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2071.0 - Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 30/11/2012   
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People relocate for many reasons. They may move for work or study, to be closer to family or move in with a partner, to find more suitable housing or a preferred environment. Family breakdown, changes in financial circumstances or the search for affordable housing can also lead to a move. Between 2006 and 2011, 41.7% of people aged 5 years and over had changed their residence. Compared with movements between 2001 and 2006, this was a slight decrease (down from 43.1%). Of movers in 2011, 4.6 million moved locally (see definition in 'Migration flows' box below). The remaining 3 million are the focus of this article, defined as 'new residents'. They comprise 1.8 million new residents who moved from a different area in Australia, and 1.2 million new residents who were overseas in 2006 (either recent migrants or Australian residents who lived overseas in 2006 and had since returned).

When comparing movements between 2006 and 2011 with movements five years earlier (2001–2006), the number of new residents who had moved from a different area in Australia decreased, and the number of new residents from overseas increased substantially in 2011. In 2006, 4.5 million residents had moved locally, and 2.7 million were new residents, including 1.9 million who moved from a different area in Australia and 0.8 million who were overseas in 2001.

POPULATION MOVEMENT, 2001–2006 and 2006–2011


Moved 2001–2006
Moved 2006–2011
Difference(a)

Moved locally(b)
'000
4 533.0
4 615.1
82.0
New residents
'000
2 721.4
2 995.6
274.2
New residents from within Australia
'000
1 898.9
1 800.9
-98.0
New residents from overseas
'000
822.5
1 194.7
372.1
Total moved(c)
'000
7 455.4
7 864.9
409.6
Total moved(d)
%
43.1
41.7
-1.4

(a) Changes to the ABS geographic framework since 2006 may affect comparisons between 2006 and 2011 data.
(b) Persons who lived elsewhere 5 years prior but did not meet criteria for new residents because of the short distance moved.
(c) Includes persons who lived elsewhere 5 years prior but did not specify address.
(d) As a percentage of all persons aged 5 years and over, excluding those who did not state their address.


As well as creating great change in the lives of individuals and households, movements change the population size and composition in both the area people leave and the area they move to. People at different stages of the life cycle have different reasons for moving and different patterns of migration. For example, younger people tend to move to urban areas (Endnote 1), while many older people move away from these areas. This article looks at migration patterns across 5 broad geographic areas in Australia (see map below), comparing people who moved to a new area from 2006 to 2011 (new residents) with those who lived in the same area in 2006 and 2011 (longer-term residents).


Geographic areas

Map of Geographic areas


Migration Flows

This article examines migration flows between 5 broad geographic areas from 2006 to 2011. The census collects information about prior places of residence at two points in time – 5 years and 1 year prior to the 2011 Census. Moves made between these dates are not captured in the census. Data in this article are based on place of usual residence census counts, rather than estimated resident population.

Capital cities discussed in this article, are the Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSA) of each of the states and territories. The GCCSA boundaries represent a broad socioeconomic definition of each city, containing not only the urban area of the city, but also non-urban areas where much of the population has strong links to the capital city, through for example, commuting to work. Capital cities may therefore be defined differently than in published data from previous Censuses. The whole of the ACT is defined as a Greater Capital City Statistical Area, so for this geographic level, data for Canberra equates to data for ACT Greater Capital City Statistical Area.

Coastal centres are Significant Urban Areas (SUA). These are mainly urban and include population centres of 25,000 or more that border the coastline or have their centre point (centroid) within 50 km from the coast. See list of included centres in the 'Coastal and Inland centres' table below.

Inland centres are Significant Urban Areas (SUA). These are mainly urban and include population centres of 25,000 or more. See list of included centres in the 'Coastal and Inland centres' table below.

Country coastal areas are the remaining Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2) that have their centre point (centroid) within 50 km from the coast. Very large SA2s (25,000 square kms or more) are excluded from coastal areas as large parts of the SA2s are outside the 50 km coastal zone.

Country inland areas are the remaining Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2) on the coast or inland respectively.

New residents are people who lived at a different address five years prior to the census year under the following conditions: for capital cities, a different GCCSA; for urban centres, a different SUA; or for country areas, a different Statistical Area Level 3 (SA3). Movements within each of these areas are considered to be local moves and these people are not defined as new residents. New residents include residents who were living overseas five years previously, and exclude people who did not fully state their place of usual residence 5 years ago and excludes children under 5 years of age.

