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4106.1 - Population Ageing in New South Wales, 2008, Dec 2008 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 17/12/2008  First Issue
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PREVENTION AND EARLY INTERVENTION

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Prevention and Early Intervention
2.3 Health and Wellbeing
2.4 Crime

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2.1 INTRODUCTION

Prevention and early intervention is about preventing problems from happening in the first place, or stopping them from getting worse. It is about seeking to maximise people's wellbeing and health so that they can participate, be productive, and have a good quality of life.

This Chapter provides a range of information to help determine areas where prevention and early intervention strategies could assist as the population ages.

The main focus is on health issues, and so the Chapter outlines data on factors that could promote or hinder ongoing health, such as frequency of visits to a health professional, health risk factors such as smoking, and health literacy. Health literacy is a measure of the knowledge and skills required to understand and use information relating to health issues such as drugs and alcohol, disease prevention and treatment, safety and accident prevention, first aid, emergencies, and staying healthy.

The Chapter also presents a brief overview of information on the current health status of people in NSW, including long-term health conditions, and the average number of years that people can expect to live in "full health" (ie healthy life expectancy).

Finally, the Chapter looks more broadly at non-health factors that can influence ongoing wellbeing where a prevention and early intervention approach could assist. It includes information on people’s experience of crime which can affect their ongoing physical, mental and financial wellbeing. The Chapter also outlines information on causes of death including accidental death.


2.2 PREVENTION AND EARLY INTERVENTION

Health

People take a variety of actions relating to their health, including preventative care and treatment for ongoing illness or injury. In 2004-05, the proportion of people in NSW who consulted a health professional steadily increased with age, from 36% of people 45-54 years, up to 58% of those aged 75 years and over. The most common types of health related consultations taken by people 75 years and over were: visiting a general practitioner (43%), consulting other health professionals (19%) and consulting specialists (11%).

2.1 CONSULTATIONS WITH HEALTH PROFESSIONALS(a), By selected ages and sex, NSW(b) - 2004-05

45-54
55-64
65-74
75 and over
Total persons aged
45 years and over
%
%
%
%
'000

MALES

Consulted general practitioner
18.2
24.1
30.7
45.4
311.7
Consulted specialist
8.1
8.7
*3.9
13.6
98.5
Consulted dentist
4.3
5.7
7.4
*3.1
61.5
Consulted other health professional
11.7
11.1
14.0
22.9
161.8
Visited casualty/outpatients/ day clinic
*3.5
5.1
*4.4
*6.5
54.3
Total persons taking action(c)(d)
30.4
39.6
45.9
61.5
482.8
Total males ('000)
452.0
356.7
227.0
162.7
1 198.5

FEMALES

Consulted general practitioner
20.0
27.7
38.0
41.0
372.4
Consulted specialist
7.2
7.0
12.1
8.2
104.9
Consulted dentist
8.7
5.3
*5.8
*5.6
85.0
Consulted other health professional
14.8
21.0
16.9
17.0
220.2
Visited casualty/outpatients/ day clinic
*3.5
5.5
9.3
*6.0
71.2
Total persons taking action(c)(d)
41.2
47.0
54.1
54.7
606.4
Total females ('000)
457.6
352.8
241.2
222.3
1 273.9

PERSONS

Consulted general practitioner
19.1
25.9
34.4
42.9
684.1
Consulted specialist
7.6
7.8
8.1
10.5
203.3
Consulted dentist
6.5
5.5
6.6
4.5
146.5
Consulted other health professional
13.3
16.0
15.5
19.4
381.9
Visited casualty/outpatients/ day clinic
3.5
5.3
6.9
6.2
125.5
Total persons taking action(c)(d)
35.8
43.3
50.1
57.5
1 089.2
Total persons ('000)
909.6
709.5
468.2
385.1
2 472.4

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
(a) In the two weeks prior to interview.
(b) Percentages calculated using total persons in each sex and age group.
(c) Includes persons who were discharged from a stay in hospital in the two weeks prior to interview.
(d) As people may undertake more than one type of action, components may not add to total.
Source: ABS data available on request, National Health Survey: Summary of Results; State Tables, 2004-05, (cat. no. 4362.0).

