Australian Bureau of Statistics

Rate the ABS website
ABS Home > Statistics > By Catalogue Number
2059.0 - Census of Population and Housing: Australia's Youth, 2001  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 18/05/2004   
   Page tools: Print Print Page Print all pages in this productPrint All RSS Feed RSS Bookmark and Share Search this Product

GLOSSARY

General descriptions

General descriptions of terms and concepts used in this publication are provided below. Tables are also footnoted where applicable for additional clarity. Detailed definitions of classifications and concepts are available in the Census Dictionary, 2001 (cat. no. 2901.0).

Ancestry

Ancestry describes the ethnic or cultural heritage of a person, that is, the ethnic or cultural groups to which a person’s forebears are or were attached. In practice, ancestry is the ethnic or cultural groups which the person identifies as being his or her ancestry. Ancestry therefore involves a measure of self-identification of ethnic or cultural group affiliation or nationality, as well as of descent from one or more particular groups.

A person's ancestry, when used in conjunction with the person's birthplace and their parent's birthplace, provides a good indication of the ethnic background of first and second generation Australians. This is particularly useful for identifying distinct ethnic or cultural group (e.g. Maoris or Kurds), which cannot be identified using country of birth alone.

In the 2001 Census, people were asked to consider and nominate the ancestries they most closely identified with, going back as far as three generations. The first two responses were retained for output purposes, and have been used in this publication. All responses have been coded according to the Australian Standard Classification of Cultural and Ethnic Groups (ASCEG), 2000 (cat. no. 1249.0).

Computer use

Personal computer use as measured by the 2001 Census of Population and Housing includes:

  • computers used at home for private and business purposes
  • portable computers (e.g. laptops and notebook computers)
  • personal organisers, etc. which can be plugged into larger computers
  • dedicated word processors.

It excludes dedicated gaming machines.

Country of birth

Country of birth as defined in the Standard Australian Classification for Countries (SACC) (cat. no. 1269.0).

Couple family

A couple family is based on two persons who are in a registered or de facto marriage and who are usually resident in the same household. The family may or may not include any number of dependents, non-dependents and other related individuals.

De facto marriage

A marriage exists when two people live together as husband and wife, or partners, regardless of whether the marriage is formalised through registration. A de facto marriage exists when the relationship between two people (of the opposite or same sex, who live together in the same household) is reported as: de facto, partner, common law husband/wife/spouse, lover, boyfriend or girlfriend.

Dependent children

Dependent children are either children under the age of 15 years, or dependent students. To be regarded as a child, the person must be a natural, adopted, step, or foster son or daughter of a couple or lone parent, usually resident in the same household, and can have no partner or child of his/her own usually resident in the
household.

Dependent student

A dependent student is defined as a natural, adopted, step, or foster child who is 15–24 years of age and who attends a secondary or tertiary educational institution as a full-time student and who has no partner or child of his/her own usually resident in the same household.

Dwelling

A dwelling is a structure which is intended to have people live in it, and which is habitable on census night. This can be a house, a block of flats, or other dwelling (such as caravan, humpy or houseboat). For the purposes of the Census of Population and Housing, dwellings are classified into private and non-private dwellings. Each of these dwelling types is further divided into occupied and unoccupied dwelling categories.

Dwelling structure

The census collects information on the structure of private dwellings, and classifies this information as follows.
  • Separate House - This is a house which stands alone in its own grounds separated from other dwellings by at least half a metre. Also included in this category are occupied accommodation units in manufactured home estates which are identified as separate houses.
  • Semidetached, row, terrace house, townhouse etc. - These dwellings have their own private grounds and no other dwellings above or below them.
  • Flat, Unit or Apartment - This category includes all blocks of flats, units or apartments. These dwellings do not have their own private grounds and usually share a common entrance foyer or stairwell. This category also includes flats attached to houses such as granny flats, and houses converted into two or more flats.
  • Caravan, Cabin, Houseboat - This category includes all occupied caravans, cabins and houseboats regardless of location. It also includes occupied campervans, mobile houses and small boats.
  • Improvised Home, Tent, Sleepers Out - This category includes sheds, tents, humpies and other improvised dwellings, occupied on Census Night. It includes caravans occupied on Census Night and located in roadside parking areas. It also includes people sleeping on park benches or in other 'rough' accommodation (the traditional definition of homeless people).
  • House or flat attached to a shop, office, etc. - A house or flat attached to a shop, office, factory or any other non-residential structure is included in this category.

