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4106.1 - Population Ageing in New South Wales, 2008, Dec 2008 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 17/12/2008  First Issue
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PLANNING FOR CHANGE

1.1 Introduction
1.2 An Ageing Population
1.3 A Diverse Population
1.4 Planning for the Future
1.5 Liveable Homes and Communities

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1.1 INTRODUCTION

The population of New South Wales (NSW) is ageing. That is, the number of people aged 65 years and over is set to increase dramatically (numerical ageing of the population) while at the same time the percentage of the population aged 65 years and over is also increasing (structural ageing). This change is due to factors such as lower fertility rates, and increased life expectancy because of improvements in nutrition, health care and safety.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, however, have not benefited from the same increased life expectancy experienced by the rest of the population. The lower life expectancy, combined with higher fertility rates, means that the age profile of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in NSW is much younger and is not ageing at the same rate as the general population.

To plan appropriately for the coming change we not only need to understand the demographic changes occurring, but also understand key characteristics of the population that will help or hinder individuals in meeting their fundamental needs such as for:

  • Economic independence,
  • Housing, and
  • Mobility.

The information in this Chapter therefore seeks to assist in understanding the demographic changes that are occurring, including the projected population to 2031, and the diversity of the population into the future.

To provide insight into current and future economic independence and financial wellbeing of mature age and older people, the Chapter outlines information on income and wealth of people aged 45 years and over. It also looks at people’s expenditure and likely ongoing ability to meet financial needs, by detailing superannuation contributions, housing costs and ability to meet health costs through private health insurance membership.

The Chapter also examines the fundamental issue of housing by detailing information on tenure, living arrangements, and housing movements.

Finally the Chapter explores people’s mobility by outlining information on people’s journeys, method of travel, driver status, use of public transport, and ease of travel.
1.2 AN AGEING POPULATION

Australia is experiencing the ageing of its population which is caused by two main factors. Improvements in public health education and medical expertise have led to improved life expectancy for the population, with the life expectancy of NSW males and females having increased by 10.5 years and 8.5 years respectively between 1974 and 2004-06. A combination of societal and economic changes has also led to a reduction of the fertility level, with fewer children being born compared to earlier generations. For example, between 1961 and 2007, NSW's total fertility rate (which represents the average number of babies that a woman could expect to bear during her reproductive lifetime if current fertility rates continued) has dropped from 3.37 to 1.84.

1.1 ESTIMATED RESIDENT POPULATION, By age and sex, NSW - 1974 and 2007
Diagram: 1.1 ESTIMATED RESIDENT POPULATION, By age and sex, NSW—1974 and 2007


The proportion of the NSW population aged 65 years and over has increased from 8.9% in 1974 to 14% in 2007, while the proportion of the population aged 85 years and over increased from 0.6% to 1.7%. The proportion aged under 15 years decreased over the same time. In 1974 the population aged under 15 years was 3.0 times larger than the population aged 65 years and over, but in 2007 the population aged under 15 years was only 1.4 times larger.

1.2 ESTIMATED RESIDENT POPULATION(a), By age and sex, NSW - 30 June 2007

Males
Females
Persons
Males
Females
Persons
Age group (years)
no.
no.
no.
%
%
%

0-4
225 945
213 844
439 789
6.6
6.2
6.4
5-9
224 857
214 538
439 395
6.6
6.2
6.4
10-14
232 325
221 629
453 954
6.8
6.4
6.6
15-19
238 620
225 996
464 616
7.0
6.5
6.7
20-24
240 742
235 216
475 958
7.1
6.8
6.9
25-29
239 102
237 173
476 275
7.0
6.8
6.9
30-34
242 038
245 989
488 027
7.1
7.1
7.1
35-39
250 103
254 903
505 006
7.3
7.3
7.3
40-44
245 317
248 043
493 360
7.2
7.1
7.2
45-49
245 815
251 330
497 145
7.2
7.2
7.2
50-54
223 881
227 157
451 038
6.6
6.5
6.5
55-59
205 082
206 150
411 232
6.0
5.9
6.0
60-64
174 866
175 302
350 168
5.1
5.0
5.1
65-69
132 009
136 483
268 492
3.9
3.9
3.9
70-74
105 562
114 698
220 260
3.1
3.3
3.2
75-79
86 828
103 694
190 522
2.5
3.0
2.8
80-84
59 269
84 497
143 766
1.7
2.4
2.1
85 and over
38 988
80 023
119 011
1.1
2.3
1.7
Total
3 411 349
3 476 665
6 888 014
100.0
100.0
100.0
Total aged 65-84 years
383 668
439 372
823 040
11.2
12.6
11.9
Total aged 85 years and over
38 988
80 023
119 011
1.1
2.3
1.7
Median age (years)
36.2
37.7
36.9
. .
. .
. .

. . not applicable
(a) Preliminary figures.
Source: Population by Age and Sex, Australian States and Territories, Jun 2002 to Jun 2007 (cat. no. 3201.0).


In 2007, different areas within NSW had a different age structure when compared to NSW overall. For example, the Local Government Areas (LGAs) with the highest proportion of people aged 65 years and over were Great Lakes (A) (28%), Eurobodalla (A), Port Macquarie-Hastings (A) and Nambucca (A) (all 23%) and Gloucester (A) (22%). The LGAs with the highest proportion of people aged 85 years and over were Hunter's Hill (A) (4.1%), Great Lakes (A) (3.1%) and Bombala (A), Port Macquarie-Hastings (A) and Temora (A) (each 2.9%). (For more information please refer to the Population Ageing in New South Wales, 2008 electronic datacubes on the ABS website.)

In 2007, a greater number and proportion of the older population were female. At birth there were slightly more males than females; however, due to the differences in mortality rates at different ages, and hence life expectancy, the ratio of males to females changes and decreases at the older ages.

1.3 SEX RATIO, NSW, By age - 2007
Graph: 1.3 SEX RATIO, NSW, By age—2007


In 2004-06, life expectancy at birth in NSW was 78.6 years for males and 83.4 years for females. This was an increase of 10.5 years for males and 8.5 years for females since 1974. The increase in life expectancy is probably due to public health programs that focussed attention on the life shortening consequences of lifestyle choices such as smoking, drinking alcohol and lack of exercise.

1.4 LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH, By sex, NSW - 1971 to 2006
Graph: 1.4 life expectancy at birth, By sex, NSW—1971 to 2006

1.5 LIFE EXPECTANCY AT EXACT AGE, By sex, NSW

2004-06
Change since 1994
Change since 1984
Change since 1974
Males
Females
Males
Females
Males
Females
Males
Females
Exact age (years)
years
years
years
years
years
years
years
years

0
78.6
83.4
3.7
2.5
6.5
4.8
10.5
8.5
5
74.1
78.9
3.5
2.5
6.1
4.5
9.5
7.7
15
64.2
68.9
3.5
2.4
6.0
4.4
9.3
7.5
25
54.6
59.1
3.4
2.4
5.7
4.3
9.0
7.4
35
45.0
49.3
3.2
2.4
5.6
4.3
8.8
7.3
45
35.6
39.6
3.1
2.3
5.5
4.1
8.5
6.9
55
26.5
30.2
2.9
2.1
5.1
3.8
7.6
6.2
65
18.1
21.4
2.4
2.0
4.0
3.3
5.9
5.2
75
11.0
13.4
1.7
1.5
2.6
2.3
3.9
3.9
85
5.9
7.0
0.8
0.7
1.2
1.1
1.9
2.1
95
3.2
3.5
-
-
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.8

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
Source: Australian Historical Population Statistics, 2008 (cat. no. 3105.0.65.001); ABS data available on request, Deaths Collection (cat. no. 3302.0).


It is projected that in 2036 the population of NSW will be 9.1 million, up from 6.8 million in 2006. Overall, females in 2036 (4.6 million) are expected to slightly outnumber males (4.5 million). The proportion of people aged 65 years and over is projected to increase substantially over this period.

1.6 ESTIMATED AND PROJECTED POPULATION, By age and sex, NSW - 2006 and 2036
Diagram: 1.6 ESTIMATED AND PROJECTED POPULATION, By age and sex, NSW—2006 and 2036


In 2006, 12% of the NSW population was aged 65-84 years while 1.6% were aged 85 years and over. By 2036 those proportions are projected to climb to 18% and 3.9% respectively. At the older ages it is expected that females will still outnumber males. In 2036, it is projected that 18% of females and 17% of males will be aged 65-84 years while 4.5% of females and 3.2% of males will be aged 85 years and over.

1.7 ESTIMATED AND PROJECTED POPULATION, By age and sex, NSW

2006
2011
2016
2021
2026
2031
2036

MALES

0-14 '000
683.4
696.2
719.9
749.8
775.8
799.4
819.7
15-24 '000
473.8
497.0
505.0
509.5
526.0
546.7
565.0
25-34 '000
480.4
495.3
525.0
545.3
555.3
562.8
580.1
35-44 '000
494.4
498.8
504.9
520.8
547.9
567.1
578.4
45-54 '000
462.0
483.8
486.9
493.5
501.2
517.5
543.7
55-64 '000
370.0
412.7
437.6
460.7
467.5
476.6
486.2
65-74 '000
231.8
272.2
331.7
373.8
401.3
426.9
438.4
75-84 '000
143.9
153.1
170.1
207.0
259.2
298.2
328.7
85 and over '000
35.7
49.8
62.3
71.5
86.2
110.9
145.6
Total males '000
3 375.4
3 558.9
3 743.4
3 931.9
4 120.4
4 306.1
4 485.8
Proportion aged 65-84 years %
11.1
12.0
13.4
14.8
16.0
16.8
17.1
Proportion aged 85 years and over %
1.1
1.4
1.7
1.8
2.1
2.6
3.2