2.2 CONSULTATIONS WITH HEALTH PROFESSIONALS(a), By selected ages, NSW - 2004-05
Graph: 2.2 Consultations with health professionals(a), By selected ages, NSW—2004–05

Health risks and conditions

A range of factors influence the health outcomes of a given individual or population. These include the interaction of socioeconomic, biomedical and environmental factors which contribute to illness and injury. There are also specific lifestyle behaviours, such as smoking, exercise and dietary habits, which may further affect one's health. In addition to these lifestyle behaviours there are other risk factors, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol, that are associated with increased risk of diseases such as coronary heart disease and stroke. A growing awareness of health risks and preventative measures, often the result of early warnings of health problems, are contributing to longer life expectancy and a better quality of life in later years.

Health risks associated with smoking include cardiovascular disease, cancer, emphysema, bronchitis and stroke. In 2004-05, 24% of people aged 45-54 years were smokers. A higher proportion of females aged 75 years and over had never smoked (69%) compared with males at the same age (31%).

Excessive alcohol consumption can be harmful and is associated with a number of chronic diseases and conditions. However, low to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with positive health outcomes, including protection from certain types of cardiovascular conditions. In 2004-05, of all people aged 18 years and over, 87% did not drink alcohol or drank at a low risk level, while 13% drank alcohol at risky or high risk levels. The proportion of people with a risky or high risk alcohol status decreased with age, with 15% of those aged 45-54 years having a risky or high risk alcohol status, compared to 5.1% of those aged 75 years and over. More than 16% of males in the 65-74 year age group recorded having a risky or high risk alcohol status compared with 12% of females of the same age group.

Participating in regular physical exercise reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and other medical conditions such as osteoporosis and diabetes. In 2004-05, in the two weeks prior to interview, 78% of females aged 65-74 years reported they were sedentary or only undertook low level exercise, compared with 63% of males. Similarly, 76% of females and 67% of males aged 18 years and over reported they were sedentary or only undertook low level exercise.

The Body Mass Index (BMI) is a composite measure of a person's body weight against their height, and is used to allocate people into four groups: underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese. In 2004-05, 54% of all people were reported as being overweight or obese according to the BMI. Almost two-thirds (65%) of all persons aged 55-64 years were reported as being overweight or obese. A higher proportion of males aged 45-54 years were overweight or obese (73%) than women in the same age group (50%).

In 2004-05, approximately 354,500 people aged 55-74 years in NSW had high blood pressure, and 230,000 people had high blood cholesterol.

2.3 HEALTH RISK FACTORS, By selected ages and sex, NSW - 2004-05

45-54
55-64
65-74
75 and over
Total persons aged
18 years and over

MALES

Smoker status
Smoker %
24.2
19.6
14.8
*3.1
25.1
Ex-smoker %
36.8
48.0
60.8
66.4
34.9
Never smoked %
39.0
32.4
24.4
30.5
40.0
Total '000
452.0
356.7
227.0
162.7
2 485.9
Alcohol status(a)
Did not drink/low risk %
83.7
84.1
83.7
95.5
85.0
Risky/high risk %
16.3
15.9
16.3
*4.6
15.0
Total '000
452.0
356.7
227.0
162.7
2 485.9
Exercise level
Sedentary %
36.4
37.4
27.6
49.0
33.9
Low %
33.5
32.2
35.1
22.2
33.2
Moderate/high %
30.1
30.4
37.4
28.8
32.9
Total '000
452.0
356.7
227.0
162.7
2 485.9
Body Mass(b)
Underweight/normal %
27.4
28.5
44.2
44.6
38.0
Overweight %
47.4
49.9
38.6
44.3
42.5
Obese %
25.2
21.6
17.2
11.2
19.4
Total(c) '000
422.0
345.2
219.0
152.3
2 353.8
High blood cholesterol(d) %
43.3
64.5
59.1
31.6
na
High blood pressure(e) %
68.6
94.1
66.9
58.0
na
Daily serves of vegetables
4 serves or less %
88.1
87.3
84.0
85.9
89.7
5 serves or more %
11.9
12.7
16.0
14.1
10.3
Total(f) '000
452.0
356.7
227.0
162.7
2 485.9
Daily serves of fruit
1 serve or less %
51.4
44.1
41.7
38.5
52.1
2 serves or more %
48.6
55.9
58.3
61.5
47.9
Total(g) '000
452.0
356.7
227.0
162.7
2 485.9