Longer-term residents are people who lived in the same area; the same GCCSA, SUA centre or country SA3, in both the census year and five years previously. This category excludes people who did not fully state their place of usual residence 5 years ago and children under 5 years of age.

This article has been written on a similar basis as the 2006 article 'On the move', published in A Picture of the Nation: The Statistician's Report, 2006 (ABS cat. no. 2070.0). For this article, the definition of new residents has changed slightly, taking into account that local moves – that is, movement within major cities and towns, is not a change significant enough for movers to be classified as new residents. Comparisons in this article using 2006 data are made using the revised definition. In addition, since 2006 the ABS has replaced its geographical framework (see the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 1, ABS cat. no. 1270.0.55.001). While the geographic areas used in this article are similar to that used in 2006, there are differences in the 2006 and 2011 area boundaries which will affect comparisons with 2006 data.

DIFFERENCES IN NEW AND LONGER-TERM RESIDENTS

New residents generally have different characteristics to longer-term residents. In 2011, new residents were younger than longer-term residents with a median age of 30 years compared with 42 years, as young people are more likely to move than older people (Endnote 2).This was slightly younger than in 2006, when new residents were 31 years and longer-term residents were 41 years. Associated with their young age profile, in 2011, 23% of new residents aged 15 years and over were students, compared with 13% of longer-term residents. Similarly in 2006, 21% of new residents were students compared with 13% of longer-term residents.

In 2011, a higher proportion of new residents lived in rented housing than longer-term residents (56% compared with 23%). In contrast, longer-term residents were more likely to live in housing that was either owned outright or with a mortgage (77% compared with 43% of new residents). Renting could be more affordable for new residents, or provide flexibility while living in an area before deciding to settle more permanently and buy a home. Further, renting may be preferable for people who make temporary moves, for education or contract work. Since 2006, the proportion of new residents living in rented housing has increased by 6 percentage points (from 50%) and as a result, the proportion of new residents living in housing that they owned or were purchasing, has decreased (from 49% to 43%). In comparison, home ownership of longer-term residents had decreased by one percentage point (from 78%).

New residents were less likely overall to be in the labour force than longer-term residents (74% compared with 77%). This was a slight increase from 2006, for both new and longer-term residents (73% and 76% respectively). In 2011, for the 15–34 year age group, new residents who moved within Australia had higher labour force participation (78%) than longer-term residents (75%), suggesting that employment opportunities are a factor for younger people to move. Conversely, for those in the older working ages (45–64 years), labour force participation of all new residents was lower than longer-term residents (69% compared with 75%), which may be related to retirement decisions. The unemployment rate of new residents was 8.4%, compared with 5.0% for longer-term residents. Some unemployed new residents may not have had time to find work, or to have established social networks that are useful in job searching. Some people may have also moved to a new region in the hope of finding work and improving their job prospects rather than moving as a result of gaining a job (Endnote 2). The main industries of employment for new residents were Health care and social assistance (12%) and Retail trade (9%), which were also the main industries of employment for longer-term residents.

Even so, new residents were generally more highly qualified than longer-term residents: 52% had a degree or higher qualification compared with 40% of longer-term residents. The main contributors to this difference were new residents from overseas (65%), possibly an effect of the Skill Stream as a main component of the Australian permanent immigration program (Endnote 3). Compared with longer-term residents, new residents from within Australia were only slightly more likely to be highly qualified (42%). From 2006 to 2011, the proportion of both new residents and longer-term residents with a degree or higher qualification increased (from 48% and 38% respectively in 2006). While the proportion of highly qualified new residents from overseas remained unchanged, highly qualified new residents from within Australia increased by two percentage points (from 40% in 2006).

As a result of higher qualifications, new residents were more likely to be employed in a high skilled occupation (Endnote 4) than longer-term residents (33% compared with 30%), and more likely to live in a higher income household (Endnote 5) (21% compared with 19%).