FEMALES

0-14 '000
649.7
661.1
682.3
710.7
735.3
757.5
776.7
15-24 '000
456.1
475.5
483.4
487.1
502.0
521.6
538.8
25-34 '000
483.6
499.6
526.7
544.6
554.7
562.0
578.2
35-44 '000
501.6
510.6
519.5
536.1
561.5
578.8
590.2
45-54 '000
470.3
493.7
497.3
507.4
517.4
534.2
558.8
55-64 '000
370.0
419.9
452.1
475.7
482.1
493.6
504.7
65-74 '000
245.6
283.9
344.2
391.7
423.7
448.3
457.8
75-84 '000
188.0
188.4
201.0
236.8
291.4
335.2
367.8
85 and over '000
75.5
95.4
109.4
118.0
134.1
163.3
207.5
Total females '000
3 440.4
3 628.1
3 815.9
4 008.1
4 202.2
4 394.5
4 580.5
Proportion aged 65-84 years %
12.6
13.0
14.3
15.7
17.0
17.8
18.0
Proportion aged 85 years and over %
2.2
2.6
2.9
2.9
3.2
3.7
4.5

PERSONS

0-14 '000
1 333.2
1 357.2
1 402.2
1 460.4
1 511.1
1 556.9
1 596.4
15-24 '000
929.8
972.6
988.5
996.6
1 028.0
1 068.3
1 103.7
25-34 '000
964.0
994.8
1 051.7
1 089.9
1 110.2
1 124.9
1 158.3
35-44 '000
996.1
1 009.3
1 024.5
1 056.8
1 109.4
1 145.9
1 168.6
45-54 '000
932.2
977.4
984.3
1 000.9
1 018.6
1 051.8
1 102.6
55-64 '000
740.1
832.6
889.7
936.4
949.6
970.2
990.8
65-74 '000
477.4
556.1
675.8
765.4
825.0
875.1
896.2
75-84 '000
331.9
341.5
371.1
443.8
550.6
633.4
696.6
85 and over '000
111.2
145.3
171.8
189.5
220.4
274.2
353.0
Total persons '000
6 815.9
7 186.8
7 559.6
7 939.7
8 322.9
8 700.7
9 066.2
Proportion aged 65-84 years %
11.9
12.5
13.8
15.2
16.5
17.3
17.6
Proportion aged 85 years and over %
1.6
2.0
2.3
2.4
2.6
3.2
3.9

Source: New South Wales State and Regional Population Projections: 2008 Release, NSW Department of Planning.


The age profile differs among NSW regions and this is expected to be so in the future. In 2036, it is projected that the population of Sydney Statistical Division (SD) will be younger than the population of NSW overall. For example, it is projected that in 2036 people aged 65 years and over will make up 18% of Sydney's population compared to 21% of the NSW population overall. At the same time, however, Sydney will continue to have the greatest number of people aged 65 years and over, with a projected population of 1,075,200 in 2036 compared to 513,000 in 2006.

1.8 ESTIMATED AND PROJECTED POPULATION, By age and regions, NSW

0-14
15-24
25-34
35-44
45-54
55-64
65-74
75-84
85 and over
Total
persons
Statistical Division/Statistical Subdivision (SD/SSD)
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
'000

2006

Sydney SD
19.2
14.2
15.9
15.3
13.4
10.1
6.1
4.3
1.5
4 282.0
Newcastle SSD
19.5
13.9
12.5
13.7
13.8
11.5
7.7
5.7
1.8
517.4
Hunter SD Bal SSD
20.3
11.6
10.6
13.6
13.9
12.7
9.4
6.1
1.9
100.1
Wollongong SSD
19.8
14.2
12.8
14.1
13.7
10.7
7.8
5.4
1.5
278.1
Nowra Bomaderry SSD-Illawarra SD Bal SSD
19.7
11.0
9.1
12.8
13.9
13.9
10.8
6.8
2.0
136.7
Richmond-Tweed SD
19.3
12.0
10.0
13.4
15.5
12.2
8.8
6.7
2.1
230.1
Mid-North Coast SD
19.5
11.2
8.9
12.8
14.9
13.5
10.0
6.9
2.2
296.7
Northern SD
21.4
13.2
11.1
13.3
13.9
12.1
8.3
5.0
1.7
180.2
North Western SD-Far West SD
22.4
12.1
11.3
13.7
14.0
11.8
8.2
5.0
1.5
139.4
Central West SD
21.2
13.4
11.4
13.4
13.7
11.9
8.1
5.2
1.7
178.8
South Eastern SD
20.0
11.6
10.6
14.3
15.0
13.1
8.5
5.2
1.6
207.6
Murrumbidgee SD
22.1
14.2
12.1
13.5
13.4
10.5
7.5
4.9
1.6
154.0
Murray SD
20.4
12.7
11.2
13.3
14.5
12.0
8.5
5.8
1.8
115.4
New South Wales
19.6
13.6
14.1
14.6
13.7
10.9
7.0
4.9
1.6
6 815.9

2036

Sydney SD
18.1
13.2
14.5
13.8
12.3
10.1
8.4
6.3
3.3
5 982.2
Newcastle SSD
16.7
11.3
10.6
11.9
12.2
11.9
11.6
9.3
4.6
675.9
Hunter SD Bal SSD
17.3
9.2
9.2
11.2
11.9
12.6
13.2
10.4
5.1
128.2
Wollongong SSD
17.2
11.9
11.4
12.0
11.9
11.2
10.9
8.9
4.5
339.0
Nowra Bomaderry SSD-Illawarra SD Bal SSD
15.5
8.5
7.3
9.7
11.2
13.7
15.8
12.4
5.9
190.2
Richmond-Tweed SD
16.2
9.8
8.6
11.1
12.2
12.7
13.2
10.8
5.4
315.4
Mid-North Coast SD
15.3
8.4
7.2
9.7
11.6
13.6
15.2
12.7
6.2
387.2
Northern SD
17.5
11.2
9.3
10.3
11.3
12.0
12.7
10.5
5.0
168.5
North Western SD-Far West SD
17.7
9.6
9.6
11.1
12.1
12.7
12.7
10.0
4.5
123.1
Central West SD
17.2
10.2
9.4
11.2
12.0
12.3
12.5
10.2
5.0
183.5
South Eastern SD
16.8
9.3
9.1
11.4
12.7
13.3
13.1
9.9
4.5
286.9
Murrumbidgee SD
18.4
12.0
10.3
11.1
11.5
11.5
11.5
9.3
4.4
164.6
Murray SD
15.0
9.7
8.9
10.5
12.0
12.9
13.7
11.7
5.6
121.7
New South Wales
17.6
12.2
12.8
12.9
12.2
10.9
9.9
7.7
3.9
9 066.2

Source: New South Wales State and Regional Population Projections: 2008 Release, NSW Department of Planning.


The areas projected to have the highest proportion of people aged 65 years and over are Mid-North Coast Statistical Division (SD) (34%), Nowra Bomaderry Statistical Subdivision (SSD) - Illawarra SD Bal SSD (34%) and Murray SD (31%). This is a consequence of people ageing in place, younger people moving away and older people taking their time of retirement as an opportunity to move away from the centres of employment to locations more suited to their current needs (the 'sea-change' and 'tree-change' movements).

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have a lower life expectancy than the non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. For statistical purposes an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person is considered an 'older person' at 55 years of age as opposed to 65 years of age for the rest of the population. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population also has higher fertility rates. These two factors lead to the significantly younger age structure of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population when compared to rest of the population. In 2006, the proportion of NSW Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 55 years and over (8.4%) was around one-third of the proportion for the rest of the population (25%).

1.9 ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER PERSONS, By age and sex, NSW - June 2006

Males
Females
Persons
Males
Females
Persons
Age group (years)
no.
no.
no.
%
%
%

0-4
9 853
9 252
19 105
12.9
12.1
12.5
5-9
9 965
9 402
19 367
13.1
12.3
12.7
10-14
10 173
9 712
19 885
13.3
12.7
13.0
15-19
8 589
7 809
16 398
11.3
10.2
10.7
20-24
6 500
6 123
12 623
8.5
8.0
8.3
25-29
4 872
5 003
9 875
6.4
6.5
6.5
30-34
4 810
5 241
10 051
6.3
6.9
6.6
35-39
4 674
5 247
9 921
6.1
6.9
6.5
40-44
4 190
4 803
8 993
5.5
6.3
5.9
45-49
3 652
3 980
7 632
4.8
5.2
5.0
50-54
2 969
3 091
6 060
3.9
4.0
4.0
55-59
2 215
2 385
4 600
2.9
3.1
3.0
60-64
1 545
1 567
3 112
2.0
2.0
2.0
65-69
991
1 128
2 119
1.3
1.5
1.4
70-74
659
777
1 436
0.9
1.0
0.9
75-79
330
503
833
0.4
0.7
0.5
80-84
149
230
379
0.2
0.3
0.2
85 and over
93
203
296
0.1
0.3
0.2
Total
76 229
76 456
152 685
100.0
100.0
100.0
Total aged 55-74 years
5 410
5 857
11 267
7.1
7.7
7.4
Total aged 75 and over
572
936
1 508
0.8
1.2
1.0
Median age (years)
19.7
21.6
20.6
. .
. .
. .

. . not applicable
Source: Experimental Estimates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, June 2006 (cat. no. 3238.0.55.001).

1.10 POPULATION, By age, sex and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, NSW - June 2006
Diagram: 1.10 POPULATION, By age, sex and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, NSW—June 2006


1.3 A DIVERSE POPULATION

Australia is a multicultural country that has experienced successive waves of migration from different regions of the world. The birthplaces most common amongst all NSW migrants vary when compared to older migrants due to these varied migration patterns. In many cases the age profile of migrants is older than the age profile of the Australian born population. For example, of the NSW population born in Australia, 11% of males and 14% of females were aged 65 years and over. In contrast, of the NSW population born in Hungary, Italy, Latvia and Slovenia over 50% of both males and females were aged 65 years or over in 2006. The next oldest migrant groups were those born in Austria, Germany, Greece, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland and the Ukraine, where over 30% of both males and females were aged 65 years and over. This reflects the European origin of the post-WWII migration waves.

In NSW in 2006, the changing pattern of migration can be seen in the birthplaces where a much higher proportion of their population is aged 45-64 years compared to those aged 65 years and over. These birthplaces include Chile, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Portugal, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. This is due to the shift in the sources of migrants to Asia and the Middle East in the 1960's and 1970's.

