4430.0 - Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings, 2015 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 18/10/2016   
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GLOSSARY


Ability to get support in a time of crisis

Refers to whether a person has someone outside their household that would be prepared to provide support in a time of crisis. Support could be in the form of emotional, physical or financial help. Potential sources of support could be family members, friends, neighbours, work colleagues and various community, government and professional organisations.

Accompany

A carer is said to accompany their recipient of care when they attend an activity together. This excludes occasions when the recipient of care is only driven to or from the activity by the carer.

Activity

An activity comprises one or more tasks. See Appendix - Limitations and Restrictions for a summary table of restrictions, activities and tasks. In this survey, tasks have been grouped into the following ten activities:

        • cognition or emotion
        • communication
        • health care
        • household chores
        • meal preparation
        • mobility
        • property maintenance
        • reading or writing
        • self-care
        • transport.

Age

The age of a person on their last birthday.

Age standardised disability rate


An age standardised rate is calculated to remove the effects of different age structures when comparing populations over time. A standard age composition is used, in this case the age composition of the estimated resident population of Australia at 30 June 2001. An age standardised rate is that which would have prevailed if the actual population had the standard age composition. Age-specific disability rates are multiplied by the standard population for each age group. The results are added and the sum calculated as a percentage of the standard population total to give the age standardised percentage rate.

Aids or equipment

Refers to any aids, equipment or other devices used by a person with one or more disabilities to assist them with performing tasks, but does not include help provided by another person or an organisation.

Any responsible adult

The Any Responsible Adult (ARA), or proxy, method of interviewing is used in a number of ABS household surveys as an alternative to personal interviewing. This involves obtaining information about all the persons in a selected household who are in scope of the survey, from the first responsible adult with whom the interviewer makes contact (rather than speaking to each individual personally). The method is only used for collecting information on topics where other members of the household are likely to be able to answer the question. If the ARA is unable to supply all of the details for another individual in the household, a personal interview is conducted with that particular individual.

Assistance

Includes help that is being received, as well as help that may be needed, but not being received, in common activities of daily life such as showering or dressing, moving around, housework and gardening, or using transport. The help or assistance must be because of the person's disability, long-term health condition or old age.

Assistive communication 'app'

Includes applications that can turn a smart phone or tablet into a communication aid to help with any of the following:
        • Hearing: by enabling a phone to be used as a hearing aid
        • Speech: by creating speech for a person who is unable to speak
        • Vision: by audibly stating what can be seen through the camera on a device.

Attended a sporting event as a spectator

A person is considered to have attended a sporting event as a spectator if they have deliberately been to watch a sporting match or competition in Australia, or overseas, regardless of whether they paid to do so. This excludes attendances that were incidental, such as visiting a park or school without knowing a sporting event was underway.

Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED)

The ASCED is a national standard classification which includes all sectors of the Australian education system, that is, schools, vocational education and training, and higher education. From 2001, ASCED replaced a number of classifications used in administrative and statistical systems, including the ABS Classification of Qualifications (ABSCQ). The ASCED comprises two classifications: Level of education and Field of education. See Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0).

Avoided situations

Not going or staying away from people or places because of one's disability. Includes all persons with disability, whether they believed they had been discriminated against or not.

Broad area of activity

See Activity

Capital city/Balance of state

Capital city refers to the Greater Capital City Statistical Area for each state or territory. All other regions within each state or territory are classified as 'balance of state'.

Cared-accommodation

Refers to accommodation within establishments, such as hospitals, nursing homes, aged care hostels, cared components of retirement villages, psychiatric institutions, and other 'homes', such as group homes for people with disability. The accommodation must include all meals for its occupants and provide 24-hour access to assistance for personal and/or medical needs. To be included in this survey a person must have been a resident, or expected to be a resident, of the cared-accommodation establishment for three months or more.

Carer

See Appendix - Carers

Carer allowance

Carer Allowance is a supplementary payment for individuals providing additional daily care or attention for an adult or child with a disability or medical condition, or for an adult who is frail, that can be paid in addition to wages or other income support payments such as Age Pension or Carer Payment.

Carer payment

Carer Payment provides income support if an individual is unable to support themselves through substantial paid employment, while providing care to a person with a severe disability or severe medical condition.

Child

A person of any age who is a natural, step or foster son or daughter of a couple or lone parent, usually resident in the same household, and who does not have a child or partner of his/her own usually resident in the household.

Cognitive/emotional

This activity comprises the following tasks:
        • making friendships, maintaining relationships, or interacting with others
        • coping with feelings or emotions
        • decision making or thinking through problems
        • managing own behaviour.

Cognitive or emotional activity was termed 'guidance' in earlier SDAC surveys.

Communication


This activity comprises the following tasks:
        • understanding family or friends
        • being understood by family or friends
        • understanding strangers
        • being understood by strangers.

Continuous care

Care that is on-going, or likely to be on-going, for at least six months.

Contributing family worker

A person who works without pay in an economic enterprise operated by a relative.