Families with young children are an important part of the picture of migration in Australia. Just over 39% of new residents lived in a family with children under 15 years, compared with 37% of longer-term residents. Families with older children were far less likely to move residence, as only 7% of new residents lived in families with children aged 15–29 years, while 17% of longer-term residents lived in this family type. Lower mobility rates for families with older children may be related to housing circumstances and a desire not to disrupt children's education. Between 2006 and 2011, the proportion of new residents in families with children remained relatively stable, however the proportion of new residents in young group households (all aged 15–34 years) increased from 6.2% to 8.3%, and couples aged 15–34 years without children increased from 8.3% to 11.1%. This is consistent with the younger age profile of new residents in 2011.

NEW AND LONGER-TERM RESIDENTS


Capital cities(a)
Coastal centres
Inland centres
Country coastal areas
Country inland areas

New residents
'000
1 648.0
530.5
147.3
344.7
325.0
Longer-term residents
'000
10 626.7
2 015.5
524.0
1 191.9
1 261.5
New residents
%
13.3
20.5
21.5
22.1
20.1
Total population(b)
'000
13 163.2
2 753.9
728.4
1 662.6
1 731.5
Total population(b)
%
65.5
13.7
3.6
8.3
8.6

(a) Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSA)
(b) Excludes children under 5 years and includes people who did not have a usual address, did not fully state their address, or were in migratory, shipping or offshore areas 5 years ago.




New residents from overseas

A large number of new residents in 2011 were living overseas in 2006 (1.2 million) .This group was predominantly overseas migrants who arrived in Australia between 2007 and 2011 (871,100), with the remainder including Australian residents who were overseas in 2006 and had since returned. The migrants could include both permanent residents and temporary residents who indicated that they would be usually resident in Australia for one year or more. These temporary residents may have been in Australia to work, study or holiday.

New residents who were overseas in 2006 greatly influenced the characteristics of new residents overall, particularly in capital cities where the majority of this group resided (83%). Almost half of all new residents from overseas lived in Sydney and Melbourne (25% and 24% respectively).

New residents from overseas had a younger median age than new residents from within Australia (29 years compared with 32 years). Associated with the younger age profile was a higher participation in education; 30% of new residents from overseas were students compared with 17% of new residents from Australia. This is a reflection of Australia's position as having the highest proportion of international students in all OECD countries (Endnote 6). Participation in education was especially high in the 15–24 year age group (70% of new residents from overseas were students compared with 50% of new residents from Australia). As a result of the higher participation in education, new residents from overseas were less likely than those from within Australia to be in the labour force (70% compared with 77%). Of those who were employed, 35% of new residents from overseas were employed in a high skilled occupation, slightly higher than new residents from within Australia (32%). New residents from overseas were most likely to be employed in Health care and social assistance, and Accommodation and food services (both 12%).

Almost two-thirds of new residents from overseas lived in rented accommodation, compared with half of new residents from within Australia. This may be associated with the younger median age of new residents from overseas, as young people are generally more likely to rent as they have lower incomes, and may not have had time to establish their careers or save for a deposit to purchase a home. In addition, renting provides flexibility to new residents whose moves to Australia are related to temporary employment or to undertake study.


CAPITAL CITIES

According to the 2011 Census, the flow of new residents into Australia’s capital cities (GCCSAs) was larger than the flows into other geographic areas (1.6 million new residents compared with a range from 147,300 to 530,500 in the other areas). However, new residents had a small impact on the composition of capital cities; they represented 13% of the usual resident population of the capital cities in 2011, compared with 20% or more in each of the other geographic areas.

Capital cities are the main entry points for migrants to Australia, and reflecting this, new residents who were overseas in 2006 made up 60% of all new residents in capital cities. For most capital cities, new residents from overseas accounted for the highest proportion of all new residents with the exception of Hobart, Darwin and Canberra where a slightly higher proportion of new residents had moved from other capital cities. For capital cities overall, the majority of new residents from overseas (77%) were recent arrivals; that is, overseas migrants who arrived in Australia from 2007 to 2011. The remainder included overseas migrants who arrived in Australia prior to 2007 (longer-standing migrants) and other Australian residents all of who lived overseas in 2006 and had since returned.

New residents in capital cities were younger than people who moved to the other geographic areas, except inland centres. New residents in capital cities and inland centres had a median age of 29 years, while new residents in other geographic areas had median ages of 32 years or more. New residents were also considerably younger than longer-term residents in capital cities, who had a median age of 41 years.