1.11 BIRTHPLACE(a), By selected ages and sex, NSW - 2006

45-64 years(b)
65 years and over(b)
Total persons
Males
Females
Males
Females
Males
Females
Selected birthplaces
%
%
%
%
no.
no.

Australia
21.8
21.7
10.6
13.7
2 224 779
2 296 374
Austria
41.6
40.9
41.7
39.4
3 235
2 889
Chile
42.3
42.7
10.7
12.4
5 836
6 411
China (excludes SARs and Taiwan Province)
27.9
24.6
13.0
13.3
51 497
62 545
Croatia
41.2
44.2
33.8
29.3
9 444
9 017
Cyprus
46.1
48.4
30.9
29.1
3 349
3 373
Egypt
44.1
41.2
25.9
28.5
8 825
8 366
Fiji
30.1
29.7
6.5
7.5
13 361
15 244
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)
50.6
47.0
19.4
21.0
8 972
8 709
Germany
45.9
42.3
30.3
32.6
14 734
16 324
Greece
41.0
44.8
46.7
44.1
17 296
17 758
Hong Kong (SAR of China)
33.0
36.3
5.5
5.0
18 116
20 229
Hungary
33.2
34.5
54.5
50.9
3 861
3 797
India
20.4
21.3
6.9
9.3
31 413
25 744
Indonesia
23.6
22.9
7.2
7.1
9 851
12 034
Iran
31.6
31.0
9.2
10.7
6 197
5 743
Iraq
24.5
22.6
6.4
7.7
10 647
9 886
Ireland
32.9
32.3
19.0
20.8
9 211
8 058
Italy
38.9
38.8
50.3
51.0
28 972
26 203
Korea, Republic of (South)
23.4
22.3
6.4
5.4
15 315
17 907
Latvia
15.4
14.6
76.8
75.3
753
943
Lebanon
38.9
37.6
12.5
12.2
28 933
26 845
Malaysia
35.5
38.9
7.8
7.9
10 663
12 734
Malta
58.1
56.8
33.8
35.1
8 709
8 266
Netherlands
44.9
44.3
39.3
39.2
9 720
9 097
New Zealand
29.8
29.9
7.3
8.3
53 485
53 131
Philippines
29.4
36.2
4.1
6.1
22 469
35 251
Poland
39.6
35.2
34.5
37.5
6 873
8 352
Portugal
45.4
44.2
16.8
17.5
4 276
4 135
Russian Federation
23.3
20.8
21.9
29.3
2 251
3 543
Serbia
38.7
40.0
20.4
17.7
3 112
2 991
Slovenia
28.1
28.7
61.6
57.9
1 048
1 035
South Africa
31.9
30.0
8.6
10.7
16 096
16 852
South Eastern Europe, nfd
40.3
40.4
28.7
27.9
5 946
5 870
Spain
43.4
37.3
28.8
33.6
2 586
2 496
Sri Lanka
37.1
32.0
9.3
11.7
9 480
9 609
Turkey
32.7
32.5
10.8
9.6
6 394
6 073
Ukraine
18.9
19.3
43.8
47.7
2 102
2 839
United Kingdom(c)
40.7
38.5
25.1
28.4
135 574
130 279
United States of America
29.9
29.5
8.1
6.2
10 769
10 980
Uruguay
41.6
43.0
20.8
21.9
3 195
3 514
Viet Nam
34.7
32.3
7.1
8.3
29 825
33 965
Other birthplace(d)
27.8
27.3
8.7
9.4
117 726
124 687
Not stated
25.7
24.3
15.3
20.1
241 552
230 628
Total
25.0
24.6
12.5
15.1
3 228 448
3 320 726

(a) Birthplace selection based on the most common birthplaces of NSW people aged 65 years and over. Figures exclude overseas visitors.
(b) Proportions of all persons in NSW born in the selected birthplace who are in the age group.
(c) Includes 'England', 'Northern Ireland', 'Scotland', 'Wales', 'Isle of Man', 'Channel Islands' and 'United Kingdom, nfd'.
(d) Includes all countries of birth not individually shown as well as the categories 'Inadequately described', 'Not elsewhere classified' and 'At sea'.
Source: ABS data available on request, Census of Population and Housing, 2006.

1.12 LANGUAGES SPOKEN AT HOME AND PROFICIENCY IN SPOKEN ENGLISH(a), By selected ages, NSW - 2006

Persons
Speaks English not well/not at all(b)
45-54 years
55-64 years
65-74 years
75 years
and over
Total
persons
45-54 years
55-64 years
65-74 years
75 years
and over
Total
persons
Language spoken at home(c)
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
%
%
%
%
%

English(a)
672 587
554 981
349 684
340 620
4 846 669
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
Languages other than English
Arabic
18 848
12 778
6 614
3 544
164 987
20.0
27.8
43.5
59.9
15.8
Armenian
1 086
959
723
551
7 451
6.0
12.4
29.6
53.0
12.0
Assyrian
2 078
1 229
795
487
16 138
24.6
36.7
50.1
72.7
21.6
Cantonese
23 464
12 964
7 376
5 501
129 607
36.2
39.8
66.1
81.6
27.3
Croatian
2 867
4 074
3 932
1 320
23 605
10.4
17.9
31.0
51.6
14.6
Dutch
1 060
1 290
1 467
2 072
8 716
0.8
0.4
1.0
4.4
2.5
Filipino
4 199
2 277
674
542
18 260
1.2
2.3
8.9
27.1
3.0
French
2 346
2 011
1 140
1 137
15 187
1.4
2.2
6.2
16.8
4.6
German
2 716
3 144
3 616
3 768
22 103
1.2
1.3
1.8
6.9
3.0
Greek
9 335
12 027
12 567
6 872
86 157
8.7
28.2
40.6
52.9
17.0
Hindi
4 803
2 160
1 021
459
38 149
2.1
11.8
26.7
35.1
5.1
Hungarian
1 006
1 219
1 356
1 818
7 509
4.3
8.0
10.8
19.3
9.5
Italian
11 636
12 921
16 005
13 423
87 295
3.4
11.9
26.4
42.6
14.9
Korean
5 020
2 509
1 389
585
36 683
49.5
63.2
71.6
83.6
34.8
Latvian
134
169
199
480
1 248
3.0
-
4.0
6.5
4.1
Macedonian
4 421
4 410
2 614
1 198
28 938
17.0
31.9
59.3
77.0
18.7
Maltese
2 430
3 831
2 670
1 871
14 342
2.2
6.8
12.1
23.7
8.1
Mandarin
15 818
5 393
4 053
1 874
100 598
40.4
52.9
81.3
78.8
25.8
Polish
3 140
2 486
1 058
2 742
15 495
7.4
10.8
29.0
27.6
11.9
Portuguese
2 208
1 888
1 061
491
13 546
20.3
36.6
57.0
72.7
19.5
Russian
1 819
1 688
1 508
1 686
14 050
11.1
20.2
45.2
53.0
19.0
Serbian
3 379
2 888
1 830
697
21 611
29.9
32.3
48.0
57.5
20.9
Serbo-Croatian/Yugoslavian, so described
481
492
470
295
2 900
15.6
18.1
29.6
33.6
15.7
Slovene
129
234
474
250
1 437
2.3
6.4
7.6
14.8
7.2
Spanish
7 249
7 829
4 009
2 032
49 561
12.9
19.6
39.1
66.6
14.2
Tagalog
6 425
2 727
693
623
29 220
1.3
2.9
20.5
33.1
3.4
Tamil
2 654
1 416
666
463
15 743
5.0
7.3
16.7
26.6
7.1
Turkish
2 411
1 903
890
251
20 591
29.0
50.9
62.8
64.5
21.4
Ukrainian
335
434
162
1 043
2 756
6.0
5.1
19.1
26.4
15.1
Vietnamese
11 806
4 338
2 284
1 720
74 586
54.7
63.3
80.9
91.7
35.8
Other languages
30 654
15 090
6 818
5 085
243 425
16.8
21.6
35.0
42.5
14.9
Total languages other than English
185 957
128 778
90 134
64 880
1 311 894
21.4
25.3
38.8
46.6
18.0
Inadequately described
247
148
95
80
2 658
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
Not stated
45 542
35 639
25 412
34 871
387 953
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
Total
904 333
719 546
465 325
440 451
6 549 174
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .

. . not applicable
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) The Language Spoken at Home Census question only allows for one answer and therefore the number of responses in the category 'English' is not all persons who speak English, but specifically persons who speak only English at home.
(b) Denominator is all persons who stated what language they spoke at home, but may not have stated their proficiency in spoken English.
(c) Language selection based on the most common languages spoken by people aged 65 years and over.
Source: ABS data available on request, Census of Population and Housing, 2006.


The diversity of birthplaces of NSW's older population is matched by the diversity in the proportion of the older population who speak a language other than English at home. Of particular interest to service planners is those populations and age groups where a high proportion stated that they spoke English not well or not at all. For example, in 2006 there were several language groups where over 60% of the persons aged 75 years and over reported that they spoke English not well or not at all: Assyrian, Cantonese, Korean, Macedonian, Mandarin, Portuguese, Spanish, Turkish and Vietnamese.
1.4 PLANNING FOR THE FUTURE

The demographic changes that are occurring present a fundamental transformation of the population. A wide range of factors will affect the outcome of this change, including the financial position of individuals and their ability to meet the cost of essential goods and services, such as housing and health care.


Income

The economy is influenced by the ageing population in many ways. A major issue includes the financial independence of the ageing population.

There are various income support schemes to assist the older population improve their living conditions. As at June 2008, there were 663,300 people in NSW who received the Age Pension through Centrelink, of whom 390,400 were on full-rate and 272,900 were on part-rate pensions. Also in 2008, there were 92,500 people aged 45 years and over who received income support from the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA).