Core activities

Core activities are communication, mobility and self-care.

Core activity limitation

Four levels of core activity limitation are determined based on whether a person needs help, has difficulty, or uses aids or equipment with any of the core activities (mobility, self-care and communication). A person's overall level of core activity limitation is determined by their highest level of limitation in these activities.

The four levels of limitation are:
        • profound - the person is unable to do, or always needs help with, a core activity task.
        • severe - the person:
                • sometimes needs help with a core activity task, and/or
                • has difficulty understanding or being understood by family or friends, or
                • can communicate more easily using sign language or other non-spoken forms of communication.
        • moderate - the person needs no help, but has difficulty with a core activity task.
        • mild - the person needs no help and has no difficulty with any of the core activity tasks, but:
                • uses aids or equipment, or has one or more of the following limitations
                • cannot easily walk 200 metres
                • cannot walk up and down stairs without a handrail
                • cannot easily bend to pick up an object from the floor
                • cannot use public transport
                • can use public transport, but needs help or supervision
                • needs no help or supervision, but has difficulty using public transport.

Country of birth

Country of birth is classified to the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2011 (cat. no. 1269.0).

Deciles

Groupings that result from ranking all households or people in the population in ascending order according to some characteristic, such as their household income, and then dividing the population into ten equal groups, each comprising 10% of the estimated population. The same dollar values for household income can therefore appear in separate deciles.

Dental professional

A specialist in the field of oral hygiene. This includes dentists, dental hygienists and dental specialists such as periodontists, orthodontists, and oral maxillofacial surgeons.

Difficulty (with an activity or task)


The difficulty a respondent experiences in undertaking or completing an activity or task is up to their own interpretation. A person might consider themselves to have difficulty with an activity or task if it takes them longer to complete than other people of the same age, causes pain or discomfort, or is harder for them to do because of their disability or old age.

Disability


In the context of health experience, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICFDH) defines disability as an umbrella term for impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions. It denotes the negative aspects of the interaction between an individual (with a health condition) and that individual's contextual factors (environment and personal factors).

In this survey, a person has a disability if they report they have a limitation, restriction or impairment, which has lasted, or is likely to last, for at least six months and restricts everyday activities. This includes:
        • loss of sight (not corrected by glasses or contact lenses)
        • loss of hearing where communication is restricted, or an aid to assist with, or substitute for, hearing is used
        • speech difficulties
        • shortness of breath or breathing difficulties causing restriction
        • chronic or recurrent pain or discomfort causing restriction
        • blackouts, seizures, or loss of consciousness
        • difficulty learning or understanding
        • incomplete use of arms or fingers
        • difficulty gripping or holding things
        • incomplete use of feet or legs
        • nervous or emotional condition causing restriction
        • restriction in physical activities or in doing physical work
        • disfigurement or deformity
        • mental illness or condition requiring help or supervision
        • memory problems or periods of confusion causing restriction
        • social or behavioural difficulties causing restriction
        • long-term effects of head injury, stroke or other acquired brain injury causing restriction
        • receiving treatment or medication for any other long-term conditions or ailments and still being restricted
        • any other long-term conditions resulting in a restriction.

Disability group

See Appendix - Disability groups

Disability rate

The proportion of people with reported disability, in any given population or sub-population (e.g. age group).

Disability specific mobile 'app' (for mobility)

Any application that can enable a smart phone or tablet to be used as a mobility aid. For example, an 'app' that assists people plan journeys by providing information about buildings without ramps or traffic signals without audible signals. Navigation apps such as Google Maps are excluded.

Disability status

The level of specific limitation or restriction experienced by persons with disability. This is determined by the amount of difficulty experienced, the level of assistance needed from another person, or the use of an aid to undertake a particular core activity and/or to participate in education or employment activities.

Discrimination

Refers to persons who felt they had been unfairly considered or treated due to their disability.

Dressing (assistance with)

Includes physical assistance for dressing or undressing activities, such as doing up buttons or zips, putting on socks and shoes, tying shoelaces, etc., including before or after showering or bathing. It also includes advising on appropriate clothing.

Dressing aids

Includes aids that are used to assist in the dressing process such as zip pullers, button hooks and tongs for pulling on clothes.

Eating (assistance with)

This includes the physical aspects of eating, as well as supervising to ensure the food is eaten and nothing harmful is placed in the mouth (e.g. bones) and any washing or clothing adjustments that are needed after eating or feeding. The physical aspects of eating include being seated at the table, serving food, cutting food into pieces and feeding.

Eating aids

Includes any special crockery or cutlery that facilitates eating.

Employed


People who reported that they had worked in a job, business or farm during the reference week (the full week prior to the date of interview); or that they had a job in the reference week, but were not at work.

Employee

A person who works for a public or private employer and receives remuneration in wages, salary, a retainer fee from their employer while working on a commission basis, tips, piece rates, or payment in kind, or a person who operates their own incorporated enterprise with or without hiring employees. In this publication, employee relates to his/her main job.

