3311.4 - Demography, South Australia, 2001  
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Age-specific death rates

Age-specific death rates are the number of deaths (occurred or registered) during the calendar year at a specified age per 1,000 of the estimated resident population of the same age at 30 June. The infant mortality rate is used for the age-specific death rate for children under one year of age. Pro rata adjustment is made in respect of deaths for which the age of deceased is not given.


Age-specific divorce rates

Age-specific divorce rates are the number of divorces recorded in the calendar year, by age at decree made absolute, per 1,000 of the estimated resident population of the same age at 30 June. Males under 18 and females under 16 are excluded from the population.


Age-specific fertility rates

Age-specific fertility rates are the number of live births (occurred or registered) during the calendar year, according to the age of mother, per 1,000 of the female resident population of the same age at 30 June. For calculating these rates, births to mothers aged under 15 years are included in the 15 - 19 years age group, and births to mothers aged 50 years and over are included in the 45 - 49 years age group. Pro rata adjustment is made for births for which the age of mother is not given.


Age-specific marriage rates

Age-specific marriage rates are the number of marriages of males or females registered in a calendar year, by age at marriage, per 1,000 of the estimated resident population in the same age at 30 June. Males and females aged under 15 years are excluded from the population.


Birth

The delivery of a child, irrespective of the duration of the pregnancy, who, after being born, breathes or shows any other evidence of life such as a heartbeat.


Category jumping

Category jumping is the term used to describe changes between intended and actual duration of stay of travellers to/from Australia, such that their classification as short-term or as long-term/permanent movers is different at arrival/departure from that after 12 months. Category jumping consists of two components -- an Australian resident component and an overseas visitor component. The Australian resident component of category jumping for a reference quarter is estimated by comparing the number of residents departing short-term in that quarter with all residents who left in that quarter and return in the following 12 months, to obtain the net number of Australian residents who jump category. Similarly, the number of overseas visitors arriving short-term in a quarter is compared with all overseas visitors who arrived in that quarter and depart in the following 12 months, to obtain the net number of overseas visitors who jump category. Estimates of category jumping are derived by subtracting the Australian resident component from the overseas visitor component.


Category of movement

Overseas arrivals and departures are classified according to length of stay (in Australia or overseas), recorded in months and days by travellers on passenger cards. There are three main categories of movement:

  • permanent movements
  • long-term movements (one year or more)
  • short-term movements (less than one year).

A significant number of travellers (i.e. overseas visitors to Australia on arrival and Australian residents going abroad) state exactly 12 months or one year as their intended period of stay. Many of them stay for less than that period and on their departure from, or return to, Australia are therefore classified as short-term.

Accordingly, in an attempt to maintain consistency between arrivals and departures, movements of travellers who report their actual or intended period of stay as being one year exactly are randomly allocated to long-term or short-term in proportion to the number of movements of travellers who report their actual length of stay as up to one month more, or one month less, than one year.


Children (divorce collection)

Children in the divorce collection are unmarried children of the marriage who were aged under 18 years at the time of application for divorce. Under the Family Law Act 1975 (Cwlth), these may include (in certain cases) adopted and exnuptial children and children from a former marriage. Children who are married or aged 18 years or more are not subject to custody and guardianship orders and are excluded.


Children (marriage collection)

Children in the marriage collection refer to persons under 16 years of age born from previous marriages. The term children should not be confused with the term previous births used in births data (see Previous births).


Confinement

A pregnancy which results in at least one live birth.


Crude birth rate

The crude birth rate is the number of live births registered during the calendar year, per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June of that year. For years prior to 1992, the crude birth rate was based on the mean estimated resident population for the calendar year.


Crude death rate

The crude death rate is the number of deaths registered during the calendar year, per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June of that year. For years prior to 1992, the crude death rate was based on the mean estimated resident population for the calendar year.


Crude divorce rate

The crude divorce rate is the number of decrees absolute granted during the calendar year, per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June of that year. For years prior to 1992, the crude divorce rate was based on the mean estimated resident population for the calendar year. In the interpretation of this rate, it must be kept in mind that a large and varying proportion of the population used in the denominator is unmarried or below the minimum age of marriage.


Crude marriage rate

The crude marriage rate is the number of marriages registered during the calendar year, per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June of that year. For years prior to 1992, the crude marriage rate was based on the mean estimated resident population for the calendar year. In the interpretation of this rate, it must be kept in mind that a large and varying proportion of the population used in the denominator is below the minimum age of marriage or is already married.


Date of final separation

The date of final separation is the date, given on the application for divorce, from which the period of living apart is calculated for the purpose of establishing grounds for divorce. In determining the date of final separation, a single period of resumed cohabitation of less than three months may be
ignored, provided the periods of living apart before and after resumed cohabitation amount to a total of 12 months or more.


Divorce

Decree absolute of dissolution of marriage.


