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6102.0 - Labour Statistics: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2001  
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Contents >> Methods >> Household Surveys >> Chapter 19. Labour Force Survey

INTRODUCTION

19.1 The ABS has conducted the Labour Force Survey since 1960. The survey was undertaken on a quarterly basis before February 1978 and has been conducted monthly since then. The design of the survey has remained broadly the same since its introduction, but is regularly updated to ensure that it is the most appropriate for the provision of accurate labour force statistics.

19.2 The purpose of the Labour Force Survey is to provide timely information on the labour market activity of the usually resident civilian population of Australia aged 15 and over. The statistics of most interest each month are the estimates of the number of employed and unemployed people, the unemployment rate and the labour force participation rate. The rate of change in the number of persons employed is a key indicator of the pace of economic growth. The unemployment rate (the percentage of the labour force which is unemployed) is the main measure of unutilised labour, and the participation rate (the percentage of the population in the labour force) reflects changes in total labour availability.


SURVEY OUTPUT

19.3 Data are compiled according to concepts and definitions outlined in Chapters 2-7. Estimates are published monthly, initially in Labour Force, Australia, Preliminary (Cat. no. 6202.0) and later in the more detailed publication Labour Force, Australia (Cat. no. 6203.0). More detailed estimates are available on request.

19.4 Seasonally adjusted and trend (smoothed seasonally adjusted) data are available for selected series (labour force status, industry of employment, and long term unemployed). See Chapter 16 for further explanation of these terms.

19.5 The survey output includes:

Socio-demographic informationSex, age, marital status, relationship in household, family, geographic regional, participation in school and tertiary education, birthplace and year of arrival in Australia.
.
Persons in the labour forceLabour force status, unemployment rate, participation rate and gross changes (flows) in labour force status
.
Persons employedStatus in employment in main job, full-time or part-time status, hours worked in all jobs, job tenure, underemployment, usual hours, hours in main job, preference for working more hours, reason for working less than 35 hours in the reference week, and occupation and industry in main job. Data on occupation, industry, status in employment, and underemployment, are collected in the months February, May, August and November only.
.
Persons unemployedWhether looking for full-time or part-time work, reason for ceasing last job, industry and occupation of last job, duration of unemployment, active steps taken to find work, and whether looking for first job.
.
Persons not in the labour forceWhether looking for work (actively, not actively); marginal attachment to the labour force; permanently unable to work; in institutions.


SCOPE

19.6 The Labour Force Survey includes all usual residents of Australia1 aged 15 and over except:

  • members of the permanent defence forces;
  • certain diplomatic personnel of overseas governments, customarily excluded from census and estimated population counts;
  • overseas residents in Australia; and
  • members of non-Australian defence forces (and their dependants) stationed in Australia.

1. From July 1993, Jervis Bay Territory has been excluded from the scope of the Labour Force Survey.

19.7 Coverage rules are applied to ensure that each person is associated with only one dwelling, and hence has only one chance of selection. The chance of a person being enumerated at two separate dwellings in the one survey is considered to be negligible. Persons who are away from their usual residence for six weeks or less at the time of interview are enumerated at their usual residence (relevant information may be obtained from other usual residents present at the time of the survey).


SURVEY METHODOLOGY

19.8 Labour Force Survey information is obtained by specially trained interviewers, using face to face and telephone interview collection methods, from the occupants of selected dwellings. Interviews are generally conducted during the two weeks beginning on the Monday between the 6th and the 12th of each month. Most information obtained relates to the week before the interview (i.e. the reference week). Selected dwellings remain in the survey for eight consecutive months.

19.9 Prior to August 1996, all interviews were conducted by face to face interview at selected dwellings. Over the period August 1996 to February 1997, the ABS introduced telephone interviewing. The first interview is conducted in person (face to face). Subsequent interviews are then conducted by telephone, provided that this is acceptable to the respondent. Telephone interviewing has been shown to provide data of a quality comparable to that obtained from personal interviews, but requires less interviewer travel time, and hence lowers the costs of the survey.

19.10 Information about each household member in scope of the Labour Force Survey is generally collected from one adult using the ARA methodology (described in Chapter 16).