Employer

A person who operates his or her own unincorporated economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade, and hires one or more employees.

Employment restriction

An employment restriction is determined for persons with one or more disabilities if, because of their disability, they meet one or more of the following:
        • are permanently unable to work
        • are restricted in the type of work they can or could do
        • need or would need at least one day a week off work on average
        • are restricted in the number of hours they can or could work
        • require or would require an employer to provide special equipment, modify the work environment or make special arrangements
        • require assistance from a disability job placement program or agency
        • need or would need to be given ongoing assistance or supervision
        • would find it difficult to change jobs or get a better job.

This information was collected for persons aged 15 years or more with one or more disabilities, living in households.

Episodic care

Refers to care that is only provided during episodes where the condition of the main/only recipient deteriorates, that is, for conditions where the main/only recipient suffers attacks or relapses at intervals (e.g. episodes of schizophrenia, epilepsy, etc.). During these episodes the care provided might be continuous; however, the type of care is classified as episodic as it is not provided on an ongoing basis.

Equivalised household income

Equivalising adjusts actual income to take into account the different needs of households of different size and composition. There are economic advantages associated with living with others, because household resources, especially housing, can be shared. The equivalence scale used to obtain equivalised income is that used in studies by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and is referred to as the 'modified OECD scale'. The scale gives a weight of 1.0 to the first adult in the household, a weight of 0.5 for each additional adult (persons aged 15 years and over), and a weight of 0.3 for each child. For each household, the weights for household members are added together to form the household weight. Total household income is then divided by the household weight to give an income that a lone person household would need for a similar standard of living. Equivalised household income can be viewed as an indicator of the economic resources available to each member of the household.

Establishment


See cared-accommodation.

Fall-back carer

See Appendix - Carers

Family

A family is defined as two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering, and who are usually resident in the same household. The basis of a family is formed by identifying the presence of either a couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationship. Some households will contain more than one family.

Feelings of safety

How safe a person feels in various circumstances (i.e. when home alone during the day, when home alone after dark, or when walking alone through their local area after dark) was reported on a five point scale, from very safe to very unsafe. Never home alone or Never walked alone after dark were provided as possible response categories.

Financial management (assistance with)

Assistance provided to help a person manage their money, including activities such as keeping track of expenses and paying bills.

Formal assistance/providers

Help provided to persons with disability or persons aged 65 years or over by:
        • organisations or individuals representing organisations (whether profit making or non-profit making, government or private); or
        • other persons (excluding family, friends or neighbours as described in Informal assistance/providers), on a regular, paid basis, who are not associated with any organisation.

Full-time employed

Employed persons who usually worked 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs) and those who, although usually working less than 35 hours a week, worked 35 hours or more during the reference week.

Government organisation

A government organisation is controlled by the Federal or state government or by a local authority, such as a council or shire. Any service provided by an employee of a government organisation, such as a public hospital, is considered to be government organised.

Health care

This activity comprises:
        • foot care
        • taking medication or administering injections
        • dressing wounds
        • using medical machinery and
        • manipulating muscles or limbs.

Help

See Assistance

High technology aids for speaking

This includes aids such as digitised or synthesised speech output systems, or 'apps' on mobile devices.

High technology reading or writing aids

This includes aids such as talking word processors, special computer software and printout systems, or 'apps' on mobile devices.

Highest educational attainment

Highest educational attainment identifies the highest achievement a person has attained in any area of study. It is a ranking of qualifications and other educational attainments regardless of the particular area of study or the type of institution at which the study was undertaken. Highest educational attainment is based on the Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0).

Hospital admission

A hospital admission is the formal acceptance by a hospital or other in-patient health care facility of a patient who is to be provided with a room and continuous nursing service. This includes respondents who have been to a hospital emergency department and have also been admitted to hospital.

Hospital emergency department visit

Any time a person went to an emergency department for their own health, whether it was within normal GP practising hours or after hours.

Hours worked

Hours worked was only collected for people who were employed during the reference period. It refers to the number of hours usually worked in all jobs.

Household

A group of two or more related or unrelated people who usually reside in the same dwelling and who make common provision for food and other essentials for living; or a person living in a dwelling who makes provision for his or her own food and other essentials for living without combining with any other person. Thus a household may consist of:
        • one person
        • one family
        • one family and related individual(s)
        • related families with or without unrelated individual(s)
        • unrelated families with or without unrelated individual(s)
        • unrelated individuals.

This comprises people living in private dwellings and self-care retirement units in retirement villages.

Household chores

This activity comprises a single task 'household chores', examples of which are:
        • washing
        • vacuuming
        • dusting.

Impairment

In the context of health experience, an impairment is defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICFHD) as a loss or abnormality in body structure or physiological function (including mental functions). Abnormality is used to refer to a significant variation from established statistical norms.

Examples of an impairment are loss of sight or loss of a limb, disfigurement or deformity, impairment of mood or emotion, impairments of speech, hallucinations, loss of consciousness, and any other lack of function of body organs.