1.13 RECIPIENTS OF SELECTED INCOME SUPPORT PAYMENTS(a), NSW

2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000

MALES

Centrelink payments
Age Pension(b)
Full-rate pension
158.5
161.0
157.5
159.4
159.9
158.3
158.0
Part-rate pension
73.3
77.5
86.1
90.4
94.6
101.0
120.2
Total
231.9
238.5
243.6
249.7
254.5
259.3
278.2
Disability Pension(c)
91.3
91.8
92.2
91.8
90.7
90.7
91.4
DVA payments
Service Pension(d)
49.4
46.6
43.4
40.5
37.7
35.0
33.2
Income Support Supplement(e)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Social Security Age Pensioners
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.1
Total males
372.5
376.8
379.2
382.1
382.9
385.1
402.9

FEMALES

Centrelink payments
Age Pension(b)
Full-rate pension
267.4
266.2
252.3
251.0
243.8
240.0
232.4
Part-rate pension
102.1
106.8
116.0
120.7
123.6
131.8
152.7
Total
369.5
373.0
368.4
371.8
367.4
371.8
385.1
Disability Pension(c)
54.6
56.3
60.5
62.5
65.4
66.5
71.3
DVA payments
Service Pension(d)
39.4
37.5
35.3
33.3
31.4
29.4
28.3
Income Support Supplement(e)
29.8
30.4
30.6
30.7
30.4
29.5
28.9
Social Security Age Pensioners
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
Total females
463.5
466.9
464.3
467.6
464.2
467.7
484.8

PERSONS

Centrelink payments
Age Pension(b)
Full-rate pension
426.0
427.2
409.9
410.4
403.7
398.3
390.4
Part-rate pension
175.4
184.3
202.1
211.1
218.2
232.8
272.9
Total
601.4
611.5
612.0
621.5
621.8
631.2
663.3
Disability Pension(c)
145.9
148.1
152.7
154.3
156.2
157.2
162.8
DVA payments
Service Pension(d)
88.8
84.1
78.7
73.9
69.1
64.5
61.6
Income Support Supplement(e)
29.8
30.5
30.7
30.8
30.4
29.6
28.9
Social Security Age Pensioners
2.7
2.5
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
Total persons
836.0
843.7
843.5
849.7
847.1
852.8
887.7

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Data as at June.
(b) People who have reached Centrelink's Age Pension age. See 'Age Pension age (centrelink)' in Glossary.
(c) People who are younger than Centrelink's Age Pension age but are aged 45 years and over at date of claim lodgement.
(d) Service Pensions paid by the Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) to people of DVA's pension age. See 'Age Pension age (DVA)' in Glossary.
(e) Income Support Supplement (ISS) provides a regular income in addition to war widow's or widower's pension for Australian war widows and widowers with limited means. See Glossary for more details.
Source: Data available on request, Centrelink; Data available on request, Department of Veterans' Affairs.


As the number of people who reach Age Pension age increases there is potentially more people who will require government assistance. However, with the introduction of the Superannuation Guarantee scheme in 1992, the proportion of retirees on a pension would be expected to decrease in the future.

In 2005-06, 71% of NSW households with the reference person aged 65 years and over relied on Government pensions and allowances as their principal source of income. Of households with the reference person aged 65 years and over, 13% relied on superannuation/annuity income and just over 9% relied on investment income as their principal source of income.

1.14 MAIN SOURCE OF HOUSEHOLD INCOME, Households with reference person aged 65 years and over, NSW

1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1999-2000
2000-01
2002-03
2003-04
2005-06

HOUSEHOLDS ('000)

Wages and salaries
39.4
47.0
55.8
*28.2
55.0
64.2
36.8
24.0
Own unincorporated business income
**6.0
16.6
*13.6
*8.5
*13.4
*13.8
*5.3
*13.4
Government pensions/allowances
339.3
341.4
343.0
368.5
356.9
342.8
344.4
372.0
Other income(a)
Investment income
46.3
65.0
49.1
32.8
39.0
45.4
49.0
48.1
Superannuation/annuity income
34.8
32.2
38.7
57.0
49.7
55.4
77.0
67.1
Total other income(b)
81.1
98.4
92.0
91.4
90.3
105.5
128.9
116.4
Total(c)
469.2
504.5
504.5
501.0
518.5
529.3
516.1
526.5

PROPORTION OF HOUSEHOLDS (%)

Wages and salaries
8.4
9.3
11.1
*5.6
10.6
12.1
7.1
4.6
Own unincorporated business income
**1.3
3.3
*2.7
*1.7
*2.6
*2.6
*1.0
*2.5
Government pensions/allowances
72.3
67.7
68.0
73.6
68.8
64.8
66.7
70.6
Other income(a)
Investment income
9.9
12.9
9.7
6.5
7.5
8.6
9.5
9.1
Superannuation/annuity income
7.4
6.4
7.7
11.4
9.6
10.5
14.9
12.7
Total other income(b)
17.3
19.5
18.2
18.2
17.4
19.9
25.0
22.1
Total(c)
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
(a) Other income (i.e. sum of any superannuation, investment and other income) is the main source of household income. The further breakdown to superannuation and investment indicates the main source within other regular income.
(b) Includes other regular income.
(c) Includes households with zero or negative total income.
Source: ABS data available on request, Survey of Income and Housing; Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia (cat. no. 6523.0).


Since 1995-96 the proportion of households with the reference person aged 65 years and over which relied on Government pensions/allowances and investment income was relatively unchanged, while the proportion of households relying on superannuation/annuity income increased from 7.4% in 1995-96 to 13% in 2005-06.

1.15 MAIN SOURCE OF HOUSEHOLD INCOME, Reference person aged 65 years or over, NSW
Graph: 1.15 MAIN SOURCE OF HOUSEHOLD INCOME, Reference person aged 65 years or over, NSW


In order for the ageing population to sustain their level of wellbeing it is important for individuals to better prepare for their retirement. In 2007, for people aged 45 years and over who had retired, Government pensions and allowances were the most common source of income at retirement (43%), while 13% relied mainly on superannuation or annuity income and 28% had no income (that is, they lived off savings or other assets or relied on their partner's income). The main source of income varied quite markedly between men and women. For men, 54% relied mainly on Government pensions and allowances and 23% on superannuation or annuity income. Nearly half (42%) of females at retirement relied on their partner's income as their main source of income, followed by Government pensions and allowances (33%) and superannuation or annuity income (9%).

1.16 MAIN SOURCE OF PERSONAL INCOME AT RETIREMENT, Persons aged 45 years or over, NSW - 2007

Males
Females
Persons
%
%
%
'000

Main source of personal income at retirement
Government pension/allowances
54.4
33.4
42.9
454.2
Superannuation/annuity income
22.9
9.2
15.4
163.0
Dividends or interest
*4.5
*2.1
3.2
33.8
Rental property income
*2.6
*3.3
3.0
31.3
Own unincorporated business income
*1.9
*1.6
*1.7
*17.9
Other income(a)
6.4
*3.8
5.0
52.6
No income
Living off savings or other assets, etc
4.7
*3.5
4.1
42.9
Partner's income
*1.9
42.3
24.0
254.0
Total
6.6
45.9
28.1
296.9
Total retired(b)
100.0
100.0
100.0
1 058.2
Total retired ('000)
479.7
578.5
. .
1 058.2
Expected main source of personal income at retirement
Government pension/allowances
20.4
23.6
21.9
220.0
Superannuation/annuity income
53.9
38.5
46.7
470.0
Dividends or interest
*2.4
*2.2
*2.3
*23.3
Rental property income
*3.4
*2.9
*3.2
*31.8
Own unincorporated business income
*4.7
*2.5
*3.7
*36.9
Other income
*3.3
*2.5
*3.0
*29.7
No income(c)
**1.1
12.4
6.4
64.0
Did not know
10.9
15.4
13.0
130.6
Total intending to retire
100.0
100.0
100.0
1 006.3
Total intending to retire ('000)
538.1
468.2
. .
1 006.3
Other ('000)(d)
239.5
287.1
. .
526.7
Total persons ('000)
1 257.3
1 333.8
. .
2 591.2

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
. . not applicable
(a) Includes 'other' and 'workers' compensation'.
(b) Includes 'did not know' and 'not determined'.
(c) Includes 'partner's income' and 'no income (e.g. living off savings or other assets, etc.)'.
(d) Includes 'persons in the labour force who are not retired or who have never worked for two weeks or more' and 'unemployed people who have never worked for two weeks or more'.
Source: ABS data available on request, Multi-purpose Household Survey, 2006-07; Retirement and Retirement Intentions, Australia, Jul 2006 to Jun 2007 (cat. no. 6238.0).


Superannuation or annuity income is expected to become a much more important source of income at retirement. In 2007, 47% of people (54% of males and 39% of females) aged 45 years and over who intended to retire expected that their main source of income at retirement would be superannuation or annuity income. People aged 45 years and over who intended to retire generally expected to retire with some source of income. Only 6.4% expected to retire with no income, that is, to live off savings or other assets or to rely on their partner's income.

1.17 RETIREMENT INCOMES, Persons aged 45 years and over, NSW - 2007
Graph: 1.17 Retirement incomes, Persons aged 45 years and over, NSW—2007


A commonly used measure of income is equivalised disposable household income, which is disposable household income adjusted for household size. Equivalised income takes into account the greater income needs of larger households and the economies of scale achieved when people live together, and enables comparisons to be made between different types of households.

In 2005-06, the mean equivalised disposable income for all households in NSW was $660 per week and the median (i.e. the midpoint when all households are ranked in ascending order of household income) was $565. Whereas the mean equivalised disposable income for persons living in households with the reference person aged 65 years or over in 2005-06 was $437 per week and the median was $337. This difference between the mean and median for households with the reference person aged 65 years and over reflects the typically asymmetric distribution of income, where a relatively small number of people have very high household incomes and a large number of people have relatively lower household incomes. Of households with the reference person aged 65 years or over, 38% were in the $200-$299 per week income range and 27% were in the $300-$399 income range. (For more information please refer to the Population Ageing in New South Wales, 2008 electronic datacubes on the ABS website.)

Income is not the only measure of financial security; another measure is wealth (or net worth). Wealth is a net concept and measures the extent to which the value of household assets exceeds the value of their liabilities. In 2005-06, households with the reference person aged 65 years and over had an average household net worth of $897,300. Households with the reference person aged 45-54 years recorded an average household net worth of $708,900.