FEMALES

Smoker status
Smoker %
24.2
14.1
10.7
*3.5
19.8
Ex-smoker %
32.5
26.1
29.0
27.9
24.6
Never smoked %
43.2
59.8
60.3
68.6
55.6
Total '000
457.6
352.8
241.2
222.3
2 561.8
Alcohol status(a)
Did not drink/low risk %
86.7
86.4
87.8
94.5
88.9
Risky/high risk %
13.3
13.7
12.2
*5.5
11.1
Total '000
457.6
352.8
241.2
222.3
2 561.8
Exercise level
Sedentary %
37.5
33.4
43.8
64.8
37.3
Low %
42.3
36.0
34.2
26.5
38.2
Moderate/high %
20.2
30.5
21.9
8.7
24.5
Total '000
457.6
352.8
241.2
222.3
2 561.8
Body Mass(b)
Underweight/normal %
50.2
42.6
41.5
63.8
54.8
Overweight %
31.9
31.5
34.4
24.9
28.7
Obese %
17.9
25.9
24.1
11.4
16.5
Total(c) '000
404.2
324.9
211.5
186.7
2 291.3
High blood cholesterol(d) %
41.0
57.3
49.1
51.4
na
High blood pressure(e) %
55.9
96.0
97.5
82.1
na
Daily serves of vegetables
4 serves or less %
83.3
79.4
82.6
89.8
86.3
5 serves or more %
16.7
20.6
17.4
10.2
13.7
Total(f) '000
457.6
352.8
241.2
222.3
2 561.8
Daily serves of fruit
1 serve or less %
43.5
29.4
33.5
34.1
40.1
2 serves or more %
56.5
70.6
66.5
65.9
59.9
Total(g) '000
457.6
352.8
241.2
222.3
2 561.8

PERSONS

Smoker status
Smoker %
24.2
16.8
12.7
*3.3
22.4
Ex-smoker %
34.7
37.1
44.4
44.2
29.7
Never smoked %
41.1
46.0
42.9
52.5
47.9
Total '000
909.6
709.5
468.2
385.1
5 047.7
Alcohol status(a)
Did not drink/low risk %
85.2
85.2
85.8
94.9
87.0
Risky/high risk %
14.8
14.8
14.2
5.1
13.0
Total '000
909.6
709.5
468.2
385.1
5 047.7
Exercise level
Sedentary %
36.9
35.4
35.9
58.1
35.6
Low %
37.9
34.1
34.6
24.7
35.8
Moderate/high %
25.1
30.5
29.4
17.2
28.6
Total '000
909.6
709.5
468.2
385.1
5 047.7
Body Mass(b)
Underweight/normal %
38.6
35.3
42.9
55.2
46.3
Overweight %
39.8
41.0
36.6
33.5
35.7
Obese %
21.6
23.7
20.6
11.3
18.0
Total(c) '000
826.2
670.1
430.5
339.0
4 644.9
High blood cholesterol(d) %
84.3
121.8
108.2
83.0
na
High blood pressure(e) %
124.5
190.1
164.4
140.2
na
Daily serves of vegetables
4 serves or less %
85.7
83.4
83.3
88.2
88.0
5 serves or more %
14.3
16.6
16.7
11.8
12.0
Total(f) '000
909.6
709.5
468.2
385.1
5 047.7
Daily serves of fruit
1 serve or less %
47.4
36.8
37.5
36.0
46.1
2 serves or more %
52.6
63.2
62.5
64.0
53.9
Total(g) '000
909.6
709.5
468.2
385.1
5 047.7

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
na not available
(a) Based on Australian Alcohol Guidelines 2001.
(b) Based on self-reported height and weight.
(c) Excludes 'Body Mass Not Known'.
(d) High blood cholesterol which has lasted or is expected to last 6 months or more.
(e) High blood pressure which has lasted or is expected to last 6 months or more.
(f) Includes 'Does not eat vegetables'.
(g) Includes 'Does not eat fruit'.
Source: National Health Survey: Summary of Results: State Tables, 2004-05 (cat. no. 4362.0); ABS data available on request, National Health Survey, 2004-05.

2.3 HEALTH AND WELLBEING

Healthy life expectancy

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) as the average number of years a person can expect to live in "full health" by taking into account years lived in less than full health due to disease and/or injury. Australia's healthy life expectancy is among the highest in the world. In 2003, males in NSW could expect to live 70.5 years of life without reduced functioning while females could expect to live 75.3 years.