Income

Gross current usual (weekly equivalent) cash receipts that are of a regular and recurring nature, and accrue to individual household members at annual or more frequent intervals, from employment, own business, the lending of assets and transfers from Government, private organisations and other households.

Income unit

One person or a group of related persons within a household, whose command over income is assumed to be shared. Income sharing is assumed to take place within married (registered or de facto) couples, and between parents and dependent children. Some households and families will contain more than one income unit.

Incontinence aids

Include items such as incontinence pads, urinary appliances, incontinence briefs, waterproof pants and specialised bed linen.

Industry

Industry has been classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 (cat. no. 1292.0).

Informal assistance/providers

Unpaid help or supervision that is provided to persons with disability or persons aged 65 years and over. It only includes assistance that is provided because of a person's disability or because they are older. Informal assistance may be provided by family, friends or neighbours. For this survey, any assistance received from family or friends was considered to be informal assistance regardless or whether or not the provider was paid, such as through the Carer Payment or other allowances. It does not include providers whose care is privately organised (see Formal assistance/providers).

Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-10 (K10)

The K10 is a non-specific psychological distress scale consisting of 10 questions designed to measure levels of negative emotional states experienced by people in the four weeks prior to interview. These questions were asked for the first time in 2015 and replace the Short form 12 (SF12) questions asked in SDAC 2012.

Labour force status

A classification of the population aged 15 years or over into employed, unemployed or not in the labour force.

Level of communication limitation

Four levels of communication limitation are determined based on whether a person needs help, has difficulty, or uses aids or equipment in communicating with others. A person's overall level of communication limitation is determined by their highest level of limitation in these activities.

The four levels of limitation are:
        • profound - the person cannot understand or be understood at all. They always need help when communicating with family or friends and people they don't know.
        • severe - the person:
          • communicates more easily with sign language or other non-spoken communication
          • sometimes needs help understanding or being understood by someone they don't know
          • sometimes needs help understanding or being understood by family or friends
          • doesn't need help, but has difficulty understanding or being understood by family or friends.
        • moderate - the person doesn't need help, but has difficulty understanding or being understood by someone they don't know, or the interview was conducted in English with difficulty because of communication problems.
        • mild - the person has no difficulty understanding or being understood by someone else, but uses a communication aid.

Level of employment restriction

Four levels of employment restrictions are determined based on whether a person needs help, has difficulty, or uses aids or equipment in their employment. A person's overall level of employment restriction is determined by their highest level of limitation in these activities.

The four levels of restriction are:
        • profound - the person's condition permanently prevents them from working.
        • severe - the person:
          • requires personal support
          • needs ongoing supervision or assistance
          • requires a special disability support person
          • receives assistance from a disability job placement program or agency.
        • moderate - the person is restricted in the type of job and/or the numbers of hours they can work or has difficulty in changing jobs.
        • mild - the person needs:
          • help from someone at work
          • special equipment
          • modifications to buildings or fittings
          • special arrangements for transport or parking
          • training
          • to be allocated different duties.

Level of mobility limitation


Four levels of mobility limitation are determined based on whether a person needs help, has difficulty, or uses aids or equipment in moving around. A person's overall level of mobility limitation is determined by their highest level of limitation in these activities.

The four levels of limitation are:
        • profound - the person:
          • does not get out of bed
          • does not move around the residence
          • does not leave home because of their condition
          • always needs help or supervision with:
            • moving around places away from their place of residence
            • moving about their place of residence
            • getting into or out of a bed or chair.
        • severe - the person sometimes needs help or supervision with:
          • moving around places away from their place of residence
          • moving about their place of residence
          • getting into or out of a bed or chair.
        • moderate - the person has difficulty, but doesn't need help with:
          • moving around places away from their place of residence
          • moving about their place of residence
          • getting into or out of a bed or chair.
        • mild - the person doesn't need any help and doesn't have any difficulty with moving around, but:
          • uses a mobility aid
          • cannot easily walk 200 metres or takes longer to do so than most people their age
          • cannot walk up or down stairs without using a handrail
          • cannot easily bend to pick something off the floor
          • cannot use public transport
          • can use public transport, but needs help or supervision
          • needs no help or supervision, but has difficulty using public transport.

Level of non-school educational restriction

Three levels of non-school educational restrictions are determined based on whether a person needs help, has difficulty, or uses aids or equipment in their education. A person's overall level of non-school educational restriction is determined by their highest level of limitation in these activities.

The three levels of restriction are:
        • severe - the person:
          • receives personal assistance
          • receives special tuition
          • receives assistance from a counsellor/disability support person.
        • moderate - the person:
          • often needs time off from school/institution
          • has difficulty at school/institution because of their condition(s)
          • has special assessment procedures.
        • mild - the person needs:
          • a special computer or other special equipment
          • special transport arrangements
          • special access arrangements
          • other special arrangements or support services.