Reflecting the range of educational opportunities available in capital cities, new residents aged 15 years and over had higher participation in education than longer-term residents (28% compared with 14%). Education thus emerges as one factor associated with migration to capital cities, particularly for new residents who were overseas in 2006 (32% were students). Supporting this, a higher proportion of new residents in capital cities were students than in the other geographic areas (ranging from 11% to 23%). Of all capital cities, new residents in Canberra were most likely to be students (33%) and new residents in Darwin were least likely (16%).

The high participation of new residents in education in capital cities contributed to slightly lower labour force participation than for longer-term residents (74% compared with 77% in the 15–64 year age group). Lower labour force participation among new residents from overseas (70%) influenced the lower overall participation of new residents. Furthermore, of all new residents aged 15–24 years, those in capital cities had the lowest labour force participation rate of all other geographic areas (59% in capital cities compared with a range from 66% to 68% in other areas).

The employment characteristics of new residents who had moved from other capital cities differed from those who had moved from areas outside capital cities. New residents from other capital cities had higher labour force participation than new residents from outside capital cities (83% compared with 78%) and were more likely to have high skilled occupations (47% compared with 30%). Associated with this, 37% of new residents from other capital cities lived in a higher income household, compared with 24% of new residents from areas outside capital cities.

New residents in capital cities were more likely to live in rental accommodation than new residents in the other geographic areas (62% compared with 55% or less). This is likely to reflect both the high proportion of students among new residents and their younger age profile, and the higher cost of buying a house in capital cities than in other areas. In addition, people who make temporary moves to cities for education or work may prefer rental accommodation, particularly for new residents who have moved from overseas for study purposes rather than for permanent migration (65% of new residents who were overseas in 2006 were renters). In comparison, 22% of longer-term residents lived in rental accommodation and were therefore more likely to be purchasing a home than new residents.


New residents to capital cities(a): location in 2006

New residents to capital cities: location in 2006
(a) Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSA)
(b) In a different capital city in 2006 than in 2011.

Age profile of residents of capital cities

Age profile of residents of capital cities


CHARACTERISTICS OF NEW AND LONGER-TERM RESIDENTS, capital cities and coastal centres


New residents
From capital cities(a)
From non-metropolitan areas(b)
Total(c)
Longer-term
residents

Capital city(a)
Population
'000
260.1
393.3
1 648.0
10 626.7
Proportion of people who…
    are students(d)
%
18.4
24.6
27.8
14.0
    are in the labour force(e)
%
82.5
78.3
73.6
77.4
    are in low skilled occupations(f)
%
29.5
41.9
39.8
41.8
    live in low income households(g)
%
8.6
14.1
11.8
16.1
    live in high income households(g)
%
37.0
23.8
24.6
22.1
Coastal centre
Population
'000
187.0
228.9
530.5
2 015.5
Proportion of people who…
    are students(d)
%
14.4
19.0
18.9
11.8
    are in the labour force(e)
%
75.9
75.6
74.9
76.5
    are in low skilled occupations(f)
%
38.3
47.0
42.9
47.4
    live in low income households(g)
%
16.3
18.9
16.6
21.6
    live in high income households(g)
%
20.2
16.2
17.8
14.7

(a) Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSA)
(b) All areas in Australia outside of capital cities
(c) Includes New residents who were overseas in 2006.
(d) Includes people aged 15 years and over.
(e) Includes people aged 15 to 64 years.
(f) Employed people
(g) Includes people in private households only.


COASTAL CENTRES

According to the 2011 Census, 530,500 people moved to a coastal centre from 2006 to 2011, accounting for 21% of the coastal centre population. Of new residents in coastal centres, 35% lived in a capital city in 2006, 18% lived in country coastal areas and 22% were overseas.

While capital cities attracted mostly young new residents, coastal centres attracted both young and older migrants. New residents had a median age of 32 years; contributing to this was the older age of migrants from capital cities (35 years), while new residents from overseas were younger at 30 years. The median age of longer-term residents was much older, at 44 years.

Older people represented a larger share of all new residents in coastal centres than in capital cities; 17% were aged 55 years and over compared with 8% of new residents in capital cities. The coastal centres of Hervey Bay (Qld) and Nelson Bay - Corlette (NSW) had high proportions of new residents aged 55 years and over (31% and 30% respectively). This reflects the many people who relocate to coastal centres on retirement.