2.4 HEALTH-ADJUSTED LIFE EXPECTANCY AND LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH LOST DUE TO DISABILITY(a), By sex, NSW - 2003

Males
Females
Persons

Health-adjusted life expectancy (years)
At birth
70.5
75.3
72.9
At age 60
17.1
20.6
18.9
Life expectancy lost due to disability (%)
At birth
9.8
9.5
9.6

(a) See Glossary for more detail.
Source: The burden of disease and injury in Australia 2003, AIHW (cat. no. PHE 82).
Self-assessed health

Many older people view their health in a positive way, even though older age may be associated with increasing levels of disability and illness. In 2004-05, people aged 75 years and over assessed their health as either very good or good (57%), excellent (6.4%), or fair or poor (37%). The proportion of people reporting fair or poor health increased with age, with 9.1% of people aged 15-44 years reporting fair or poor health, compared with 37% of those aged 75 years and over. More than 41% of males aged 75 years and over reported fair or poor health status, compared with 34% of females in the same age group. In 2004-05, 46% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in NSW aged 55 years and over, reported their health as fair or poor (For more information please refer to the Population Ageing in New South Wales, 2008 electronic datacubes on the ABS website).

2.5 SELF-ASSESSED HEALTH STATUS, By selected ages and sex, NSW - 2004-05

Age group (years)
15-44
45-54
55-64
65-74
75 and over
%
%
%
%
%

MALES

Excellent
24.8
19.0
11.8
15.4
5.9
Very good/good
65.7
65.3
60.4
45.9
53.0
Fair/poor
9.5
15.7
27.8
38.8
41.1
Total males ('000)
1 423.2
452.0
356.7
227.0
162.7

FEMALES

Excellent
26.1
20.5
15.8
11.7
6.7
Very good/good
65.2
64.0
57.4
57.9
59.3
Fair/poor
8.7
15.5
26.8
30.5
34.0
Total females ('000)
1 412.8
457.6
352.8
241.2
222.3

PERSONS

Excellent
25.5
19.7
13.8
13.5
6.4
Very good/good
65.4
64.6
58.9
52.1
56.7
Fair/poor
9.1
15.6
27.3
34.5
37.0
Total persons ('000)
2 835.9
909.6
709.5
468.2
385.1

Source: National Health Survey: Summary of Results; State Tables, 2004-05, (cat. no. 4362.0).


A long-term health condition is a condition expected to last six months or more. In 2004-05, almost all persons aged 75 years and over reported at least one long-term condition. The long-term health conditions most frequently reported by people aged 75 years and over were long sightedness (66%), arthritis (48%), deafness (42%), short sightedness (37%), high blood pressure (36%) and high cholesterol (22%).

2.6 LONG-TERM HEALTH CONDITIONS(a), By age, NSW - 2004-05

Age group (years)(b)
0-44
45-54
55-64
65-74
75 and over
%
%
%
%
%

Arthritis
3.2
19.4
38.9
48.1
48.1
Asthma
9.5
7.4
9.1
12.1
7.9
Back pain problems or disc disorders
9.3
22.4
22.9
22.4
17.9
Bronchitis or emphysema
1.5
2.6
5.3
7.9
8.0
Chronic sinusitis
8.3
11.1
12.4
12.7
9.6
Deafness (total or partial)
3.7
9.4
18.4
27.8
42.1
Diabetes mellitus
0.6
3.9
8.0
17.0
14.8
Diseases of the digestive system
3.4
7.4
13.5
16.1
16.4
Hayfever and allergic rhinitis
14.0
17.6
12.3
10.4
9.3
High cholesterol
1.3
9.3
17.2
23.1
21.6
High blood pressure
1.9
13.7
26.8
35.1
36.4
Ischaemic heart diseases
*0.1
*0.7
3.6
7.2
11.8
Long sightedness
8.8
54.1
65.7
68.3
66.4
Mental and behavioural problems
9.1
12.3
10.1
8.3
9.3
Migraine
5.9
10.0
5.8
5.4
*2.1
Neoplasms
0.5
2.3
3.7
5.3
4.4
Osteoporosis
0.4
*1.7
6.3
13.9
17.4
Short sightedness
14.3
29.7
36.4
34.9
36.7
Other
27.4
46.1
54.1
68.2
74.0
Total with long-term health conditions(c)
61.4
93.3
99.5
99.3
99.8
Total persons ('000)
4 153.1
909.6
709.5
468.2
385.1

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
(a) Conditions which have lasted or are expected to last for 6 months or more.
(b) Percentages calculated using total persons in each age group.
(c) Persons may have reported more than one type of condition and therefore components may not add to totals.
Source: National Health Survey: Summary of Results; State Tables, 2004-05, (cat. no. 4362.0).