Level of schooling restriction

Four levels of schooling restrictions are determined based on whether a person needs help, has difficulty, or uses aids or equipment in their education. A person's overall level of schooling restriction is determined by their highest level of limitation in these activities.

The four levels of restriction are:
        • profound - the person's condition prevents them from attending school.
        • severe - the person:
          • attends a special school or special classes
          • receives personal assistance
          • receives special tuition
          • receives assistance from a counsellor/disability support person.
        • moderate - the person:
          • often needs time off from school
          • has difficulty at school because of their condition(s)
          • has special assessment procedures.
        • mild - the person needs:
          • a special computer or other special equipment
          • special transport arrangements
          • special access arrangements
          • other special arrangements or support services.

Level of self-care limitation

Four levels of self-care limitation are determined based on whether a person needs help, has difficulty, or uses aids or equipment in looking after themselves. A person's overall level of self-care limitation is determined by their highest level of limitation in these activities.

The four levels of limitation are:
        • profound - the person always needs help or supervision with:
          • bathing or showering
          • dressing
          • eating
          • toileting
          • managing bladder or bowel control.
        • severe - the person sometimes needs help or supervision with:
          • bathing or showering
          • dressing
          • eating
          • toileting
          • managing bladder or bowel control.
        • moderate - the person has difficulty, but doesn't need help with:
          • bathing or showering
          • dressing
          • eating
          • toileting
          • managing bladder or bowel control.
        • mild - the person:
          • doesn't need any help and doesn't have any difficulty with self-care, but uses an aid
          • does not use the toilet, but does not have difficulty controlling their bladder or bowel.

Limitation

A person has a limitation if they have difficulty, need assistance from another person, or use an aid or equipment, to do a particular core activity. See Appendix - Limitations and restrictions for more detail.

Living in households

A person is included in the 'Living in households' population if they are part of a household and reside in a private dwelling or self-care retirement village. This is a change from SDAC 2012 where a person living in a self-care retirement village formed part of the population of people 'Living in special dwellings'. A person living in cared accommodation is excluded from the 'Living in households' population.

Long-term health condition


A disease or disorder that has lasted, or is likely to last, for six months or more and is current at the time of the survey. The exception to this is a periodic or episodic condition (e.g. asthma, epilepsy or schizophrenia, where people suffer attacks or relapses at irregular intervals) where the attack or relapse has occurred in the last 12 months. Conditions that had not occurred in the last 12 months because they had been controlled by medication were also included. Long-term health conditions were coded to a classification based on the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10).

Low technology reading or writing aids

Non-electronic aids such as picture boards, symbol boards or large print books.

Low technology speaking aids

Non-electronic aids such as picture boards, symbol boards or letter/word boards.

Main condition

A long-term health condition identified by a person as the one causing the most problems. Where only one long-term health condition is reported, this is recorded as the main long-term health condition.

Main English-speaking countries

Main English-speaking countries generally comprise the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland), Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, Canada, United States of America and South Africa. The list of main English-speaking countries (MESC) is not an attempt to classify countries on the basis of whether or not English is the predominant or official language of each country. It is a list of the main countries from which Australia receives, or has received, significant numbers of overseas settlers who are likely to speak English. It is important to note that being from a non-main English-speaking country (non-MESC) does not imply a lack of proficiency in English.

Main job

The job in which a person usually works the most hours.

Main language spoken at home

The main language spoken by a person in his/her home, on a regular basis, to communicate with other residents of the home and regular visitors to the home.

Main recipient of care

Where a primary carer is caring for more than one person, the main recipient of care is the one receiving the most help or supervision. A sole recipient is also classed as a main recipient. The assistance has to be ongoing, or likely to be ongoing, for at least six months and be provided for one or more of the core activities of communication, mobility and self-care.

Meal preparation

Includes preparing ingredients and cooking food.

Meal preparation aids

Includes items such as cutting aids, opening aids and cooking aids.

Median

That value which divides the population into two equal parts, one half having values lower and one half having values higher than the median.

Medical aids

This includes items such as home ventilators or respirators, parenteral or enteral feeding devices, oxygen concentrators, heart pumps, suction pumps, apnoea monitors, nebulisers, positive airways pressure devices, insulin pumps, phototherapy equipment, blood glucose monitors, and blood pressure monitors.

Medical specialist

Medical specialists provide services which are covered, at least in part, by Medicare (e.g. dermatologists, cardiologists, neurologists and gynaecologists). When respondents were asked if they had seen a medical specialist, this also included whether they had seen a specialist due to obtaining a referral from another specialist, as well as ongoing referrals.

Mild core activity limitation


See Core activity limitation.

Mobility


This activity comprises the following tasks:
        • getting into or out of a bed or chair
        • moving about the usual place of residence
        • going to or getting around a place away from the usual residence
        • walking 200 metres
        • walking up and down stairs without a handrail
        • bending and picking up an object from the floor
        • using public transport.

Moderate core activity limitation

See Core activity limitation.

Multiple Response items

There are a number of data items that contain multiple responses, which means that the person being interviewed was able to select one or more response categories for these items. Multiple response items are indicated on the data item list.