1.18 HOUSEHOLD ASSETS AND LIABILITIES, By selected ages of reference person, NSW - 2005-06

Age group (years)
45-54
55-64
65 and over
$'000
$'000
$'000

Assets(a)

Financial assets
Accounts held with financial institutions
25.3
39.5
50.6
Shares, trusts, debentures and bonds(b)
25.0
28.2
*54.7
Own incorporated business (net of liabilities)
*50.7
**37.2
**133.4
Superannuation
114.1
132.0
*89.5
Total financial assets(c)
215.5
238.7
*329.8
Non-financial assets
Owner occupied dwelling
392.3
390.8
411.2
Other property
157.7
120.8
80.8
Own unincorporated business (net of liabilities)
*15.4
*17.2
*13.6
Contents of dwelling
62.7
62.2
57.8
Vehicles
26.3
21.3
10.8
Total non-financial assets(d)
655.4
613.6
577.2
Total assets
870.9
852.2
907.0

Liabilities(a)

Loans for owner occupied dwelling(e)
68.7
30.5
*3.6
Other property loans(e)
74.6
27.2
*4.5
Other liabilities(f)
18.7
8.4
1.6
Total liabilities
162.0
66.0
9.7

Household net worth(a)

Household net worth
708.9
786.2
897.3
Other net worth items
Net value of owner occupied dwelling
323.6
360.3
407.6
Net value of other property
83.1
93.6
76.4
Net value of vehicles
23.0
19.4
10.7

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
(a) Mean values.
(b) Value of shares excludes own incorporated business.
(c) Includes value of other financial investments, children's assets and loans to persons not in the same household.
(d) Includes value of non-financial assets not elsewhere classified.
(e) Principal outstanding.
(f) Includes debt outstanding on study loans, amount owing on credit cards and principal outstanding on non-property loans.
Source: ABS data available on request, Survey of Income and Housing, 2005-06; Household Wealth and Wealth Distribution, Australia, 2005-06 (cat. no. 6554.0).


Households in NSW with the reference person aged 65 years and over recorded an average total assets of $907,000 and recorded an average total liabilities of $9,700 in 2005-06.

1.19 HOUSEHOLD ASSETS AND LIABILITIES(a), By selected ages of reference person, NSW-2005-06
Graph: 1.19 Household Assets and Liabilities(a), By selected ages of reference person, NSW—2005–06

Housing costs

Housing costs are defined as the sum of rent payments, rate payments (water and general) and mortgage or unsecured loan payments (if the initial purpose of the loan was primarily to buy, add or alter the dwelling). Owners that have a mortgage, where the purpose of the mortgage when initially taken out was not primarily housing related, are categorised as owners with a mortgage but their mortgage repayments are not included in their housing costs.

The proportion of income spent on housing costs by owners aged 65 years and over without a mortgage remained at 4% from 1999-2000 to 2005-06. Private renters aged 65 years and over in NSW spent 47% of their total income on housing costs in 1999-2000 and 41% in 2005-06.

1.20 HOUSING COSTS AS A PROPORTION OF GROSS INCOME(a), Reference person aged 65 years and over, By tenure type and region, NSW(b)

1999-2000
2000-01
2002-03
2003-04(c)
2005-06
%
%
%
%
%

SYDNEY

Owner without a mortgage
4
4
4
4
3
Renters
State housing authority(d)
19
22
17
25
24
Private landlord
49
23
*28
34
38
Total renters(e)
29
23
*24
28
31
Total Sydney(f)
6
6
6
6
7

BALANCE OF NSW

Owner without a mortgage
4
4
4
4
5
Renters
State housing authority(d)
21
20
18
22
27
Private landlord
45
33
38
33
47
Total renters(e)
36
29
28
28
38
Total Balance of NSW(f)
6
7
6
6
7

NSW

Owner without a mortgage
4
4
4
4
4
Renters
State housing authority(d)
20
21
17
24
25
Private landlord
47
29
*31
33
41
Total renters(e)
32
26
25
28
34
Total NSW(f)
6
7
6
6
7

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
(a) Excludes households with nil or negative total income.
(b) Comparisons between different tenure and landlord types should be made with caution. For further information see Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia, 2005-06 (cat. no. 4130.0.55.001), paragraphs 13-22 of the Explanatory Notes.
(c) Estimates for 2003-04 have been revised to include all salary sacrificed income and housing costs, in line with the treatment in 2005-06.
(d) The household pays rent to a state housing authority or trust.
(e) Includes 'Other landlord type'. 'Other landlord type' includes households paying rent to the owner/manager of a caravan park, an employer (including a government authority), a housing cooperative, a community or church group, or any other body not included elsewhere.
(f) Includes 'Owners with a mortgage' and 'Other tenure type'.
Source: ABS data available on request, Survey of Income and Housing; Housing Occupancy and Costs, Australia, 2005-06 (cat. no. 4130.0.55.001).


Households are sometimes reimbursed some or all of their housing costs, however these reimbursements are not collected by the ABS Survey of Income and Housing. Commonwealth Rental Assistance (CRA), paid by the Australian Government to qualifying recipients of income support payments and family tax benefit, is the most relevant type of reimbursement.

CRA is a non-taxable income supplement paid through Centrelink to individuals and families who rent in the private rental market. It aims to address basic living costs by reducing the proportion of an income unit's budget that had to be spent on housing.

1.21 INCOME UNITS IN RECEIPT OF COMMONWEALTH RENTAL ASSISTANCE, By age of principal client, household type and proportion of income spent on rent, NSW(a) - June 2007

Number
Proportion
Under 45 years
45-54 years
55-64 years
65-74 years
75-84 years
85 years and over
Total persons
Under 45 years
45-54 years
55-64 years
65-74 years
75-84 years
85 years and over
Total persons
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
no.
%
%
%
%
%
%
%

Lone person-Female
30% or less
11 770
5 231
6 656
8 334
7 107
2 861
41 959
40.4
46.9
52.8
63.1
69.3
72.4
52.3
More than 30%
17 351
5 914
5 957
4 873
3 151
1 088
38 334
59.6
53.1
47.2
36.9
30.7
27.6
47.7
Total
29 121
11 145
12 613
13 207
10 258
3 949
80 293
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Lone person-Male
30% or less
17 820
7 707
6 870
7 009
3 732
609
43 747
44.8
55.8
60.1
67.1
70.8
70.2
53.6
More than 30%
21 942
6 095
4 553
3 429
1 541
258
37 818
55.2
44.2
39.9
32.9
29.2
29.8
46.4
Total
39 762
13 802
11 423
10 438
5 273
867
81 565
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Lone parent
30% or less
45 746
6 293
687
124
np
np
52 871
69.1
64.3
66.8
72.5
np
np
68.4
More than 30%
20 504
3 498
342
47
np
np
24 391
30.9
35.7
33.2
27.5
np
np
31.6
Total
66 250
9 791
1 029
171
np
np
77 266
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
np
np
100.0
Couple only
30% or less
1 990
1 826
4 284
6 798
4 581
584
20 063
48.5
57.4
63.4
72.9
78.3
77.9
67.0
More than 30%
2 113
1 356
2 471
2 521
1 270
166
9 897
51.5
42.6
36.6
27.1
21.7
22.1
33.0
Total
4 103
3 182
6 755
9 319
5 851
750
29 960
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Couple with children
30% or less
38 288
4 406
766
181
np
np
43 673
77.7
68.7
62.1
69.6
np
np
76.3
More than 30%
10 993
2 009
467
79
np
np
13 556
22.3
31.3
37.9
30.4
np
np
23.7
Total
49 281
6 415
1 233
260
np
np
57 229
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
np
np
100.0
Total
30% or less
115 614
25 463
19 263
22 446
15 472
4 055
202 313
61.3
57.4
58.3
67.2
72.1
72.8
62.0
More than 30%
72 903
18 872
13 790
10 949
5 973
1 513
124 000
38.7
42.6
41.7
32.8
27.9
27.2
38.0
Total(b)
188 517
44 335
33 053
33 395
21 445
5 568
326 313
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) 'Rent minus CRA' as a proportion of 'Gross income minus CRA'.
(b) Excludes 1,373 recipients where there are missing values for age, income and rent. The overall total number of recipients was 327,686.
Source: Australian Government Housing Data Set, June 2007, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.


In 2007, more than half (62%) of all income units that received CRA spent less than 30% of their income on rent. Income units with the reference person aged 85 years and over in NSW recorded the largest proportion of those income units spending 30% or less of their income on rent (73%). The age group in which the smallest proportion of CRA recipients spent 30% or less of their income on rent were income units with the reference persons aged 45-54 years.

1.22 INCOME UNITS IN RECEIPT OF COMMONWEALTH RENTAL ASSISTANCE, By age and proportion of income spent on rent, NSW - 2007
Graph: 1.22 Income Units in Receipt of Commonwealth Rental Assistance, By age and proportion of income spent on rent, NSW—2007

Health costs

Of those with health insurance, the most common type of private health insurance cover for people aged 45 years and over was 'both hospital and ancillary cover' (73%), with the 45-54 year age group at 76%. 'Hospital cover only' was more commonly reported than 'Ancillary cover only' by people in older age groups (39% in the 75 years and over age group and 23% in the 65-74 years age group).

1.23 TYPE OF PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE, By selected ages, NSW - 2004-05

Age group (years)
45-54
55-64
65-74
75 and over
Total persons aged 45
years and over
%
%
%
%
%

Hospital cover only
17.9
20.6
22.5
39.2
21.6
Ancillary cover only
5.9
*3.7
*6.0
**2.3
4.9
Both hospital and ancillary cover
75.9
74.4
71.5
57.5
72.9
Total persons with private health insurance('000)(a)
580.7
420.2
220.9
134.2
1 356.0

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
(a) Includes insured persons for whom type of cover was not known.
Source: National Health Survey: Summary of Results; State Tables, 2004-05 (cat. no. 4362.0).

1.24 PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE, By selected ages, NSW - 2004-05
Graph: 1.24 PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE, By selected ages, NSW—2004–05


Many people aged 65 years and over have a government issued health care card. These cards provide a range of health benefits depending upon the type of card. All provide access to less expensive pharmaceuticals. Almost all males aged 75 years and over (98%), and 90% of females 75 years and over, had a government health card in 2004-05.