19.11 Other collection methods are used in special circumstances. A self-enumeration form may be used where it is not possible for an interview to take place - for instance, where contact cannot be made with the occupants of selected dwellings or when a respondent refuses to be interviewed but will complete a form. A customised form is also used for Indigenous people living in sparsely settled and Indigenous strata when interviewers encounter significant cultural and language difficulties, or when other operational difficulties occur such as the availability of suitably trained and skilled interviewers.

19.12 Interviewer workloads are completed and returned for processing according to a strict timetable. Interviewers are required to make a number of attempts to contact a household before recording a non-contact (non-response). Response rates average around 96%.


SAMPLE DESIGN

19.13 A multi-stage probability sample design is used. The sample is drawn from the Population Survey Master Sample and includes both special and private dwellings. The final-stage selection unit is the dwelling. See Chapter 17 for further information. After each Population Census the sample is redesigned and the sampling fractions reset.


SAMPLE SIZE AND ALLOCATION

19.14 The Labour Force Survey is designed to provide reliable estimates of the key labour force statistics for both the whole of Australia and each State and Territory. Its design also yields estimates for a number of broad regions within States.

19.15 From February 1964 until February 1972 all households in Australia had the same probability of selection in the Labour Force Survey (1 in 100), regardless of State or Territory. From May 1972, different sampling fractions applied for each State/Territory. The sampling fractions for the Labour Force Survey set at each post-Census redesign are shown in Table 19.1 below. Additional information about the method and timing of the introduction of each sample redesign is provided in paragraph 19.32 below.


19.1 LABOUR FORCE SURVEY SAMPLE - REDESIGN HISTORY




1971 redesign
.

1976 redesign

1981 redesign

1986 redesign

1991 redesign

1996 redesign

New South Wales
.

1 in 200

1 in 200

1 in 200

1 in 230

1 in 277

1 in 300

Victoria
.

1 in 200

1 in 200

1 in 200

1 in 230

1 in 242

1 in 252

Queensland
.

1 in 140

1 in 140

1 in 140

1 in 160

1 in 195

1 in 222

South Australia
.

1 in 100

1 in 100

1 in 100

1 in 115

1 in 139

1 in 147

Western Australia
.

1 in 90

1 in 90

1 in 100

1 in 115

1 in 146

1 in 160

Tasmania
.

1 in 60

1 in 60

1 in 60

1 in 70

1 in 75

1 in 83

Northern Territory
.

1 in 100

1 in 100

1 in 100

1 in 115

1 in 75

1 in 85

Australian Capital Territory

1 in 200

1 in 100

1 in 100

1 in 115

1 in 75

1 in 85


19.16 Following the full implementation of the 1996 sample redesign (April 1998), the sampling fractions yielded an approximate sample size of 29,000 private dwellings and 500 special dwellings. This resulted in approximately 61,500 people responding to the survey.


SAMPLE ROTATION

19.17 Control of provider load is a concern in all frequently repeated surveys. Since the monthly Labour Force Survey commenced in 1978, one-eighth of the private dwelling sample has been replaced each month. The sample can be thought of as consisting of eight sub-samples (or rotation groups), with each sub-sample remaining in the survey for eight months. A new rotation group is introduced each month to replace an outgoing rotation group. This replacement sample generally comes from the same geographic area as the outgoing one. This results in a seven-eighths common dwelling sample between consecutive surveys, which guarantees a high month-to-month correlation between estimates and contributes to the accuracy of month-to-month estimates of movement.


SAMPLE RESELECTION

19.18 The Labour Force Survey sample is reselected every five years to coincide with the reselection of the Household Survey Master Sample after each Census of Population and Housing.


ESTIMATION

19.19 Post-stratification estimation is used, based on independent population benchmarks at the post-stratum cell level (see Chapter 17 for more information on population benchmarks). Adjustments are also made to account for persons enumerated outside of their State or Territory of usual residence.

19.20 The post-stratification variables used in estimation are:
  • State/Territory of usual residence;
  • part of State of usual residence - (capital city, rest of State);
  • age - ages 15-24 as single years, 5 year age groups to age 69, one group for age 70 and over; and
  • sex.


TIME SERIES ESTIMATES

19.21 Both seasonally adjusted and trend estimates are produced for key series from this survey.

Seasonal adjustment

19.22 Selected monthly series have been seasonally adjusted from February 1978. These and earlier quarterly historical series (from August 1966) can be made available on request. The seasonal factors are reviewed annually to take account of each additional year’s original data. The review takes place in time for the results to be incorporated in each February issue of Labour Force, Australia, Preliminary (Cat. no. 6202.0).