2.7 SELECTED LONG-TERM HEALTH CONDITIONS(a), By sex, Persons aged 75 years and over, NSW-2004-05
Graph: 2.7 Selected long-term health conditions(a), By sex, Persons aged 75 years and over, NSW—2004–05


Dementia is a broad term used to describe symptoms such as loss of memory, intellect, social skills and rationality, causing a progressive decline in a person's functioning. In 1998, 3.9% of persons aged 65 years and over were affected by dementia compared to 3.4% in 2003. In 2003, dementia occurred more frequently in people aged 85 years and over (14%) compared with those aged 65-84 years (2.0%), and was more common in females aged 85 years and over than males of the same age (18% and 7.2% respectively). With the projected ageing of the population, the number of older people affected by dementia and demand for dementia-related services is expected to increase (footnote 1).

2.8 DEMENTIA, By selected ages and sex, NSW

Males
Females
Persons
Males
Females
Persons
'000
'000
'000
%
%
%

1998

Age group (years)
65-84
*7.3
*9.0
16.2
*2.2
*2.2
2.2
85 and over
*3.3
12.0
15.3
*14.2
21.7
19.4
Total persons aged 65 years and over
10.6
21.0
31.5
3.0
4.6
3.9

2003

Age group (years)
65-84
5.8
9.5
15.3
1.6
2.3
2.0
85 and over
*2.2
12.0
14.2
*7.2
17.7
14.4
Total persons aged 65 years and over
8.0
21.5
29.5
2.1
4.4
3.4

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
Source: ABS data available on request, Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers (cat. no. 4430.0).

2.9 Dementia, By selected ages and sex - NSW - 2003
Graph: 2.9 Dementia, By selected ages and sex—NSW—2003


Disability is defined as any limitation, restriction or impairment which has lasted, or is likely to last, for at least six months and restricts everyday activities. Types of disability range from hearing loss which requires the use of a hearing aid, to difficulty dressing due to arthritis, to advanced dementia requiring constant help and supervision. Core activity limitation refers to a limitation in the core activities of self care, communication or mobility, and the levels of severity of these limitations are profound, severe, moderate, and mild. In 2003, the prevalence of disability increased with age, with 65% of people aged 75 years and over reporting a disability, and 32% reporting a profound or severe core activity limitation.

2.10 DISABILITY STATUS, By age and sex, NSW - 2003

Under 25
25-44
45-54
55-64
65-74
75 and over
Total persons
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

MALES

With a disability
Profound core activity limitation
1.9
*0.9
*1.3
*0.9
4.7
19.0
2.4
Severe core activity limitation
1.6
1.4
2.7
4.8
5.5
6.6
2.5
Moderate core activity limitation
*0.5
1.5
4.0
7.1
10.0
9.1
3.0
Mild core activity limitation
2.1
2.2
6.5
11.0
15.2
27.3
5.7
Schooling or employment restriction
1.5
1.6
2.6
*1.8
-
-
1.5
No specific limitations of restrictions
1.7
2.5
2.7
3.8
6.6
*3.3
2.7
Total with a disability
9.1
10.1
19.7
29.4
42.0
65.2
17.9
Without a disability
90.9
89.9
80.3
70.6
58.0
34.8
82.1
Total males ('000)
1 138.8
997.4
450.2
338.9
220.2
163.0
3 308.5

FEMALES

With a disability
Profound core activity limitation
*0.9
*0.7
*1.0
3.3
6.6
25.9
3.3
Severe core activity limitation
1.1
1.4
2.9
4.8
6.0
9.6
2.8
Moderate core activity limitation
*0.2
*0.8
4.1
6.0
9.3
8.9
2.8
Mild core activity limitation
1.7
2.4
5.5
11.1
11.6
17.4
5.2
Schooling or employment restriction
1.4
1.9
*1.4
*1.9
-
-
1.4
No specific limitations of restrictions
1.6
2.1
*2.2
*2.9
7.7
*2.9
2.5
Total with a disability
6.9
9.2
17.2
29.9
41.2
64.8
17.9
Without a disability
93.1
90.8
82.8
70.1
58.8
35.2
82.1
Total females ('000)
1 092.2
990.6
445.1
330.1
236.9
247.7
3 342.7

PERSONS

With a disability
Profound core activity limitation
1.4
0.8
*1.1
2.1
5.7
23.2
2.9
Severe core activity limitation
1.3
1.4
2.8
4.8
5.8
8.4
2.6
Moderate core activity limitation
*0.4
1.1
4.0
6.5
9.6
9.0
2.9
Mild core activity limitation
1.9
2.3
6.0
11.0
13.3
21.3
5.5
Schooling or employment restriction
1.4
1.8
2.0
1.8
-
-
1.5
No specific limitations of restrictions
1.6
2.3
2.5
3.4
7.2
3.0
2.6
Total with a disability
8.0
9.7
18.4
29.6
41.6
64.9
17.9
Without a disability
92.0
90.3
81.6
70.3
58.4
35.0
82.1
Total persons ('000)
2 231.0
1 988.1
895.3
669.1
457.2
410.7
6 651.2

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
Source: ABS data available on request, Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers, 2003 (cat. no. 4430.0).