1.25 GOVERNMENT HEALTH CARE CARD HOLDERS, By selected ages and sex, NSW - 2004-05

45-54
55-64
65-74
75 and over
Total persons aged
45 years and over
45-54
55-64
65-74
75 and over
Total persons aged
45 years and over
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
%
%
%
%
%

MALES

With government health care card
58.1
99.9
193.9
160.1
512.1
12.9
28.0
85.4
98.4
19.5
Without government health care card
369.4
238.4
33.1
**2.7
643.5
81.7
66.8
14.6
**1.7
24.5
Total males(a)
452.0
356.7
227.0
162.7
2 621.6
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

FEMALES

With government health care card
98.0
144.5
216.8
200.9
660.2
21.4
41.0
89.9
90.4
24.6
Without government health care card
328.5
186.4
22.4
*18.8
556.1
71.8
52.8
9.3
*8.5
20.7
Total females(a)
457.6
352.8
241.2
222.3
2 686.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

PERSONS

With government health care card
156.1
244.4
410.8
360.9
1 172.2
17.2
34.4
87.7
93.7
22.1
Without government health care card
697.9
424.8
55.4
*21.4
1 199.5
76.7
59.9
11.8
*5.6
22.6
Total persons(a)
909.6
709.5
468.2
385.1
5 308.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
(a) Includes those who did not know whether they had a government health card.
Source: National Health Survey: Summary of Results: State Tables, 2004-05 (cat. no. 4362.0); ABS data available on request, National Survey of Health, 2004-05.

1.5 LIVEABLE HOMES AND COMMUNITIES

Where people live

The 2006 Census of Population and Housing asked people to state their address of usual residence on Census night and five years previously. Of people who lived in NSW in 2006 around three-quarters of those aged 45 years and above did not move house between the two dates. The propensity to move declined as age increased, with 30% of people aged 45-54 years in 2006 having moved in the previous five years compared to 20% of people aged 65 years and over.

The origin of movers varied between areas. A larger proportion of interstate migration is more likely in areas bordering other states. For example, while 1.2% of 45-54 year old persons living in Sydney SD in 2006 had moved from interstate, for Murray and South Eastern SDs 9.1% and 8.3% respectively had moved from interstate. For each of the age groups shown in the table below, movers to Murray SD were more likely to have moved from interstate (probably Victoria) than from elsewhere within NSW. Although most movers into the SDs of Richmond-Tweed, South Eastern and Far West came from within NSW, a large proportion had come from interstate. In contrast, movers to Sydney and Hunter SDs were most likely to have moved from elsewhere within NSW.

1.26 PLACE OF USUAL RESIDENCE, By selected ages, NSW Statistical Divisions - 2006

Usual address 5 years previously
Same address
Different address - Within same Statistical Local Area
Different address - Elsewhere in NSW
Different address - Interstate
Different address - Overseas
Total with different address
Total persons(a)
Total persons(a)
Statistical Division
%
%
%
%
%
%
%
no.

45-54 YEARS

Sydney
70.4
10.5
14.5
1.2
3.2
29.4
100.0
520 468
Hunter
69.9
12.1
15.1
1.8
0.9
29.9
100.0
78 439
Illawarra
70.9
14.0
12.2
1.6
1.1
28.9
100.0
52 121
Richmond-Tweed
62.3
14.5
14.8
6.7
1.3
37.3
100.0
32 442
Mid-North Coast
62.2
16.9
16.2
3.5
0.9
37.6
100.0
40 862
Northern
67.9
14.3
13.6
3.2
0.7
31.8
100.0
23 081
North Western
70.3
14.2
12.4
2.3
0.5
29.4
100.0
14 583
Central West
70.2
14.7
12.7
1.7
0.6
29.6
100.0
22 563
South Eastern
65.2
13.7
11.6
8.3
1.0
34.6
100.0
28 376
Murrumbidgee
70.2
15.4
10.4
2.8
1.0
29.5
100.0
19 056
Murray
68.5
13.9
7.7
9.1
0.6
31.3
100.0
15 411
Far West
74.5
13.7
5.5
5.7
0.4
25.2
100.0
3 142
New South Wales(b)
69.3
11.9
14.1
2.1
2.3
30.4
100.0
851 708

55-64 YEARS

Sydney
78.9
6.9
11.4
0.8
1.9
21.0
100.0
395 078
Hunter
73.5
8.8
15.5
1.5
0.6
26.3
100.0
66 912
Illawarra
73.3
9.7
14.4
1.8
0.8
26.6
100.0
44 623
Richmond-Tweed
64.9
10.9
14.5
8.4
1.1
34.9
100.0
25 717
Mid-North Coast
64.1
11.6
19.2
4.1
0.8
35.7
100.0
37 498
Northern
73.4
10.7
12.3
3.1
0.4
26.5
100.0
20 246
North Western
75.4
10.1
12.0
2.1
0.3
24.5
100.0
12 481
Central West
75.3
10.3
12.3
1.4
0.5
24.5
100.0
19 658
South Eastern
68.2
9.6
12.8
8.5
0.8
31.7
100.0
25 037
Murrumbidgee
77.1
10.5
9.3
2.6
0.5
22.8
100.0
15 086
Murray
72.1
9.9
7.0
10.5
0.4
27.8
100.0
12 881
Far West
81.1
8.0
5.4
5.1
0.3
18.7
100.0
2 662
New South Wales(b)
75.7
8.2
12.6
2.1
1.4
24.2
100.0
678 940

65 YEARS AND OVER

Sydney
81.5
6.2
10.2
0.6
1.3
18.2
100.0
461 085
Hunter
79.4
7.8
11.2
0.9
0.3
20.2
100.0
87 170
Illawarra
79.4
8.7
10.3
0.9
0.4
20.3
100.0
61 412
Richmond-Tweed
72.6
10.0
10.8
5.6
0.6
27.0
100.0
36 501
Mid-North Coast
72.7
11.4
12.8
2.3
0.4
26.9
100.0
51 956
Northern
78.2
10.1
9.5
1.7
0.2
21.6
100.0
24 735
North Western
78.3
10.9
9.2
1.2
0.2
21.5
100.0
15 089
Central West
79.2
10.2
9.1
1.1
0.2
20.6
100.0
24 438
South Eastern
76.5
10.0
8.9
3.9
0.3
23.2
100.0
29 045
Murrumbidgee
80.2
10.6
7.3
1.3
0.2
19.5
100.0
19 810
Murray
76.2
11.0
5.4
6.9
0.2
23.6
100.0
16 828
Far West
85.8
8.4
2.8
2.7
0.1
14.0
100.0
3 589
New South Wales(b)
79.6
7.7
10.2
1.3
0.9
20.1
100.0
832 351

(a) Excludes persons who did not state their usual residence in 2001. Includes people who stated that they lived at a different usual address in 2001 but did not state that address.
(b) Includes 'Offshore Areas and Migratory' and 'No usual residence'.
Source: ABS data available on request, Census of Population and Housing, 2006.

Housing

Policy makers, planners and researchers are increasingly interested in the changing patterns of how people live, their approach to tenure and changes to their housing situation. How families and individuals group together to form households is continuing to evolve as a result of various demographic and social trends.

An important aspect of housing associated with individual well-being is whether or not occupants own their dwellings. Households who have purchased their own home are widely considered to enjoy benefits not so readily available to renters. These include greater security in being able to stay at that dwelling and the freedom to modify the dwelling to suit household tastes without reference to a landlord and as a key means for expressing their identity. Home ownership also provides financial security to the owner when it represents the accumulation of assets.

The changes in living arrangements which males aged 85 years and over undertake are different to those of females of the same age group; this is partly due to the fact that females have longer life expectancy. Overall, there has been little change from 2001 to 2006 in NSW; the majority live with a partner while females aged 75-84 years and 85 years and over are most likely to live alone. In 2006, the difference in living arrangements between males and females was particularly evident for the 75 years and over age group as 72% of males aged 75-84 years lived with a partner whereas 38% of females lived with a partner. Of males aged 85 years and over 56% lived with a partner while 15% of females of the same age group lived with a partner. This result could be a reflection of various reasons such as the fact that females live longer than males and are likely to outlive their partners, and people moving from private dwellings to non-private dwellings. Living with others was more common amongst females than males for all 10 year age groups older than 45 years.

1.27 LIVING ARRANGEMENTS IN OCCUPIED PRIVATE DWELLINGS, By selected ages and sex, NSW(a)

2001
2006
45-54 years
55-64 years
65-74 years
75-84 years
85 years
and over
45-54 years
55-64 years
65-74 years
75-84 years
85 years
and over

Males
Living with partner(b) %
78.0
79.4
77.6
71.3
54.2
76.0
78.0
77.6
72.0
56.4
Living with others(c) %
11.3
8.3
7.2
8.0
14.6
12.0
8.5
6.8
7.4
12.7
Living alone %
10.8
12.4
15.3
20.6
31.2
12.1
13.5
15.7
20.6
30.9
Total males %
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Total males '000
391.9
273.3
191.9
106.8
21.1
403.2
323.3
200.8
123.8
27.2
Females
Living with partner(b) %
74.3
71.0
57.8
34.9
13.5
72.5
70.1
60.1
37.9
15.3
Living with others(c) %
17.1
13.4
14.4
18.3
28.2
18.7
13.5
13.4
17.9
26.2
Living alone %
8.6
15.6
27.8
46.8
58.3
8.8
16.4
26.5
44.2
58.4
Total females %
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Total females '000
401.7
272.4
210.6
146.9
39.3
426.7
327.3
216.2
159.7
47.8
Total persons '000
793.6
545.6
402.5
253.6
60.4
829.9
650.6
417.0
283.5
74.9

(a) Based on place of enumeration. Excludes overseas visitors and visitors from within Australia.
(b) Includes husband, wife or partner in registered, de facto or same sex de facto marriage. Based on individuals relationship to the family reference person. Children aged 25 years and over with a child or partner of his/her own are classified according to that relationship. Others present within the family or household are included in living with others.
(c) Includes lone parents, non-dependent children, other related individuals, unrelated individuals living in family households and group household members. Based on individual's relationship to the family reference person or, when the person is not part of a family, that person's relationship to the household reference person.
Source: ABS data available of request, Census of Population and Housing.