Duration of marriage

Duration of marriage is the interval measured in completed years between the date of marriage and the date of divorce.


Duration of marriage until separation

Duration of marriage until separation is the interval measured in completed years between the date of marriage and the date of separation.


Estimated resident population

The official measure of the population of Australia is based on the concept of residence. It refers to all people, regardless of nationality or citizenship, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. It includes usual residents who are overseas for less than 12 months. It excludes overseas visitors who are in Australia for less than 12 months.


Exnuptial birth

An exnuptial birth is the birth of a child whose parents are not legally married to each other at the time of birth.


First marriage rates

First marriage rates are the number of males and females marrying for the first time during the calendar year, per 1,000 population of never married males and females aged 15 years and over at 30 June.


Household

A household is a group of two or more related or unrelated people who usually reside in the same dwelling, who regard themselves as a household and who make common provision for food or other essentials for living; or a person living in a dwelling who makes provision for his or her own food and other essentials for living without combining with any other person. Households include group households of unrelated persons, same-sex couple households, single parent households as well as one-person households. A household usually resides in a private dwelling (including caravans etc. in caravan parks). Persons usually resident in non-private dwellings, such as hotels, motels, boarding houses, jails and hospitals are not included in household estimates.

This definition of a household is consistent with the definition used in the Census. The number of households can be either based on count or estimated resident population.


Indigenous birth

The birth of a live-born child where either the mother or the father was identified as being of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin on the birth registration form. Indigenous births in Indigenous population estimates/projections are those which result by applying assumed age-specific fertility rates to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers in reproductive ages.


Indigenous death

The death of a person who is identified as being of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin on the death registration form.


Indigenous origin

Persons who identify as being of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin.


Infant death

An infant death is the death of a live-born child who dies before completing his or her first birthday.


Infant mortality rate

The number of deaths of children under one year of age in a calendar year per 1,000 live births in the same calendar year.


Intercensal discrepancy

Intercensal discrepancy is the difference between two estimates of a census year population; the first is based on the latest census and the second arrived at by updating the previous census date estimate with intercensal components of population change which take account of information available from the latest census. It is caused by errors in the start and/or finish population estimates and/or in estimates of births, deaths or migration in the intervening period which cannot be attributed to a particular source.


Life expectancy

Life expectancy refers to the average number of additional years a person of a given age and sex might expect to live if the age-specific death rates of the given period continued throughout his or her lifetime.


Long-term arrivals

Long-term arrivals comprise:
  • overseas visitors who intend to stay in Australia for 12 months or more (but not permanently)
  • Australian residents returning after an absence of 12 months or more overseas.


Long-term departures

Long-term departures comprise:
  • Australian residents who intend to stay abroad for 12 months or more (but not permanently)
  • overseas visitors departing who stayed 12 months or more in Australia.


Marital status

Two separate concepts of marital status are measured by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. These are registered marital status and social marital status.

Registered marital status refers to formally registered marriages and divorces. Registered marital status is a person's relationship status in terms of whether he or she has, or has had, a registered marriage with another person. Accordingly, people are classified as either 'never married', 'married', widowed' or 'divorced. Data in this publication refer to registered marital status.

Social marital status is the relationship status of an individual with reference to another person who is usually resident in the household. A marriage exists when two people live together as husband and wife, or partners, regardless of whether the marriage is formalised through registration. Individuals are, therefore, regarded as married if they are in a de facto marriage, or if they are living with the person to whom they are registered as married. Under social marital status, a person is classified as either 'married' or 'not married' with further disaggregation of 'married' to distinguish 'registered married' from 'de facto married' person.


Marriage

Refers to registered marriages only. Under the Marriage Act 1961 (Cwlth), a marriage may be celebrated by a minister of religion registered as an authorised celebrant, by a district registrar or by other persons authorised by the Attorney-General. Notice of the intended marriage must be given to the celebrant at least one calendar month but within six calendar months before the marriage. A celebrant must transmit an official certificate of the marriage for registration in the state or territory in which the marriage took place.


Median value

For any distribution the median value (age, duration, interval) is that value which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, half falling below the value, and half exceeding it. Where the value for a particular record has not been stated, that record is excluded from the calculation.


Multiple birth

A multiple birth is a confinement which results in two or more issue, at least one of which is live-born.


Net interstate migration

The difference between the number of persons who have changed their place of usual residence by moving into a given state or territory and the number who have changed their place of usual residence by moving out of that state or territory during a specified time period. This difference can be either positive or negative.


Net overseas migration

Net overseas migration is net permanent and long-term overseas migration plus an adjustment for the effect of category jumping.


Net reproduction rate

The net reproduction rate represents the average number of daughters that would be born to a group of females if they are subject to the fertility and mortality rates of a given year during their future life. It indicates the extent to which the population would reproduce itself. The net reproduction rate is obtained by multiplying the age-specific fertility rates (for female births only) by the proportion of survivors at corresponding ages in a life table and adding the products.