NDIS

National Disability Insurance Scheme. Further information can be found here: http://www.ndis.gov.au/

Need for assistance

A person with one or more disabilities, or aged 65 years and over, is identified as having a need for assistance with an activity if, because of their disability or age, they report that they need help or supervision with at least one of the specified tasks constituting that activity. Need is not identified if the help or supervision is required because the person has not learned, or has not been accustomed to performing that activity. The person is considered to need assistance whether or not assistance is actually received.

Non-core activities

These include cognitive or emotional tasks, health care, meal preparation, reading or writing, household chores, property maintenance and transport.

Non-core specific restriction


A restriction in employment and/or schooling.

Non-personal activities

These include meal preparation, reading or writing, household chores, property maintenance and transport.

Non-personal assistance

This refers to assistance relating to non-personal activities.

Non-school qualification

Non-school qualifications are awarded for educational attainments other than those of pre-primary, primary or secondary education. They include qualifications at the Post Graduate Degree level, Master Degree level, Graduate Diploma and Graduate Certificate level, Bachelor Degree level, Advanced Diploma and Diploma level, and Certificates I, II, III and IV levels. Non-school qualifications may be attained concurrently with school qualifications.

Not in the labour force


Persons who were not employed or unemployed.

Occupation

Classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO), 2013 (cat. no. 1220.0).

Older person

In this survey, older person refers to a person aged 65 years and over. Information on health and well-being, internet use, social and community participation, feelings of safety and the need for and receipt of assistance for household chores, property maintenance, meal preparation, reading and writing tasks, and transport activities is available from the survey for persons aged 65 years and over, regardless of whether they have a disability or not.

Organisation or group

Any body with a formal structure. It may be as large as a national charity or as small as a local book club. Purely informal and temporary gatherings of people do not constitute an organisation or group, in this context.

Other carer

See Carer (Appendix)

Other hearing aid(s)

This includes aids such as hearing dogs, light signals, or a teletypewriter (TTY) phone or loop.

Own account worker

A person who operates his or her own unincorporated economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade and hires no employees.

Part-time employed

Employed persons who usually worked less than 35 hours a week (in all jobs) and either did so during the reference week, or were not at work during the reference week.

Participation rate


In the context of labour force statistics, the participation rate for any group is the number of persons in the labour force (i.e. employed persons plus unemployed persons) expressed as a percentage of the population aged 15 years and over in the same group. In this publication, the population is restricted to persons aged 15 to 64 years.

Partner

A person in a couple relationship with another person usually resident in the same household. The couple relationship may be in either a registered or de facto marriage and includes same-sex couples.

Personal activities/tasks

These include mobility, self-care, communication, health care and cognitive or emotional tasks.

Physical activity for sport, exercise or recreation

This refers to the undertaking of a physical task or action for the purpose of sport, exercise or recreation. Excludes incidental activities to get from place to place, walking or cycling out of necessity, gardening and household chores, shopping, physical activity that was done as part of work duties, and compulsory physical activity organised by a school.

Primary carer

See Carer (Appendix)

Primary Health Networks (PHNs)

There are 31 PHNs which each represent a geographical area.The PHNs are independent organisations with regions closely aligned with state and territory Local Hospital Networks or equivalent. The PHNs are designed to integrate and coordinate health services and have the overarching objectives of increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of medical services and improve coordination of care. The PHNs began operation on 1 July 2015 replacing the 61 Medicare Local regions.

Principal carer

See Carer (Appendix)

Private commercial organisation

Any commercial business or self-employed person who provides goods or services at a market rate, in order to achieve a profit. People using the services of these organisations may be entitled to monetary assistance from a government source, such as through a rebate or concession. In these cases, we still consider that the service has been provided by a private commercial organisation.

Private dwellings


Houses, flats, home units, garages, tents and other structures used as private places of residence at the time of the survey.

Private non-profit organisation

Any organisation where the business does not operate for the profit or gain of its individual members. A non-profit organisation can still make a profit, but this profit must be used to carry out its purposes and must not be distributed to owners, members or other private people. These organisations are still considered private in nature, even if they receive funding from a government source.

Proficiency in spoken English

A self assessment by persons who speak a language other than English at home, of whether they speak English very well, well, not well, or not at all.

Profound core activity limitation


See Core activity limitation.

Property maintenance

This activity includes light maintenance and gardening tasks, such as:
        • changing light bulbs, tap washers, car registration stickers
        • making minor home repairs
        • mowing lawns, watering, pruning shrubs, light weeding, planting
        • removing rubbish.

Proxy

A proxy is person aged 15 years and over who answers the survey questions on behalf of someone who has been selected for interview. A proxy interview may be conducted:
        • when the selected person is less than 15 years of age, or
        • when the selected person is aged 15-17 years and parental consent to interview them personally has not been provided, or
        • due to the selected person's illness, injury or language difficulties.