Home ownership is an aspiration for many Australians, an aspiration that has been referred to as the 'great Australian dream'. This is reflected in large proportions of owners amongst people aged 45 years and over. In 2006, the majority of people in NSW who were aged 45 years and over lived in an owner occupied private dwelling, with the exception of females aged 85 years and over group of whom less than half (49%) lived in an owner occupied private dwelling.

In 2006, the majority of males and females aged 85 years and over lived in occupied private dwellings. In 2006, 61% of males aged 85 years and over lived in owner occupied dwellings, 9% were renters and 20% were tenants of non-private dwellings. By contrast, 49% of females aged 85 years and over lived in owner occupied dwellings, 8% were renters and 33% were tenants of non-private dwellings.

1.28 TENURE AND LANDLORD TYPE(a), By selected ages and sex, NSW - 2006

Age group (years)
45-54
55-64
65-74
75-84
85 and over

MALES

Occupied private dwellings
Owner
Owner without a mortgage %
27.8
50.4
67.7
67.5
54.7
Owner with a mortgage(b) %
43.0
25.0
8.6
4.5
4.1
Being occupied under a life tenure scheme(c) %
0.1
0.1
0.4
1.4
2.2
Total owners %
70.9
75.6
76.7
73.4
61.0
Renters
State or Territory housing authority %
3.1
3.3
4.0
3.6
2.7
Private(d) %
15.0
10.3
7.0
4.9
3.5
Other(c)(e) %
1.3
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.5
Landlord type not stated %
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.8
Total renters %
20.1
15.3
12.8
10.5
8.6
Other tenure type %
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.8
Tenure type not stated %
5.9
6.0
6.8
8.7
10.0
Total in occupied private dwellings %
97.2
97.2
96.7
93.1
80.4
Non-private dwelling
Cared accommodation(f) %
0.4
0.7
1.8
5.7
18.8
Other non-private accommodation %
2.4
2.1
1.5
1.2
0.7
Type of non-private dwelling not stated %
-
-
-
-
0.1
Total in non-private dwellings %
2.8
2.8
3.3
6.9
19.6
Total males %
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Total males no.
443 684
357 279
223 854
141 925
35 979

FEMALES

Occupied private dwellings
Owner
Owner without a mortgage %
32.2
57.0
68.3
62.2
43.5
Owner with a mortgage(b) %
41.3
20.6
7.9
5.4
3.8
Being occupied under a life tenure scheme(c) %
0.1
0.2
0.7
1.9
2.0
Total owners %
73.6
77.7
76.9
69.6
49.3
Renters
State or Territory housing authority %
4.3
4.4
5.1
4.7
3.1
Private(d) %
13.7
8.9
6.4
4.5
2.9
Other(c)(e) %
1.2
1.0
1.2
1.5
1.6
Landlord type not stated %
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.9
0.7
Total renters %
19.7
14.9
13.4
11.5
8.3
Other tenure type %
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.8
0.9
Tenure type not stated %
5.1
5.3
6.6
9.1
8.7
Total in occupied private dwellings %
98.7
98.3
97.3
91.0
67.2
Non-private dwelling
Cared accommodation(f) %
0.3
0.6
1.7
8.2
32.2
Other non-private accommodation %
1.0
1.1
1.0
0.8
0.5
Type of non-private dwelling not stated %
-
-
-
0.1
0.1
Total in non-private dwellings %
1.3
1.7
2.7
9.0
32.8
Total females %
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Total females no.
457 198
356 681
238 366
186 095
75 479

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Based on place of enumeration. Excludes overseas visitors. Please note the total number of persons does not equal the total number of households in NSW.
(b) Includes 'Being purchased' and 'Being purchased under a rent/buy scheme'.
(c) May include people living in retirement villages.
(d) Includes 'Renting from real estate agent' and 'Renting from person not in the same household (parent/other relative/other person)'.
(e) Includes persons living in Residential parks (includes caravan parks and marinas), renting from employer (both government (includes Defence Housing Authority) and other employer) and housing co-operative/community/church group.
(f) Includes persons living in hospitals, nursing homes, cared accommodation for the retire/aged, hostels for the disabled, childcare institutions and other welfare institutions.
Source: ABS data available on request, Census of Population and Housing, 2006.

Mobility

People's mobility - that is their ability to commute to work, to access products and services, attend entertainment and to visit friends and family - plays an important role in determining people's quality of life. Aside from walking and cycling, transport can be either private (cars, motorcycles, etc) or public (trains, buses, taxis, ferries etc).

Use of private transport is influenced by the ability to gain and hold a licence, the cost of keeping motor vehicles (such as insurance, maintenance and petrol), the ability to borrow a vehicle when needed and the availability of friends or family to provide transport to passengers.

In 2008, 81% of females and 92% of males aged 25 years and over had a licence. The proportion of people with a licence peaked among males aged 55-64 years (98%) and females aged 35-44 years (91%), then declined in the later age groups. For example, 86% of males aged 75-79 years and 42% of males aged 85 years and over were licensed in 2008, while for females in those age groups the respective figures were 57% and 11%.

In each age group the proportion of licensed females was lower than males. However, the proportion of females with licences has increased over time as societal norms have changed. This means that now and in the future older females are more likely to have a driver's licence.

1.29 LICENSED DRIVERS(a), By selected ages and sex, NSW - At 30 June

1998(b)
2003(b)
2008(b)
'000
% licensed
'000
% licensed
'000
% licensed

MALES

Age group (years)
25-34
435.4
90.5
429.4
88.6
419.4
87.2
35-44
461.2
94.2
468.2
93.7
466.5
94.2
45-54
395.2
94.1
424.3
94.6
455.7
97.0
55-64
259.0
91.7
318.4
93.3
372.8
98.1
65-69
103.7
87.7
108.7
89.8
126.1
95.5
70-74
87.5
85.9
91.4
87.2
96.9
91.8
75-79
58.6
81.8
69.9
83.7
74.4
85.7
80-84
24.6
62.8
33.5
65.8
42.9
72.4
85 and over
6.9
29.6
10.7
35.3
16.2
41.6
Total males aged 25 years and over
1 832.0
90.4
1 954.6
90.3
2 070.9
92.1

FEMALES

Age group (years)
25-34
419.3
86.5
424.6
86.6
417.2
86.4
35-44
429.2
87.4
445.8
88.7
459.7
91.4
45-54
345.3
84.0
388.6
86.2
430.7
90.0
55-64
203.3
72.9
266.2
79.3
331.0
86.8
65-69
76.0
61.4
84.5
67.3
105.0
76.9
70-74
63.3
53.6
69.5
60.3
78.1
68.1
75-79
40.8
42.5
52.8
50.4
59.1
57.0
80-84
14.2
21.7
21.6
27.7
30.7
36.3
85 and over
2.8
5.0
5.0
7.3
8.7
10.9
Total females aged 25 years and over
1 594.2
75.0
1 758.5
77.4
1 920.2
81.2

(a) Includes learner drivers and riders.
(b) For 2008 the proportions are calculated based on 2007 estimated resident population. For 1998 and 2003 the calculations are based on the ERP of the same year.
Source: Data available on request, NSW Roads and Traffic Authority; ABS data available on request, Estimated Resident Population (cat. no. 3201.0).


In 2003, participants in the Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers who were aged 60 years and over were asked whether they had a driver's licence and how often they drove. Not only did the proportion of licensed drivers decline with age (from 87% among those aged 60-64 years to 56% among those aged 75 years and over), the proportion of people who drove daily also declined, from around two-thirds of people aged 60-64 years to around one-third of people aged 75 years and over.

1.30 DRIVER STATUS(a), By selected ages, NSW - 2003

60-64
65-74
75 and over
Total persons aged
60 years and over
60-64
65-74
75 and over
Total persons aged
60 years and over
'000
'000
'000
'000
%
%
%
%

Licensed
Licensed and drives daily
185.4
212.7
108.8
506.9
64.9
47.2
30.5
46.4
Licensed and drives at least once a week
52.5
106.7
68.9
228.1
18.4
23.7
19.3
20.9
Licensed and drives less than once a week or not at all
*8.2
27.9
20.9
57.0
*2.9
6.2
5.8
5.2
Total licensed
246.1
347.2
198.6
792.0
86.2
77.1
55.6
72.5
Not licensed
39.3
103.0
158.6
301.0
13.8
22.9
44.4
27.5
Total persons
285.5
450.2
357.3
1 093.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
(a) Persons aged 60 years and over living in private households. Excludes people who did not leave home.
Source: ABS data available on request, Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers, 2003 (cat. no. 4430.0).


The ABS 2006 General Social Survey (the scope of which was persons aged 18 years and over) asked participants about their access to a vehicle to drive and their ease of transport. Among males and females aged 55-64 years, 92% and 82% respectively had access to a vehicle compared to 77% and 48% of those aged 75-84 years. Around 87% of males and 83% of females aged 45-64 years said that they could easily get to the places needed. However, for males and females aged 85 years and over, only 69% and 49% respectively reported that they could easily get to the places needed. It is likely that at least part of this difficulty was due to those people not having access to a vehicle.

1.31 EASE OF TRANSPORT AND ACCESS TO A VEHICLE(a), By selected ages and sex, NSW - 2006

Has access to a motor vehicle to drive
Can easily get to the places needed
Sometimes have difficulty getting
to the places needed
Cannot, or often has difficulty, getting
to the places needed(b)
Total
%
%
%
%
'000

Males

Age group (years)
45-54
88.5
86.4
9.0
*4.7
460.5
55-64
92.4
86.9
*10.6
*2.6
373.4
65-74
85.1
80.3
*16.1
np
232.9
75-84
77.4
78.4
*12.3
*9.3
142.4
85 and over
68.7
68.7
*24.3
np
29.4
Total males aged 18 years and over
86.0
81.5
14.9
3.6
2 527.9

Females

Age group (years)
45-54
86.7
83.0
11.0
6.1
466.8
55-64
82.5
82.8
*11.9
*5.3
371.8
65-74
67.1
72.3
17.4
*10.3
245.6
75-84
48.0
62.4
*20.5
*17.0
170.1
85 and over
np
*49.4
*20.5
*30.1
59.5
Total females aged 18 years and over
77.7
78.1
14.0
7.8
2 596.1

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Only people who were usual residents of private dwellings are covered by the survey.
(b) Includes 'Never go out/housebound'.
Source: ABS data available on request, General Social Survey, 2006 (cat. no. 4159.0).