Around 18% of new residents who moved to coastal centres were aged 15–24 years, a lower proportion than capital cities and inland areas (both around 22%), however higher than country areas. The coastal centres of Townsville (Qld), Launceston (Tas) and Lismore (NSW) had higher proportions of new residents aged 15–24 years (all around 25%). Young people were drawn to Lismore and Launceston primarily for study, as 63% of new residents aged 15–24 years in these centres were students.

Similar to new residents in Australia overall, the main industries of employment for new residents in coastal centres were Health care and social assistance (14%) and Retail trade (11%). Many coastal centres, particularly those in Queensland and Western Australia have experienced relatively fast population growth, boosted by the expansion of employment opportunities in key industries (Endnote 7).The main industries of employment for new residents in the coastal centres of Gladstone - Tannum Sands (Qld) and Bunbury (WA) were Manufacturing (16% and 14% respectively) and Construction (15% and 14% respectively). Both of these areas are major service centres for mining and resource industries, including port facilities. Similarly, 13% of new residents in the high growth coastal centre of Mackay (Qld) worked in the Mining industry.

New residents to coastal centres: location in 2006

New residents to coastal centres: location in 2006
(a) Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSA)
(b) In a different coastal centre in 2006 than in 2011.


Age profile of residents of coastal centres

Age profile of residents of coastal centres


COASTAL AND INLAND CENTRES


Coastal centre(a)
Inland centre
Bowral - Mittagong (NSW)Gold Coast - Tweed Heads (Qld)Albury (NSW) - Wodonga (Vic)
Coffs Harbour (NSW)Hervey Bay (Qld)Bathurst (NSW)
Lismore (NSW)Mackay (Qld)Dubbo (NSW)
Nelson Bay - Corlette (NSW)Maryborough (Qld)Orange (NSW)
Newcastle - Maitland (NSW)Rockhampton (Qld)Tamworth (NSW)
Nowra - Bomaderry (NSW)Sunshine Coast (Qld)Wagga Wagga (NSW)
Port Macquarie (NSW)Townsville (Qld)Ballarat (Vic)
Taree (NSW)Mount Gambier (SA)Bendigo (Vic)
Wollongong (NSW)Albany (WA)Mildura - Wentworth (Vic)
Geelong (Vic)Bunbury (WA)Shepparton - Mooroopna (Vic)
Warragul - Drouin (Vic)Busselton (WA)Traralgon - Morwell (Vic)
Warrnambool (Vic)Geraldton (WA)Toowoomba (Qld)
Bundaberg (Qld)Burnie - Wynyard (Tas)Kalgoorlie - Boulder (WA)
Cairns (Qld)Devonport (Tas)Alice Springs (NT)
Gladstone - Tannum Sands (Qld)Launceston (Tas)Queanbeyan (NSW)(b)

(a) Some coastal centres do not border the coastline, however have their central point within 50 km of the coastline
(b) Includes the Queanbeyan (NSW) part of the Canberra - Queanbeyan Significant Urban Area (SUA)


INLAND CENTRES

Between 2006 and 2011, the flow of people into inland centres (147,300) was smaller than flows into other areas. This was consistent with the small population of inland centres (728,400) compared with other geographic areas in this article.

New residents represented 22% of the population of inland centres. Reflecting a general trend in the movement of population from surrounding areas to urban areas, 35% of new residents in inland centres (51,000) lived in country inland areas in 2006.

New residents in inland centres had a young age profile, with a median age of 29 years compared with 42 years for longer-term residents. This was similar to the age profile of new residents in capital cities. The young age profile can be attributed to both the large flow of young people from country inland areas, and the relatively small flow of older people moving to inland centres compared with the flow of older people moving to coastal areas. Almost 14% of new residents in inland centres were aged 55 years and over, compared with 24% of new residents in country coastal areas.

All of the inland centres have university campuses, and as in capital cities, these attracted a relatively large flow of students. Almost one-quarter (23%) of new residents aged 15 years and over were students, the second highest proportion after capital cities. New residents were almost twice as likely to be students as longer-term term residents (12%). The inland centres of Bathurst (NSW) and Wagga Wagga (NSW) had high proportions of new residents who were students (both over 30%).