Public dental care

Any public dental service that is partly or fully funded by the government, including public dental services provided at a private dental clinic.

Qualification

Formal certification, issued by a relevant approved body, in recognition that a person has achieved learning outcomes or competencies relevant to identified individual, professional, industry or community needs. Statements of attainment awarded for partial completion of a course of study at a particular level are excluded.

Quintiles

Groupings that result from ranking all households or people in the population in ascending order according to some characteristic such as their household income and then dividing the population into five equal groups, each comprising 20% of the estimated population. The same dollar values for household income can therefore appear in separate quintiles.

Reading or writing

This activity includes tasks such as:
        • checking bills or bank statements
        • writing letters
        • filling in forms.

Receipt of assistance

Applicable to persons with one or more disabilities, or aged 65 years and over, who needed help or supervision with at lease one of the specified tasks comprising an activity. The source of assistance may be informal or formal, but does not include assistance from the use of aids or equipment.

Recipient

Person who receives help or supervision with everyday activities because of their age or disability.

Registered marital status

Whether a person has, or has had, a registered marriage with another person. Accordingly, people are classified as either 'never married', 'married', 'widowed' or 'divorced'.

Remoteness


The ABS has defined Remoteness within the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS). Remoteness Areas (RAs) divide Australia into broad geographic regions that share common characteristics of remoteness for statistical purposes. There are six classes of RA in the Remoteness Structure: Major Cities of Australia, Inner Regional Australia, Outer Regional Australia, Remote Australia, Very Remote Australia and Migratory.

RAs are based on the Accessibility and Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA) produced by the Australian Population and Migration Research Centre at the University of Adelaide. The Remoteness Structure is described in detail in the publication Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 5 - Remoteness Structure, July 2011 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.005).

Respite care

A service which gives carers a short-term break by providing alternative care arrangements for elderly people, or people with disability. Respite care may be provided at home or away from home, during the day, overnight, or for longer periods of time.

Restriction (education or employment)

A person has an education or employment restriction if he/she has difficulty participating, needs assistance from another person or uses an aid or equipment in schooling or employment. See Appendix - Limitations and restrictions for more detail.

Satisfaction (with quality of services received or range of service options available)

In this survey, a person's satisfaction is left up to their own interpretation. A person can choose from the options of: satisfied; neither satisfied or dissatisfied; or dissatisfied.

Schooling restriction

A schooling restriction is determined for persons aged 5 to 20 years who have one or more disabilities if, because of their disability, they:

        • are unable to attend school
        • attend a special school
        • attend special classes at an ordinary school
        • need at least one day a week off school on average
        • have difficulty at school.

Section of State (SOS)

This geographical classification aggregates Urban Centre/Localities (UCLs) on the basis of population ranges i.e. all UCLs in a State/Territory within a particular population range are combined into a single SOS. The Section of State categories comprise Major Urban (represents a combination of all Urban Centres with a population of 100,000 or more), Other Urban (represents a combination of all Urban Centres with a population between 1,000 and 99,999), Bounded Locality (a combination of all Bounded Localities) and Rural Balance (the remainder of State/Territory). For more information, refer to Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 4 - Significant Urban Areas, Urban Centres and Localities, Section of State, July 2011 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.004).

Self-care

This activity comprises the following tasks:
        • showering or bathing
        • dressing
        • eating
        • toileting
        • bladder or bowel control.

Self-care retirement units

Independent living units in retirement villages. Excludes aged care facilities such as nursing homes and components of retirement villages where residents do not live independently.

Service does not provide sufficient hours

This includes both cases where the person didn't receive any hours and where they received some hours, but not as many as were required from the service.

Severe core activity limitation


See Core activity limitation.

SF-12

The SF-12 is a short-form health survey with 12 questions that was used in SDAC 2012 to provide data on physical and mental health and wellbeing. In SDAC 2015 it was replaced by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-10 (K10).

Showering or bathing

Showering or bathing is defined as getting in and out of the shower or bath, turning on/off taps in the shower or bath, washing, drying and having a bed-bath. It excludes dressing and undressing.

Showering or bathing aids

This includes items such as shower chairs, hoists, shower or bath rails and special shower fittings.

Sign language

This includes all recognised sign languages. Two sign languages used in Australia are Auslan, used by people with hearing difficulties and Makaton, used by people with speech, language or learning difficulties.

Social marital status

The relationship status of an individual in terms of whether she or he forms a couple relationship with another person living in the same usual residence, and the nature of that relationship. A marriage exists when two people live together as husband and wife, or partners, regardless of whether the marriage is formalised through registration. Individuals are, therefore, regarded as married if they are in a de facto marriage, or if they are living with the person to whom they are registered as married. Note: married de facto also includes persons who report de facto, partner, common law husband/wife/spouse, lover, girlfriend or boyfriend.

The term 'not married', as used in this classification, means neither a registered nor a de facto marriage. This includes persons who live alone, with other family members, and those in shared accommodation.

Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)

SEIFA is a product developed especially for those interested in the assessment of the welfare of Australian communities. The ABS has developed four indexes to allow ranking of regions/areas, providing a method of determining the level of social and economic well-being in each region.

Each of the indexes summarise different aspects of the socio-economic status of the people living in those areas. The index refers to the attributes of the area (Statistical Area Level 1) in which a person lives, not to the socio-economic situation of a particular individual. The index used in this publication was compiled following the 2011 Census. For further information about the SEIFAs, see Census of Population and Housing - Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), Australia, 2011 (cat. no. 2033.0.55.001).

The four indexes are:
        • Index of relative socio-economic advantage and disadvantage: includes attributes such as households with low incomes and people with a tertiary education.
        • Index of relative socio-economic disadvantage: includes attributes such as low income, low educational attainment, high unemployment and dwellings without motor vehicles.
        • Index of economic resources: includes attributes such as income and housing expenditure.
        • Index of education and occupation: includes attributes relating to the educational and occupational characteristics of communities, like the proportion of people with a higher qualification or those employed in a skilled occupation.

Special classes

Classes held only for children with disability, which are conducted within a conventional school. This may include classes for deaf students, or for children with specific learning difficulties.

Special interest group

A group which is focussed around an area of mutual interest to the participants.

Special support person

Someone providing personal support within the workplace, which enables someone with disability to undertake their work. This support is generally beyond the level available to employees without disability and may include help with self-care, interpreting others, or providing intensive supervision.

Specially modified car or car aid(s)

Car aids or modifications include - extra support handles, extra fittings to support disabled passengers, modifications to accommodate wheelchairs, modifications to appropriately restrain a disabled passenger and modifications to accommodate disabled drivers.

Specific limitation or restriction


A limitation in core activities, or a restriction in schooling or employment. This corresponds with the concept of 'handicap' used in previous ABS publications on disability. See Appendix - Limitations and Restrictions.

Statistical significance


Differences between population estimates are said to be statistically significant when it can be stated with 95% confidence that there is a real difference between the populations. See Technical Note - Data quality for more information.

Supervised activity program

Places where people can participate in supervised activities such as craft work, or programs that simply provide a place where people can meet others in similar situations, or just to allow them to spend some time away from home in a safe, supervised environment. These programs do not provide work, education or training.

Some examples of supervised activity programs include:
        • day care programs for frail older people, often held at senior citizen clubs
        • early intervention programs for children with developmental disabilities
        • special activity programs for young people with disability.

        Supervision

        Includes being watched over or directed during a task because of a person's disability or old age. For example, people with an intellectual disability may need supervision in dressing to ensure they dress correctly, rather than help with the physical aspects of dressing.

        Task

        A task is a component of an activity and represents the specific level at which information was collected.

        Tenure type

        The source of the legal right of a person to occupy a dwelling. Type of tenure may be:
              • owner without a mortgage
              • owner with a mortgage
              • life tenant
              • participant of rent/buy (or shared equity) scheme
              • renter
              • rent-free

        Toileting aids

        Includes the use of aids such as commodes, toilet frames, toilet chairs and any other aids, such as bedpans and urine bottles, used by people who find it difficult to move to the toilet.

Toileting

Any aspect of moving in and out of the toilet, including adjusting clothes and washing hands. It also includes any aspect of using a toileting aid, such as bedpans, urine bottles, and other toileting aids (see Toileting aids).

Transport


A single task activity referring to private transport, including going to places away from the usual place of residence. Need for assistance and difficulty are defined for this activity as the need to be driven and difficulty going to places without help or supervision.

Unable to arrange service

This includes people who didn't know how to arrange help and those who were unable to communicate their need for assistance.

Unconfirmed primary carer

See Carer (Appendix)

Underemployed


A person is considered underemployed if they:
        • are employed,
        • usually work 34 hours or less per week,
        • would like a job with more hours, and
        • are available to start work with more hours if offered a job in the next four weeks.

In this survey, the definition of 'underemployed' excludes persons employed full-time who worked only part-time hours in the reference week for economic reasons (e.g. through being stood down or due to insufficient work available).

Unemployed


Persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed during the reference week, and:
        • had actively looked for full-time or part-time work at any time in the four weeks up to the end of the reference week
        • were available for work in the reference week.

Unemployment rate

The unemployment rate for any group is the number of unemployed persons in that group expressed as a percentage of the labour force (i.e. employed persons plus unemployed persons) in the same group.

Unmet need

A person's need for assistance is unmet if they do not receive assistance, or require more assistance than is currently being received, for one or more of the activities where assistance is needed.

Urgent medical care

The term urgent was left to the respondent's interpretation. If the respondent sought clarification, interviewers were instructed to include health issues that arose suddenly and were serious (e.g. fever, headache, vomiting, unexplained rash).

Voluntary work

The provision of unpaid help willingly undertaken in the form of time, service or skills, to an organisation or group, excluding work done overseas. Some forms of unpaid work, such as student placements or work under a Community Service Order, that were not strictly voluntary have been excluded.