Causes of death

Significant improvements in adult life expectancy are due to a combination of factors, including improved living standards, medical treatments and healthier lifestyles.

A strong indicator for the improving health of the population is the declining death rate, which decreased in NSW from 728 per 100,000 persons in 1996 to 675 per 100,000 in 2006. In 1996, ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of death for people aged 75-84 years (1,590 per 100,000) - in 2006 this had fallen by almost half to 805 per 100,000 persons. In 2006, the most common causes of death for people aged 75-84 years old were all types of cancer (C00-D48) (1,361 deaths per 100,000), followed by ischaemic heart disease (I20-I25) (805 per 100,000 persons), diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J99) (453 per 100,000 persons) and stroke (I60-I69) (452 per 100,000 persons).

2.11 DEATH RATES (a), Selected causes of death, By age, NSW(b)(c)

Under 45
45-54
55-64
65-74
75-84
85 and over
Total
persons(c)(d)
rate
rate
rate
rate
rate
rate
rate

1996

Ischaemic heart diseases (I20-I25)
3.1
42.1
168.7
502.8
1 589.7
4 205.2
171.2
Cancer (C00-D48)
12.9
125.5
349.1
793.2
1 446.9
2 096.2
195.6
Stroke (I60-I69)
1.2
9.2
39.9
157.1
715.7
2 588.8
75.3
Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J99)
1.8
9.5
49.0
212.0
541.4
1 293.7
58.9
Dementia (F00-F03)
np
np
1.5
11.7
118.2
665.4
13.3
Diseases of the digestive system (K00-K93)
1.8
14.0
35.6
63.2
145.6
488.3
22.1
Diseases of the genitourinary system (N00-N99)
0.2
1.4
8.6
26.0
129.3
405.5
12.8
Diabetes (E10-E14)
0.5
4.2
13.3
46.0
111.4
242.7
12.7
Accidents (V01-X59)
16.2
17.8
20.6
30.6
82.7
244.2
23.1
All causes
82.9
283.0
793.4
2 134.4
5 795.4
15 528.4
727.5

2006

Ischaemic heart diseases (I20-I25)
2.4
26.4
74.6
214.5
805.4
3 050.0
117.3
Cancer (C00-D48)
10.7
100.3
278.9
667.3
1 361.3
2 129.8
198.4
Stroke (I60-I69)
1.2
9.9
19.5
87.5
451.7
1 855.7
62.6
Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J99)
1.4
5.0
27.7
127.3
452.9
1 345.3
57.5
Dementia (F00-F03)
np
np
2.6
15.3
137.1
936.4
23.3
Diseases of the digestive system (K00-K93)
1.5
15.4
23.1
49.2
126.2
434.9
22.2
Diseases of the genitourinary system (N00-N99)
0.1
2.1
4.7
28.3
131.4
510.4
17.6
Diabetes (E10-E14)
0.3
3.4
9.7
41.1
106.4
258.8
14.0
Accidents (V01-X59)
16.6
21.2
16.4
26.0
72.3
282.2
24.9
All causes
61.4
235.6
544.1
1 474.7
4 440.3
13 870.5
675.4

np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Based on the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision - Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) from 1997 onwards. For 1996, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 9th Revision (ICD-9) was used. Refer to the Appendix of Causes of Death, Australia, 2006 (cat. no. 3303.0) for more detail.
(b) State of usual residence.
(c) Death rate per 100,000 of the mid-year 2006 estimated resident population. See Glossary for more detail.
(d) Total includes deaths where age at death was not stated.
Source: Causes of Death, Australia (cat.no. 3303.0).


In 2006, fatalities resulting from road traffic accidents in NSW occurred at a higher rate for vehicle occupants compared to pedestrians. The highest fatality rate for vehicle occupants was among persons aged 17-24 years (17.7 deaths per 100,000) whereas the lowest was for people aged under 17 years (1.8 deaths per 100,000). Of pedestrian fatalities, persons aged 85 years and over had the highest death rate (4.5 deaths per 100,000), and persons aged under 17 years had the lowest death rate (0.3 deaths per 100,000).