New residents in inland centres had the highest labour force participation rate of all geographic areas. New and longer-term residents in inland centres had similar labour force participation (76% and 77% respectively). Employed new residents most commonly worked in Health care and social assistance (15%). A large number also worked in Public administration and safety and Retail trade (both 11%). An exception was Kalgoorlie - Boulder, where 24% of new residents and 19% of longer-term residents worked in the Mining industry. While 18% of new residents in inland centres were high income earners, this proportion was far greater for new residents in Kalgoorlie - Boulder and Alice Springs (42% and 31% respectively).


New residents to inland centres: location in 2006


    New residents to inland centres: location in 2006

(a) Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSA)
(b) In a different inland centre in 2006 than in 2011.


Age profile of residents of inland centres

    Age profile of residents of inland centres

COUNTRY COASTAL AREAS

In 2011, around 344,700 people in country coastal areas were new residents; representing just over 22% of the population. New residents were mainly from capital cities (38%) and coastal centres (25%). This was the geographic area with the lowest proportion of new residents from overseas (9%). People who move to coastal areas from other areas in Australia are often termed as 'sea changers'; driven by a pursuit of a better lifestyle, better climate, more affordable housing, less congestion or wanting to live near family and friends.

Movement of older sea changers is a distinctive aspect of migration to country coastal areas. A higher proportion of new residents in country coastal areas than those in other areas were people of early retirement age (55–64 years); 14% compared with other areas, where the proportions in this age group ranged from 5% to 11%. Consistent with this, the median age of new residents in country coastal areas was 37 years, the highest of new residents in any of the geographic areas. However this was lower than the median age of longer-term residents in country coastal areas (48 years). Middle-aged couple families without children (Endnote 8) accounted for 14% of new residents in country coastal areas, the highest proportion of this family type of all geographic areas.

A large group of new residents aged 55–64 years were retirees, as only half of the people in this age group were in the labour force (50% compared with 59% of longer-term residents). This contributed to the overall lowest labour force participation rate of all geographic areas (72%).

Consistent with the presence of retired people, new residents in country coastal areas were more likely to live in a lower income household (21%) than new residents in other geographic areas . Even so, they were more likely than new residents in the other areas to live in a house that was owned outright or with a mortgage (57%). This was influenced by the very high proportion of new residents aged 55–64 years who lived in a home owned outright or with a mortgage (76%). Many new residents may have retired, sold their homes in other areas and bought property in coastal areas. Their assets may have allowed them to buy a home while being in a lower income household.

New residents to country coastal areas: location in 2006

New residents to country coastal areas: location in 2006

(a) Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSA)
(b) In a different country coastal area in 2006 than in 2011.


Age profile of residents of country coastal areas

Age profile of residents of country coastal areas

CHARACTERISTICS OF NEW AND LONGER-TERM RESIDENTS, inland centres and country areas

New Residents
From capital cities(a)
From non-metropolitan areas(b)
Total(c)
Longer-term
residents

Inland centre
Population
'000
44.3
80.6
147.3
524.0
Proportion of people who…
    are students(d)
%
20.2
23.2
22.8
12.3
    are in the labour force(e)
%
77.5
75.6
76.0
77.4
    are in low skilled occupations(f)
%
35.4
45.6
42.0
47.8
    live in low income households(g)
%
15.2
18.3
16.4
21.0
    live in high income households(g)
%
22.6
14.8
18.0
14.0
Country coastal area
Population
'000
130.4
183.9
344.7
1 191.9
Proportion of people who…
    are students(d)
%
9.6
11.6
11.1
9.9
    are in the labour force(e)
%
70.7
72.6
72.3
72.6
    are in low skilled occupations(f)
%
39.9
45.7
43.2
47.7
    live in low income households(g)
%
21.8
20.9
20.5
26.9
    live in high income households(g)
%
16.4
15.2
16.1
10.6
Country inland area
Population
'000
116.0
176.4
325.0
1 261.5
Proportion of people who…
    are students(d)
%
11.2
12.7
12.5
9.9
    are in the labour force(e)
%
74.3
75.3
75.3
74.7
    are in low skilled occupations(f)
%
39.9
45.3
43.5
46.1
    live in low income households(g)
%
20.6
19.7
19.3
25.5
    live in high income households(g)
%
17.9
16.7
17.5
11.3


(a) Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSA)
(b) All areas in Australia outside of capital cities
(c) Includes New residents who were overseas in 2006.
(d) Includes people aged 15 years and over.
(e) Includes people aged 15 to 64 years.
(f) Employed people
(g) Includes people in private households only.