The 2003 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers asked about persons having difficulty with public transport. It was estimated that 131,800 people aged 60 years and over could not use any form of public transport. An estimated 108,500 people stated that they had difficulty using public transport. For those people who had difficulty with public transport the most commonly cited reasons for the difficulties in use were access difficulties due to steps, getting to stops/stations and lack of seating/difficulty standing.

1.32 ABILITY TO USE SOME OR ALL FORMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT, Persons aged 60 years and over, By reasons for difficulty, NSW(a) - 2003

Can use all forms of public transport
Can use some forms of public transport(b)
Can't use any forms of public transport(c)
'000
%
'000
%
'000
%

Persons having no difficulties with public transport
826.1
92.8
26.6
37.6
. .
. .
Persons having difficulty with public transport
64.3
7.2
44.2
62.4
131.8
100.0
Reasons for difficulty in using public transport
Getting to stops/stations
18.3
28.5
23.3
52.7
43.2
32.8
Access difficulties - steps
45.4
70.6
31.1
70.4
46.7
35.4
Access difficulties - other(d)
*9.1
*14.2
11.8
26.7
18.4
14.0
Lack of seating/difficulty standing
*11.5
*17.9
*13.1
*29.6
*12.7
9.6
Pain or discomfort when sitting/exacerbates condition
*8.6
*13.4
*10.7
*24.2
*16.7
12.7
Crowds/lack of space/anxiety
*5.2
*8.1
*9.0
*20.4
*10.2
*7.7
Other(e)
*9.4
*14.6
*12.0
*27.1
63.7
48.3

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
. . not applicable
(a) Living in private households. Excludes people who did not leave home.
(b) Note that the difficulties refer to the form(s) of public transport that can be used.
(c) Note that the 'difficulties' are reasons that no form of public transport can be used.
(d) Includes 'Access difficulties - doors'.
(e) Comprises 'Inadequate access to toilets', 'Poor ventilation', 'Cognitive difficulties', 'Sight problems' and 'Other'.
Source: ABS data available on request, Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers, 2003 (cat. no. 4430.0).


In 2003, participants in the Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers were asked about travel taken for activities in the last fortnight. Some 95% of both males and females aged 60 years and over (who were not living in supported accommodation) had made a journey in the last fortnight. Over four-fifths of both males and females reported they had gone shopping in the last fortnight, around two-thirds had visited relatives or friends and one-half had visited a General Practitioner or medical specialist.

1.33 TRAVEL TAKEN FOR ACTIVITIES IN LAST FORTNIGHT(a), By selected ages, sex and type of activity, NSW - 2003

60-64 years
65-74 years
75 years and over
Total persons aged
60 years and over
Males
Females
Males
Females
Males
Females
Males
Females

Made a journey last fortnight %
96.5
97.3
95.7
95.0
92.1
93.6
94.9
95.0
Did not make a journey in the last fortnight %
*3.5
*2.7
*4.3
*5.0
*7.9
6.4
5.1
5.0
Type of activity
Participated in sporting activities %
22.3
16.7
23.2
14.5
18.9
9.6
21.7
13.2
Visited general practitioner %
30.0
29.5
39.3
36.0
38.6
41.7
36.5
36.5
Visited medical specialist %
9.9
12.9
15.4
9.8
16.6
16.9
14.2
13.1
Went to church or place of worship %
16.5
24.7
21.2
28.3
21.5
26.9
20.0
26.9
Visited relatives or friends %
63.3
75.2
67.2
68.5
57.1
59.0
63.1
66.8
Went shopping %
80.7
91.9
81.7
89.6
80.8
82.1
81.2
87.5
Went to restaurant or club %
52.5
45.6
45.9
47.9
44.0
39.5
47.2
44.4
Went to other activity(b) %
56.0
41.4
29.5
22.3
13.9
10.6
32.4
22.8
Total persons(c) '000
143.3
142.2
216.4
233.8
149.1
208.2
508.8
584.2

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
(a) Persons aged 60 years and over living in private households. Excludes people who did not leave home.
(b) Includes travel to work, school or other educational institution.
(c) The total may be less than the sum of the components because a person can travel to more than one activity.
Source: ABS data available on request, Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers, 2003 (cat. no. 4430.0).


In the Greater Metropolitan Region in 2006, some 3.2 million journeys were made on an average day by people aged 45-54 years while people aged 85 years and over made 84,000 journeys. Aside from trips returning to home, the most common purpose of journey for all ages groups was shopping. The proportion of trips to work and other work related business varied by age from 19% of the journeys made by 45-54 year olds to 4.6% of the journeys made by 65-74 year olds.

1.34 PURPOSE OF JOURNEY(a)(b), By selected ages, Greater Metropolitan Region(c) - 2006(d)
Graph: 1.34 PURPOSE OF JOURNEY(a)(b), By selected ages, Greater Metropolitan Region(c)—2006(d)

1.35 PURPOSE AND LENGTH OF JOURNEY(a)(b), By selected ages, Greater Metropolitan Region(c) - 2006(d)

45-54 years
55-64 years
65-74 years
75-84 years
85 years and over
Journeys
Average travel time
Journeys
Average travel time
Journeys
Average travel time
Journeys
Average travel time
Journeys
Average travel time
Purpose of journey
%
min.
%
min.
%
min.
%
min.
%
min.

Home
34.3
21.7
34.6
21.8
35.4
19.8
35.3
20.0
37.4
19.9
Shopping
13.9
14.2
16.1
14.0
20.4
14.1
22.1
14.4
19.7
14.2
Entertainment
5.7
18.7
6.7
19.2
9.0
20.7
9.0
21.6
9.4
16.6
Social visits
4.4
22.5
6.0
25.9
6.7
25.5
6.8
23.2
7.4
30.4
Recreation
3.9
22.0
5.1
23.3
5.4
22.3
5.2
23.4
7.2
27.7
Work related business
8.1
26.3
7.4
28.6
2.3
25.1
1.4
20.1
-
. .
Go to main job
8.1
29.6
5.8
29.3
1.7
25.9
0.8
18.9
0.2
2.0
Return to main job
2.7
11.5
2.0
11.8
0.6
12.6
0.2
13.4
0.2
5.0
Personal business/services
4.5
17.2
6.0
17.8
7.2
15.3
8.7
14.1
9.9
15.7
Medical/dental
0.9
19.2
1.2
22.4
1.8
18.0
2.8
17.8
2.8
20.9
To drop off/pick-up someone
9.8
14.3
5.8
17.1
4.9
13.7
4.1
15.7
1.7
7.7
To accompany someone
1.5
17.7
1.4
21.9
2.5
16.9
2.5
14.8
3.3
18.8
Sport (participate)
0.8
17.6
0.9
16.2
1.3
13.7
1.0
14.2
0.4
14.0
Sport (spectate)
0.4
22.5
0.2
17.2
0.2
34.1
0.1
26.7
0.2
15.0
Holiday
0.3
132.3
0.4
75.9
0.4
66.2
0.2
89.2
0.1
270.0
Total journeys ('000)(e)
3 164.1
. .
2 077.9
. .
1 135.8
. .
570.6
. .
83.8
. .

. . not applicable
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
(a) Refers to linked trips. See Glossary.
(b) Persons in occupied private dwellings only. Data is for an average day. See Glossary.
(c) The Greater Metropolitan Region comprises Sydney SD, Illawarra SD and Newcastle SSD.
(d) Data is based on pooled data from five waves of the Household Travel Survey (2002-03 to 2006-07) weighted to the June 2006 population.
(e) The sum of the components does not equal the total as not all journey purposes have been shown.
Source: Data available on request, Household Travel Survey 2006, Transport Data Centre, NSW Ministry of Transport.


In 2006, older people in the Greater Metropolitan Area took fewer trips on an average day than younger people. In 2006, males and females aged 75 years and over took an average of 3.0 and 2.4 trips per day, compared to 4.3 trips per day for both males and females aged 45-54 years. At all ages males were more likely than females to be a vehicle driver, with females more likely to be a passenger. However, the likelihood of both males and females being the vehicle passenger increased with age. The relative proportion of both males and females making walk only trips increased with age.

1.36 METHOD AND FREQUENCY OF TRAVEL, By selected ages and sex, Greater Metropolitan Region(a) - 2006

45-54 years
55-64 years
65-74 years
75 years
and over
Males
Females
Males
Females
Males
Females
Males
Females

Method of travel
Vehicle - driver %
73.9
60.3
71.9
49.1
64.9
36.8
54.8
26.2
Vehicle - passenger %
5.4
17.5
6.8
22.5
7.8
30.2
10.6
28.8
Walk only %
13.7
15.9
14.9
20.5
20.2
22.8
25.5
30.3
Bus %
1.9
2.4
2.3
3.6
2.8
5.3
5.1
8.9
Train %
3.0
2.5
2.5
2.9
2.2
3.1
2.0
2.3
Taxi %
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.3
1.2
Other(b) %
1.6
0.8
1.1
1.0
1.4
1.4
1.7
2.4
Total trips(c) '000
1 562.4
1 687.0
1 084.5
1 052.4
617.2
553.9
333.9
341.3
Average daily trips no.
4.3
4.3
4.0
3.6
3.6
3.0
3.0
2.4

(a) The Greater Metropolitan Region comprises Sydney SD, Illawarra SD and Newcastle SSD.
(b) Includes ferry, bicycle, light rail, monorail and aircraft.
(c) Refers to unlinked trips. See Glossary.
Source: Data available on request, Household Travel Survey 2006, Transport Data Centre, NSW Ministry of Transport.
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