Trend estimates

19.23 Trend estimates are available for selected series dating back to February 1978. Trend estimates are produced by using a centred 13-term Henderson moving average of the seasonally adjusted series for monthly estimates, and a centred 7-term Henderson moving average for quarterly estimates (e.g. employment by industry).

19.24 Revisions of trend estimates occur as data become available for the most recent time periods. There are also revisions resulting from the annual review of seasonal factors (discussed above).


ESTIMATES OF GROSS FLOWS

19.25 Because a high proportion of the private dwellings selected in a survey remains in the sample for the following survey, it is possible to match the characteristics of most of the persons in those dwellings from one month to the next. This makes it possible to record any changes that occur, and hence to produce estimates of 'gross flows' - the number of people who change labour force status between successive months.

19.26 The procedures used to select persons in special dwellings preclude the possibility of matching such people who may be included in successive surveys. Also, the mobility of the population and non-response in either or both surveys means that a proportion of persons in private dwellings who are included in the sample in successive months cannot be matched. Overall, those who can be matched represent about 80% of all persons in the survey. About two-thirds of the remaining (unmatched) 20% of persons in the survey are likely to have characteristics similar to those in the matched group, but the characteristics of the other third are likely to be somewhat different.

19.27 Gross flow estimates relate only to those persons in private dwellings for whom information was obtained in successive surveys. The expansion factors used in calculating the estimates are those applying to the second of each pair of months. The estimates are not adjusted to account for the unmatched sample component.

19.28 Although it is not possible to provide gross flow estimates for all persons in the survey, it is considered that the estimates derived from matched records will be a useful guide to the proportion of the movements between categories which underlie the changes in monthly levels. When comparing flows for different periods it is important to take into account the population represented by the matched sample.

19.29 While every effort is made to reduce non-sampling errors to a minimum, any such errors affecting labour force status will tend to accumulate in the gross flow statistics rather than to cancel out. The estimates are also subject to sampling variability. For these reasons the estimates of flows should be used with caution.


RELIABILITY OF THE ESTIMATES

19.30 Estimates from the survey are subject to both sampling and non-sampling error. The relative standard errors of survey estimates are published in both Labour Force, Australia, Preliminary (Cat. no. 6202.0) and in Labour Force, Australia (Cat. no. 6203.0).

19.31 The split halves variance estimator, with a Taylor series adjustment for the post-stratified estimate, is used to calculate estimates of variance for this survey.


DATA COMPARABILITY OVER TIME

19.32 While seeking to provide a high degree of consistency and comparability over time by minimising changes to the survey, it is nevertheless the case that frequency of collection, collection and sampling methods, concepts, data item definitions, classifications, and time series analysis techniques, are all subject to change or development.

19.33 Some survey features are reviewed regularly, while others are changed as the need arises. Despite the overriding need for long-term comparability, sound survey practice requires careful and continuing maintenance and development to maintain the integrity of the data and the efficiency of the collection.

19.34 While Labour Force Survey publications in various forms exist for a period of over 30 years and provide documentation of changes in survey practice over that time, individual historical publications are not necessarily the best source for extraction of comparable historical data series. Apart from the annual revision of seasonally adjusted and trend series, and the five yearly population benchmark revisions of original, seasonally adjusted and trend series, from time to time other revisions are made to maintain comparability after changes to questions and definitions.

19.35 The primary sources for labour force series adjusted to the most current comparable basis are:
  • AusStats;
  • Labour Force Australia, Historical Summary 1966-1984 (Cat. no. 6204.0) (for quarterly series from August 1966 to November 1977);
  • The Labour Force 1964 to 1968 Historical Supplement (Reference no. 6.22) (February 1964 to May 1966 data, original); and
  • The Labour Force 1977 (Cat. no. 6204.0) for the last release of seasonally adjusted series for February 1964 to May 1966.