2.12 ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AND FATALITIES, By age, NSW - 2006

Fatalities
Injuries
Vehicle occupants(a)(b)
Pedestrians(b)
Vehicle occupants(a)(b)
Pedestrians(b)
Age group (years)
no.
rate
no.
rate
no.
rate
no.
rate

Under 17
28
1.8
5
0.3
1 274
83.9
316
20.8
17-24
132
17.7
9
1.2
5 907
793.9
430
57.8
25-34
73
7.6
11
1.1
4 590
476.1
293
30.4
35-44
62
6.2
7
0.7
3 728
374.2
227
22.8
45-54
43
4.6
6
0.6
2 870
307.9
198
21.2
55-64
30
4.1
7
0.9
1 799
243.1
173
23.4
65-74
31
6.5
13
2.7
934
195.6
155
32.5
75-84
19
5.7
9
2.7
645
194.3
113
34.0
85 and over
6
5.4
5
4.5
120
107.8
43
38.6
Age unknown
-
. .
-
. .
1 445
. .
178
. .
Total persons
424
6.2
72
1.1
23 312
342.0
2 126
31.2

. . not applicable
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Includes motor vehicle drivers and passengers, motorcycle riders and passengers and pedal cycle riders and passengers.
(b) Rate is the age-standardised rate per 100,000 estimated resident population at June 2006.
Source: Data available on request, NSW Roads and Traffic Authority; Population by Age and Sex, Australian States and Territories (cat. no. 3201.0).


In 2006, injury rates were higher than fatality rates for both vehicle occupants and pedestrians of all ages. Vehicle occupants aged 17-24 years had the highest injury rate (793.9 per 100,000) whereas occupants aged under 17 years had the lowest injury rate (83.9).
2.4 CRIME

Wellbeing can be strongly affected by the fear of crime as well as the direct experience of crime victimisation. People who witness crimes, or come across evidence of crime in their local area, can suffer anxiety and may feel demoralised or powerless. People may adjust their behaviour or take actions to secure their house and property. All these actions can affect the physical and financial wellbeing of those involved.

2.13 VICTIMS AND NON-VICTIMS OF PERSONAL CRIME(a), By selected ages and sex, NSW - April 2007

Victims
Non-victims
Total
Victimisation rate(b)
'000
'000
'000
%

MALES

Age group (years)
15-24
58.7
407.6
466.3
12.6
25-34
42.6
432.7
475.3
9.0
35-44
23.9
468.2
492.1
4.9
45-54
23.7
442.6
466.2
5.1
55-64
113.0
369.9
381.2
3.0
65 and over
*6.1
407.7
413.7
*1.5
Total males aged 15 years and over
166.3
2 528.5
2 694.8
6.2

FEMALES

Age group (years)
15-24
35.0
413.5
448.4
7.8
25-34
26.1
449.3
475.5
5.5
35-44
19.1
477.6
496.6
3.8
45-54
14.5
457.9
472.4
3.1
55-64
8.7
373.1
381.8
2.3
65 and over
*2.9
479.0
481.9
*0.6
Total females aged 15 years and over
106.2
2 650.4
2 756.7
3.9

PERSONS

Age group (years)
15-24
93.7
821.0
914.7
10.2
25-34
68.7
882.0
950.7
7.2
35-44
42.9
945.8
988.7
4.3
45-54
38.1
900.5
938.6
4.1
55-64
20.0
743.0
763.0
2.6
65 and over
*8.9
886.7
895.7
*1.0
Total persons aged 15 years and over
272.5
5 179.0
5 451.5
5.0

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
(a) Robbery, assault and sexual assault. Survey scope is all persons aged 15 years and over.
(b) Proportion of total persons.
Source: Crime and Safety, NSW, April 2007 (cat. no. 4509.1).


In 2007, persons aged 65 years and over in NSW recorded the lowest victimisation rate for personal crime when compared to other age groups. Both males (1.5%) and females (0.6%) aged 65 years and over recorded low victimisation rates. In comparison, the 15-24 years age group recorded the highest victimisation rate for both males (13%) and females (7.8%).

Personal fraud has been recognised as a crime type that is a growing threat to the community, as a result of the rapid expansion and availability of Internet technology and the increase in electronic storage, transmission and sharing of data. Fraud is a crime where the offender aims to gains advantage over a victim by means of deception, whether financial or otherwise.

