friends, etc.

Other theft

The unlawful taking of money, goods, or services, without the use of force, threat of force or violence, coercion or deception; with the intent to permanently or temporarily deprive the owner or possessor of the money, goods, or services. Includes the ANZSOC groups:
  • Theft of motor vehicle parts or contents (0813)
  • Theft from a person (excluding by force) (0821)
  • Theft from retail premises (0823)
  • Theft (except motor vehicles) n.e.c. (0829)
  • Illegal use of property (except motor vehicles) (0841)

Other weapon
Any other instrument or substance (other than a firearm, knife, syringe, bottle/glass, or bat/bar/club), capable of inflicting damage, injury, or death and used in the commission of a crime. This includes, but is not limited to:
  • chemical
  • sharp instrument
  • blunt instrument
  • hammer
  • axe
  • bow and arrow
  • crossbow
  • spear gun
  • blow gun
  • rope
  • wire
  • explosive
  • liquids
  • vehicle
  • other dangerous article
  • imitation weapons (excluding imitation firearms, knives and syringes)

Outbuilding/residential land
Excluding dwellings, this includes buildings or land which lie within the boundaries of the residential location. Examples include carports, clothes lines, attached and unattached garages, gazebos, etc.

Outcome of investigation

The status of a police investigation after a period of 30 days has elapsed since the recording of the incident by police.

Partner

Where the victim and the offender are married, in a de facto relationship or where the offender is the victim's boyfriend or girlfriend.

Recreational location
Any location where the primary activity is the provision of recreational facilities. This definition may encompass any surrounding land/yard/car/parking area, together with any other structures existing at the location including:
  • cinemas
  • gymnasium
  • sporting ground/oval
  • dance halls
  • amusement parlours

Relationship of offender to victim
The relationship of offender to victim is defined as the relationship of the alleged offender to the victim as perceived by the victim at the time of the offence. For example if the victim is the child then the Relationship of offender to victim would be parent.

Relationship not known

For the variable relationship of offender to victim, this is to be used in cases where no information is available about the offender. This may include where police have recorded an offender, however, due to other circumstances (e.g. death of victim) further details were unable to be obtained; or where the victim was knocked unconscious, blindfolded, etc. and was unable to identify the offender.

Residential location

Any location containing a permanent or semi-permanent dwelling used for private or commercial residential purposes. This definition may encompass any surrounding land/yard connected to the dwelling, together with any other structures existing at the location.

Retail location
A location where the primary activity is the selling of goods or the provision of services to customers for personal/household use. This definition may encompass any surrounding land/yard/car/parking area, together with any other structures existing at the location including:
  • chemists
  • service stations
  • restaurants
  • florists
  • supermarkets

Robbery
The unlawful taking of property, with intent to permanently deprive the owner of the property, from the immediate possession, control, custody or care of a person or organisation, accompanied by the use, and/or threatened use, of immediate force or violence. This offence is divided into sub categories of Armed Robbery and Unarmed Robbery.

Sexual assault

Physical contact, or intent of contact, of a sexual nature directed toward another person where that person does not give consent, gives consent as a result of intimidation or deception, or consent is proscribed (i.e. the person is legally deemed incapable of giving consent because of youth, temporary/permanent (mental) incapacity or there is a familial relationship).

Stranger

The victim has seen the offender but does not personally know them.

Street/footpath
A location where the main activity is the passage of people including:
  • footpath
  • lane
  • pavement
  • street

Syringe
A small device consisting of a tube, narrowed at its outlet, and fitted with either a piston or a rubber bulb for drawing in a quantity of fluid and ejecting it in a stream. Syringes are considered a weapon when used in the commission of a crime.

Transport location

A location where the main activity is the provision of transport services/facilities. This may encompass any surrounding land/yard/car parking area, together with any other structures existing at the location including:
  • terminal (including airports, depots, docks, jetties, wharfs and emergency and train stations)
  • conveyance in transit
  • car parks

Unarmed robbery
Instances of robbery where there was no weapon used or implied in the commission of the offence, or where weapon use was unknown or not stated.

Unlawful entry with intent (UEWI)

The unlawful entry of a structure with the intent to commit an offence, where the entry is either forced or unforced. Excludes shop-stealing and stealing from a house or premise into which the offender has been invited or has legitimate access, whereby the intent was unlawful but the entry was not. Also excludes trespass whereby entry is unlawful but there is no intent to commit an offence. A structure is defined as a building that is contained by walls and can be secured in some form. This includes, but is not limited to, the following:
  • dwelling (e.g. house, flat, caravan)
  • office
  • bank
  • shop
  • factory
  • school
  • church

UEWI – Involving the taking of property
The unlawful entry of a structure with the intent to commit a criminal act, resulting in the taking of property from the structure.

UEWI – Other

The unlawful entry of a structure with the intent to commit a criminal act, but not resulting in the taking of property from the structure.

Unspecified

For the variables of weapon and location, this is to be used in cases where no further information known about the offence regarding the use of a weapon or location.

Victim

The definition of victim varies according to the offence category, and can either be a person, premise, organisation, or motor vehicle.
  • For Murder, Attempted murder, Manslaughter, Assault, Sexual assault and Kidnapping/abduction, the victim is an individual person.
  • For Robbery, the victim may be either an individual person or an organisation. Where the Robbery involves an organisation or business, the element of property ownership is the key to determining the number and type of robbery victims. If the Robbery only involves property belonging to an organisation, then one victim (i.e. the organisation) is counted regardless of the number of employees from which the property is taken. However, if Robbery of an organisation also involves personal property in an employee's custody, then both the organisation and employee(s) are counted as victims.
  • For Blackmail/extortion, the victim may be either an individual person or an organisation.
  • For UEWI, the victim is the place/premise which is defined as a single connected property that is owned, rented or occupied by the same person or group of people.
  • For Motor vehicle theft, the victim is the motor vehicle.
  • For Other theft, the victim is either an individual person or an organisation.

For more information on the victim counting unit, see Explanatory Notes paragraphs 13–19.

Victimisation rate

The number of victims per 100,000 of the Estimated Resident Population (ERP). For more information, refer to paragraphs 31–33 of the Explanatory Notes.

Weapon

A weapon is defined as any object that can be used to cause injury or fear of injury in the commission of a crime. It also includes imitation weapons and implied weapons (e.g. where a weapon is not seen by the victim but the offender claims to possess one). Parts of the body such as fists and feet are not included as a weapon.

Weapon used n.f.d.

A weapon was used, sighted or implied during the commission of the offence but the nature of the weapon is unknown or cannot be identified (not further defined).