19.36 Table 19.2 shows the major events and changes to the survey over its history.


19.2 MAJOR CHANGES TO THE LABOUR FORCE SURVEY

SURVEY
EVENT
Nov 1960Quarterly survey commenced.
State Capital cities only, including persons aged 14 and over, but excluding the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population.
Sample of 1% of households Australia wide, with 1/8 rotation in private dwellings and 1/4 rotation in other dwellings.
.
Nov 1963First release of State Capital city series, November 1960-November 1963 Employment and Unemployment, October 1963 (Ref. no. 6.4) issued February 1964.
Estimates and population benchmarks based on 1961 Census data.
Labour force definitions based on ICLS 1954.
.
Feb 1964Quarterly national survey commenced. Capital city series continue in absence of release of national series.
Capital city estimates and population benchmarks based on 1961 Census data.
.
Aug 1966Scope of survey population reduced to persons aged 15 and over, due to changes in the school leaving age and to conform with definitions used in the 1966 Population Census.
Indigenous population included: see February 1969 revision.
Additional questions introduced on steps taken to find a job. The grouping of hours worked changed to reflect recommendations from ICLS 1961.
Occupation classified according to Classification and Classified List of Occupations (CCLO) 1966 Census edition.
Industry classified according to Classification and Classified List of Industries (CCLI) 1966 Census edition and 1966 Group Employer Place of Work index.
.
Aug 1967Additional questions introduced to better identify employees of incorporated enterprises (some of whom had previously been incorrectly classified as employers or self-employed).
.
Feb 1969 First release of national series in the quarterly publication The Labour Force, Preliminary Estimates, August 1966-February 1969 (Ref. no. 6.20). Subsequent publications titled The Labour Force (Ref. no. 6.20).
Estimates and population benchmarks from February 1964 based on 1966 Census data, State of enumeration/place of usual residence basis from February 64 onwards, including Indigenous population from August 1966 onwards.
.
May 1970First release of national seasonally adjusted series.
.
Jul 1970Annual issue of The Labour Force, Historical Supplement 1964-1968 (Ref. no. 6.22) commenced, subsequent publications titled The Labour Force (Ref. no. 6.22).
.
Aug 1971Classification of trainee teachers changed from 'employed' to 'not in the labour force', in conformity with 1971 Census practice and international recommendations regarding activity principles.
For the period August 1971 to August 1972, industry responses coded to both CCLI and ASIC, leading to full adoption of industry classified according to 1971 Census ASIC (August 1969 Preliminary edition) and 1971 Census Industry/Destination zone employer index from November 1972, and conversion of August 1966-May 1971 industry series to ASIC.
.
Nov 1971Occupation classified according to CCLO 1971 edition, replacing CCLO 1966 version.
.
Feb 1972Questions on country of birth and year of arrival in Australia added. February 1972 data published as supplementary survey results and then quarterly in The Labour Force (Ref. no. 6.20) from May 1972 onwards.
.
May 1972Sample redesign based on 1971 Population Census, phased in from May 1972 to November 1972. Introduction of different sampling fractions across States and Territories, with overall fraction reduced from 1% to 0.67%.
.
Nov 1972First release of preliminary labour force estimates in the quarterly publication The Labour Force (Preliminary) (Ref. no. 6.32), issued in May 1973.
See August 1971 note re industry coding.
.
Nov 1973Seasonal adjustment of estimates for unemployed males, females and persons by separate adjustment of unemployed series by sex (males, females) by age (15-19 years, 20 years and over). Previously, estimates were obtained by a (single) direct adjustment to the total estimate.
Seasonally adjusted unemployment estimates February 1964-August 1973 revised. For final publication of February 1964-May 1966 seasonally adjusted series (1966-based, excluding Indigenous population) see The Labour Force, 1977 (Cat. no. 6204.0).
.
Nov 1974First collection of Relationship in household data. Labour Force Status and Other Characteristics of Families (Cat. no. 6224.0) first published as an irregular. See also Labour Force, Australia (Cat. no. 6203.0) various issues e.g. May 1977, July 1980.
First release of preliminary unemployment estimates in the quarterly publication Unemployment, Preliminary Estimates (Ref. no. 6.31), issued in December 1974.
Relationship in household (and hence families) estimates excluded persons in institutions. 'Family status' imputed for persons in private households where any member was out of scope, absent for 6 weeks or more at survey, or who were a visitor.
Families estimates based on proxy (household head) weight.
.
Feb 1975Estimates excluded Darwin (due to effects of cyclone Tracy).
Respondents asked if they looked for work in the last four weeks (previously looked for work last week). Availability question added.