2.14 VICTIMS OF PERSONAL FRAUD(a), By selected ages, NSW - 2007

15-24
25-34
35-44
45-54
55 and over
Total persons aged
15 years and over

Identity fraud(b)
Persons(c) '000
*22.7
*41.9
41.5
36.8
24.0
166.8
Victimisation rates %
*2.5
*4.5
4.3
4.0
1.5
3.1
Selected scams(d)
Persons(c) '000
*14.1
*19.2
*21.1
*16.5
*22.2
93.1
Victimisation rates %
*1.6
*2.1
*2.2
*1.8
*1.4
1.7
Total victims '000
36.8
61.1
61.8
51.5
44.2
255.4
Non-victims '000
866.7
874.9
912.4
879.0
1 572.2
5 105.1

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
(a) Survey scope is all persons aged 15 years and over.
(b) Includes credit card fraud and identity fraud.
(c) Persons may be a victim of more than one type of fraud.
(d) Includes lottery scams, pyramid scams, chain letters, advance fee scams, financial advice scams, phishing and other scams.
Source: ABS data available on request, Personal Fraud Survey, 2007 (cat. no. 4528.0).


Identity fraud is the theft of a pre-existing identity without the person's consent, where the person's name, date of birth, address or other personal details are used to engage in fraudulent activities such as conducting business, opening accounts, taking out loans or avoiding criminal liability.

In 2007, 166,800 people were victims of identity fraud in NSW, of whom 24,000 were aged 55 years and over, a victimisation rate of 1.5%. The majority of victims of identity fraud were aged 25-44 years with victimisation rates of 4.5% for those aged 25-34 years and 4.3% for those aged 35-44 years.

A scam is a fraudulent invitation, request, notification or offer, designed to obtain someone's personal information or money or otherwise obtain a financial benefit by deceptive means.

In 2007, 93,100 people were victims of selected scams of whom 22,200 were aged 55 years and over, a victimisation rate of 1.4%. The victimisation rates for scams was lower than the victimisation rates of identity fraud for all ages. The 25-34 year and 35-44 year age groups had high scam rates of 2.1% and 2.2% respectively.

There can be a number of factors contributing to the level of safety people feel when home alone. These factors can include: perceptions of crime levels in their vicinity; previous experience as a victim of assault or household break-in; relationships with people living nearby; sense of their own strength and capacity to be in control; and their level of trust in their local community.

2.15 FEELINGS OF SAFETY WHEN HOME ALONE, By selected ages and sex, NSW - 2005

Safe or very safe
Neither safe nor unsafe
Unsafe or very unsafe
Never home alone
during the period
Total
%
%
%
%
'000

MALES

During the day
45-54 years
84.1
7.6
3.1
5.2
453.5
55-64 years
80.9
10.8
3.7
4.6
361.4
65-74 years
82.0
8.9
*4.2
*4.8
243.5
75 years and over
78.4
10.7
*4.9
*6.0
149.4
After dark
45-54 years
80.6
11.3
4.8
3.4
453.5
55-64 years
79.8
11.3
5.5
3.5
361.4
65-74 years
74.4
12.4
6.0
7.2
243.5
75 years and over
72.0
12.6
*6.8
8.5
149.4

FEMALES

During the day
45-54 years
81.8
9.2
5.6
3.3
459.3
55-64 years
81.6
10.2
4.6
3.6
355.6
65-74 years
75.8
13.2
5.4
5.6
269.2
75 years and over
77.9
11.0
*6.0
*5.1
197.1
After dark
45-54 years
70.0
16.0
9.6
4.4
459.3
55-64 years
69.8
15.1
9.1
6.1
355.6
65-74 years
63.4
19.2
8.1
9.4
269.2
75 years and over
65.8
15.8
8.1
10.3
197.1

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
Source: ABS data available on request, Crime and Safety Survey, 2005 (cat. no. 4509.0).


In 2005, the majority of males and females in NSW felt safe or very safe when home alone, though the proportion of people who felt safe or very safe decreased with age. People feel more safe during the day than after dark when home alone. Males aged 45-54 years felt safe or very safe when home alone during the day (84%) and after dark (81%). Similarly, females aged 45-54 years felt safe or very safe when home alone during the day (82%) and after dark (70%). Females aged 65-74 years reported a difference between feelings of safety during the day and after dark: 76% of females aged 65-74 years felt safe or very safe during the day and only 63% felt safe or very safe after dark.

1 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2004, Australia's Health 2004, Canberra: AIHW, p. 380. <back
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