Nuptial birth

A nuptial birth is the birth of a child born of parents who are legally married at the time of birth.


Nuptial first confinement

A nuptial first confinement is the first confinement in the current marriage and therefore does not necessarily represent the woman's first ever confinement resulting in a live birth.


Nuptiality

Nuptiality relates to the registered marital status of persons and the events such as marriages, divorces and widowhood. Confinements and births are identified as being nuptial where the father registered was married to the mother at the time of birth, or where the husband died during the pregnancy. Confinements and children of Indigenous mothers considered to be tribally married are classified as nuptial. Other confinements, and the children resulting from them, are classified as exnuptial whether or not both parents were living together at the time of birth.


Paternity-acknowledged birth

A paternity-acknowledged birth refers to an exnuptial birth where paternity was acknowledged.


Permanent arrivals (settlers)

Permanent arrivals (settlers) comprise:
  • travellers who hold migrant visas (regardless of stated intended period of stay)
  • New Zealand citizens who indicate an intention to settle
  • those who are otherwise eligible to settle (e.g. overseas-born children of Australian citizens).

This definition of settlers is used by the Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs (DIMIA). Prior to 1985 the definition of settlers used by the ABS was the stated intention of the traveller only. Numerically the effect of the change in definition is insignificant. The change was made to avoid the confusion caused by minor differences between data on settlers published separately by the ABS and DIMIA.


Permanent departures

Permanent departures are Australian residents (including former settlers) who on departure state that they do not intend to return to Australia.


Previous births

Previous births refer to children born alive (who may or may not be living) to a mother prior to the registration of the current birth in the processing period. In some states, legitimised and legally adopted children may also be included.

Due to variation in data collection and processing methods across states and territories, different definitions of the concept of previous births have been applied.

All previous births of the mother includes all births prior to the current confinement, regardless of nuptiality and paternity. Previous births of the current relationship where paternity was acknowledged includes all births prior to the current confinement where the current confinement relates to a nuptial birth, or an exnuptial birth where paternity was acknowledged.


Previous issue

See Previous births.


Remarriage rates

Remarriage rates are the number of remarrying males and females per 1,000 population of widowed and divorced males or females of the same age at 30 June. The rates are separately calculated for widowed or divorced males or females by appropriately adjusting the numerator and denominator of the rates.


Sex ratio

The sex ratio relates to the number of males per 100 females. The sex ratio is defined for total population, at birth, at death and among age groups by appropriately selecting the numerator and denominator of the ratio.


Standardised death rates

Standardised death rates enable the comparison of death rates between populations with different age structures by relating them to a standard population. The ABS standard populations relate to the years ending in 1 (e.g. 1991). The current standard population is all persons in the 1991 Australian population. They are expressed per 1,000 or 100,000 persons. There are two methods of calculating standardised death rates:
  • The direct method - this is used when the populations under study are large and the age-specific death rates are reliable. It is the overall death rate that would have prevailed in the standard population if it had experienced at each age the death rates of the population under study. The direct method is used for comparing states and territory and Australia rates.
  • The indirect method - this is used when the populations under study are small and the age-specific death rates are unreliable or not known. It is an adjustment to the crude death rate of the standard population to account for the variation between the actual number of deaths in the population under study and the number of deaths which would have occurred if the population under study had experienced the age-specific death rates of the standard population. The indirect method is used for comparison of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander rates and Statistical Local Area rates.


State or territory of registration

State or territory of registration refers to the state or territory in which the event was registered or the state or territory in which the divorce was granted. For further information about how this affects divorce see paragraph 33 of the Explanatory Notes.


State or territory of usual residence

State or territory of usual residence refers to the state or territory of usual residence of:
  • the population (estimated resident population)
  • the mother (birth collection)
  • the deceased (death collection).

In the case of overseas movements, state or territory of usual residence refers to the state or territory regarded by the traveller as the one in which he/she lives or has lived. State or territory of intended residence is derived from the intended address given by settlers, and by Australian residents returning after a journey abroad. Particularly in the case of the former, this information does not necessarily relate to the state or territory in which the person will eventually establish a permanent residence.


Statistical Local Areas

Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) consist of one or more Census Collection Districts at a census date. They can be based on legal Local Government areas or parts thereof, or any unincorporated area. They cover, in aggregate, the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. SLAs are used in defining and compiling data at the part of state level. Further details are included in Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0).


Total fertility rate

The sum of age-specific fertility rates (live births at each age of mother per female population of that age). It represents the number of children a woman would bear during her lifetime if she experienced current age-specific fertility rates at each age of her reproductive life.


Year of occurrence

Data presented on year of occurrence basis relate to the date the event occurred.


Year of registration

Data presented on year of registration basis relate to the date the event was registered.