Unemployment series and definition continued on old basis, with separate publication of new question results until February 1976. Unemployment definition and series based on new questions adopted from May 1976.
.
May 1975Estimates and population benchmarks based on 1971 Census benchmarks. Revisions to August 1966-November 1972 principal series, and from February 1973 onwards, full revision of all estimates and series (including annual seasonal factor re-analysis).
.
May 1976Following February 1975 question changes, definition of unemployment revised to incorporate active job search, and availability to start work in the reference week (with separate provision for temporary illness and future starters). Series revised from February 1975.
.
Aug 1977Catalogue numbers replaced reference numbers - Cat. no. 6202.0 replaced Ref. no. 6.32 and Cat. no. 6203.0 replaced Ref. no. 6.20.
.
Nov 1977In preparation for the start of monthly surveys in February 1978 (with a new questionnaire, revised 1976 Census based sample and 1976 based population benchmarks), two surveys were conducted simultaneously in November 1977.
Of these two surveys, one provided the published November 1977 results, based on the old questionnaire, the old 1971-based sample design (reduced to 0.5%), and the 1971-based population benchmarks.
The other survey, based on the new questionnaire and the new, 1976-based sample, was used to prepare adjustment factors and revisions to historical estimates, so that comparable historical series could be published with the first release of February 1978 survey results.
Occupation classified according to CCLO 1976 edition, replacing CCLO 1971 version.
Industry classified according to ASIC 1969 edition and Integrated Business Register employer index.
Catalogue numbers replaced reference numbers - Cat. no. 6201.0 replaced Ref. no. 6.35.
.
Feb 1978Monthly national survey commenced. The Labour Force Survey adopted as the official national measure of unemployment. Interviews conducted over 2 one-week periods, previously 4 one-week periods.
Estimates and benchmarks based on 1976 Census data, with series from August 1971 onwards revised to 1976-based benchmarks. Complex mix of reweighting unit record files, and/or key series adjustment: not all files, nor all series, were revised (see Labour Force Australia, Historical Summary 1966-1984 (Cat. no. 6204.0) Appendix 1).
With full implementation of the 1976 Census based sample design, 1/8 monthly sample rotation introduced for non-private dwellings: whole sample now subject to 1/8 rotation.
New questionnaire, with substantial redesign of question wording, structure and sequence to improve data quality collected on 0.5% sample, new design. Changes included separate questions on looking for full-time/looking for part-time job; active search more clearly identified, availability and future starters better identified. Some impact on employed, main impact on unemployed seeking part-time work.
New definitions of employment and unemployment adopted. Definition of Unemployed persons looking for first job was revised to "unemployed persons who had never worked full time for two weeks or more". Prior to November 1977 the definition was "unemployed persons who had never had a job".
August 1966-November 1977 series revised to comparable basis, as a result of new questionnaire introduction. Seasonally adjusted series continued on a quarterly basis, pending accumulation of sufficient results to permit adjustment of monthly series.
.
Jul 1979Annual issue of Labour Force Status and Other Characteristics of Families (Cat. no. 6224.0) commenced (July each year except June 1981, then June each year 1986 onwards).
.
Nov 1979Industry classified according to ASIC 1978 edition, replacing ASIC 1969 edition.
.
Aug 1981Occupation classified according to CCLO November 1980 edition, replacing CCLO 1976 version.
.
Nov 1981Minor rewording and re-ordering of categories of steps taken to look for work. No impact on data or definitions.
.
Feb 1982Seasonally adjusted series introduced for monthly estimates series from February 1978 onwards. Annual seasonal factor re-analysis and series revision carried out at February each year from this survey.
.
Oct 1982Full sample flipped-over to sample redesign based on 1981 Population Census including modifications to enable production of regional estimates within States, and estimates by State of usual residence.
Additional questions to identify usual residence and family relationship, with marital status questions reworded and de facto relationships coded as married. Additional identification of persons usually working less than 35 hours per week.
1981 ASGC based Labour Force Statistical Regions classification.
.
Dec 1982 Monthly publication Unemployment, Preliminary (Cat. no. 6101.0) discontinued, final release issued in January 1983.
.
Jul 1983Scope for 'Family status' (and hence families estimates) restricted to usual residents of private dwellings where all usual residents were within the survey scope and present (in on coverage) at survey date. 'Family status' and families estimates thus exclude all persons in non-private dwellings, persons visiting private dwellings, or households where any member was out of scope or absent for 6 weeks or more at survey.