COUNTRY INLAND AREAS

The characteristics of new residents who moved to country inland areas were similar to those who moved to country coastal areas. A large group of people moved to country inland areas between 2006 and 2011 (325,000). Even so, many country inland regions experienced population decline in this period, particularly in NSW, Victoria and South Australia (Endnote 7). Although the largest group of new residents in country inland areas lived in a capital city in 2006 (36%), one-fifth moved from other country inland areas (20%). This is comparatively high, considering how few Australian residents lived in these areas (9% in 2011), and suggests substantial population churn within country inland areas. Such churn may be related to a number of factors. Long-term restructuring of the agricultural industry has led to movement of people with specialised skills needed for work available in country inland areas (Endnote 9). Further, drought has had an impact on employment in certain areas. In addition, there has been substantial growth in employment opportunities in mining in some country inland areas.

New residents to country inland areas had a median age of 34 years. Similar to country coastal areas, longer-term residents had a much older age profile, with a median age of 46 years.

In country inland areas almost the same proportion of new residents and longer-term residents were labour force participants (both around 75%). However, of those aged 15–34 years, a higher proportion of new residents were in the labour force (76%) compared with longer-term residents (69%). This area also had the lowest rate of unemployment of all geographic areas (6%), further supporting the notion of new residents moving to this area for employment reasons. New residents aged 15 years and over in country inland areas were less likely to be students than in the capital cities or centres, which may be related to the availability of educational facilities. However, they were more likely to be students than the longer-term country inland residents (13% compared with 10%).

New residents in country inland areas were most likely to be employed in Mining (11%) and Agriculture, forestry and fishing (9%). Longer-term residents were less likely to be employed in Mining (4%) and were most likely to be employed in Agriculture, forestry and fishing (17%). In the country inland areas of Western Australia, Mining was a major industry of employment for new residents (31% compared with 11% of longer-term residents).


New residents to country inland areas: location in 2006

    New residents to country inland areas: location in 2006

(a) Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSA)
(b) In a different country inland area in 2006 than in 2011.

Age profile of residents of country inland areas

    Age profile of residents of country inland areas


ENDNOTES

1. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2003, 'Youth migration within Australia' in Australian Social Trends 2003, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra, viewed 5 October 2012, <http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/2f762f95845417aeca25706c00834efa/3d196e4d297f42c9ca2570eb0082f628!OpenDocument>
2. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2009, 'Relocation across the nation: internal migration and population growth' in Australian Social Trends 2009, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra, viewed 5 October 2012, <http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4102.0Main+Features10June+2009>
3. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2011, Perspectives on Migrants 2011, cat. no. 3416.0, ABS, Canberra, viewed 5 October 2012, <http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/allprimarymainfeatures/829390753C5B2909CA257A850013E480?opendocument>
4. Skill levels are assigned according to the formal education and/or training, previous experience and on-the-job training required to competently perform the set of tasks required for that occupation as defined in the ANZSCO Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, First edition, Revision 1, 2009 (cat. no. 1220.0), viewed 19 October 2012, <http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/1220.0> High skill level occupations are ANZSCO Skill level 1 occupations which include Managers and administrators; and Professionals.
5. Household income is equivalised gross household income. Three household income groups are used in the analysis of this article: lower, middle and high household income. Each group includes approximately 20% of the population for which household income data were available. People in the lower household income group are those with household incomes in the second and third deciles of the household income distribution. The middle household income group comprises those in the fifth and sixth deciles and the higher household income group comprises those in the ninth and tenth deciles. See Income data in the Census for more information, viewed 23 November 2012, <http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/censushome.nsf/home/factsheetsuid?opendocument&navpos=450>
6. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2011, 'International students' in Australian Social Trends 2011, cat. no. 4102.0, ABS, Canberra, viewed 5 October 2012, <http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4102.0Main+Features20Dec+2011
7. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2011, Regional Population Growth, Australia 2011, cat. no. 3218.0, ABS, Canberra, viewed 5 October 2012, <http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/3218.0/>
8. Middle aged couple families without children: younger partner is aged 45 to 64 years.
9. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) 2009, Workforce, Training and Skills Issues in Agriculture, DAFF, Canberra, viewed 23 November 2012, <http://www.daff.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/1530020/work-train-skills.pdf>

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