.
Feb 1984Estimates and population benchmarks based on 1981 Census data. Estimates for the period October 1982 onwards revised to full State of usual residence basis on 1981 Census benchmarks. Estimates from February 1978 to September 1982 revised to 1981-based benchmarks but remain on the previous State of enumeration/place of usual residence basis.
.
Sept 1984Monthly publication of Relationship in household and Families estimates in Labour Force, Australia (Cat. no. 6203.0) commences. Scope and estimation as for annual collection.
.
Nov 1984Industry classified according to ASIC 1983 edition, replacing ASIC 1978 edition.
.
Apr 1986Definition of employed persons altered, to include persons working 1 to 14 hours without pay in a family business or farm, in line with ILO definitions (ICLS 1982). Minor question wording and sequence changes in consequence.
Significant break in series for employed, employed part-time, unemployed and related unemployment rates.
Dependants definition, and the Family status item 'full-time student', includes full-time students aged 15-24 (previously aged 15-20).
Weighting of families estimates changed, from proxy (household head) weight to harmonic mean of weights of all responding members of the family.
.
Aug 1986Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) introduced for classification of occupation of persons, replacing CCLO 1981.
.
Sept 1987 to
Dec 1987
Sample redesign based on the 1986 Population Census. New sample phased in. Overall sample fraction 0.6%.
1986 ASGC based Labour Force Statistical Regions classification.
.
Nov 1988Additional unemployment variable introduced: reason for ceasing last job (job losers/job leavers). No change in definition nor break in series.
.
Feb 1989Estimates and population benchmarks based on 1986 Census data. All estimates for the period January 1984 onwards revised.
.
June 1989'Family type' class 'Other families' split into 'One parent families' and 'Other families'.
.
Nov 1989Optical Mark Recognition questionnaire design and data capture method introduced.
.
Sept 1992 to
Dec 1992
Sample redesign based on the 1991 Population Census. New sample phased in. Overall fraction 0.5%.
1991 ASGC based Labour Force Statistical Regions classification.
.
Feb 1993Introduction of seasonally adjusted and trend series for Employed persons by Industry of main job (at Industry Division level).
.
Jul 1993Jervis Bay Territory excluded from the scope of the survey. Prior to this time it was included in estimates for the Australian Capital Territory.
.
Feb 1994Estimates and population benchmarks based on 1991 Census data. All estimates for the period January 1989 onwards revised.
Status in employment class titles amended to reflect ICLS ICSE-93.
.
Mar 1994'Relationship in household' and 'Family type' classifications aligned with ABS standards, resulting in some breaks in comparability with previous Family status and family type classifications.
.
Aug 1994Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) introduced in place of ASIC 1983 edition. Revised historical estimates published of employment by ANZSIC group August 1984 onwards.
.
Aug 1995Seasonally adjusted and trend estimates of long-term unemployment published for the first time.
.
Aug 1996 to Feb 1997Telephone interviewing implemented progressively. Initial impact on data dissipated by end of implementation period.
.
Aug 1996Occupation coded using Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) Second Edition replacing the first edition of ASCO.
.
Sept 1997 to Apr 1998Sample redesign phased in based on the 1996 Population Census. Overall fraction 0.5%.
1996 ASGC based Labour Force Statistical Regions classification.
.
Feb 1999
Estimates and population benchmarks based on 1996 Census data. All estimates for the period January 1995 onwards revised.
.
Feb 2000Computer assisted coding introduced for industry and occupation in place of manual coding and reference to the ABS Business Register. Derivation of status in employment changed to remove reference to the ABS Business Register for limited liability information. Breaks in series for Status in employment, Industry and Occupation series.
.
Mar 2000 to Jul 2000One rotation group each month enumerated by new questionnaire for evaluation purposes. Data converted to existing definitions at estimation stage.
.
Sept 2000NSW enumeration one week early to allow for Olympic Games.
.
Apr 2001New questionnaire implemented. New or extended data on: job tenure; underemployment; hours worked; duration of unemployment; and marginal attachment to the labour force. Minor definitional changes to employment and unemployment relating to: short term absences; unavailability due to illness; and contributing family workers (ICLS 1982, ICSE-93, ICLS 1998).
.
Aug 2001Enumeration one week later than usual to avoid overlap with population census.
.



FURTHER INFORMATION

19.37 For further details contact the Assistant Director, Labour Force Survey, on Canberra (02) 6252 6565.


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