Educational institution

Any institution whose primary role is education. Included are schools, higher education establishments, colleges of technical and further education, public and private colleges, etc. Excluded are institutions whose primary role is not education, for example, hospitals.

Employed

Employed persons were those aged 15 years and over who during the week prior to Census Night:
  • worked for payment or profit, or as an unpaid helper in a family business
  • had a job from which they were on leave or otherwise temporarily absent
  • were on strike or stood down temporarily.

Employment rate

The employment rate is the number of employed people expressed as a percentage of the labour force.

Employment to population ratio

For any group, the number of employed persons expressed as a percentage of the civilian population aged 15 and over in the same group.

English language proficiency

A self-reported measure of a person’s proficiency in spoken English. Responses to this question are subjective. For example, one respondent may consider that a response of ‘Well’ is appropriate if they can communicate well enough to do the shopping while another respondent may consider such a response appropriate only for people who can hold a social conversation. Proficiency in English is just an indicator of a person’s ability to speak English and not a definite measure of their ability.

Estimated resident population (ERP)

The official measure of the population of Australia is based on the concept of residence. It refers to all people, regardless of nationality or citizenship, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. It includes usual residents who are overseas for less than 12 months. It excludes overseas visitors who are in Australia for less than 12 months. For a fuller description of population measures and the derivation of ERP, please see paragraphs 8, 9 and 10 of the Explanatory Notes.

Family

A family is defined by the ABS as two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage, adoption, step or fostering, and who are usually resident in the same household. The basis for a family is formed by identifying the presence of either a couple relationship, lone-parent-child relationship or other blood relationship. Some households will, therefore, contain more than one family.

Family household

A family household is defined by the ABS as a household which contains one or more families. A family household may also contain non-family members, such as unrelated persons or visitors.

Family income

The sum of the personal incomes of each family member aged 15 years and over who was present in the household on Census Night. Persons who were temporarily absent on Census Night, or had nil or negative income, or did not state their income, do not contribute to family income. Family income only applies to classifiable families in occupied private dwellings.

Family type

Families are classified in terms of the relationships that exist between a single family reference person and each other member of that family. The Family type variable distinguishes between different types of families based on the presence or absence of couple relationships, parent-child relationships, child dependency relationships or other blood relationships, in that order of preference.

Field of Study

Field of study is defined as the subject matter of an educational activity. It is categorised according to the Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), Field of Education Classification.

Full-time workers

Employed persons who usually worked 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs) and who, although usually working less than 35 hours a week, worked 35 hours or more during the reference week.

Group household

A group household is a household consisting of two or more unrelated people where all persons are aged 15 years or over. There are no reported couple relationships, parent-child relationships or other blood relationships in these households.

Higher education

Education which takes place in all institutions offering higher education courses. Higher education courses do not include TAFE courses which may be conducted in higher education institutions.

Household

A household is defined as a group of two or more related or unrelated people who usually reside in the same dwelling, who regard themselves as a household, and who make common provision for food or other essentials for living; or a person living in a dwelling who makes provision for his/her own food and other essentials for living, without combining with any other person.

Household income (gross)

The sum of the personal incomes of each resident aged 15 years and over who was present in the household on Census Night. Persons who were temporarily absent on Census Night, or had nil or negative income, or did not state their income, do not contribute to household income.

Individual incomes are collected in ranges by the census. To enable these range values to be summed, information from the Survey of Income and Housing Costs (this survey is used because it collects income as individual values) is used to estimate the median income within each bracket collected by the census. The relevant median value for each household member is then summed to produce the household income figure.

Individual income (gross)

The usual gross weekly income of persons aged 15 years or over. Gross weekly income is income before tax, superannuation, health insurance, or other deductions are made, and includes family payments, pensions, unemployment benefits, student allowances, maintenance (child support), superannuation, wages, overtime, dividends, rents received, interest received, business or farm income (less operating expenses) and workers’ compensation received. See also Household income (gross) and Median individual income (gross).

Individual weekly income

The gross income (including pensions and allowances) that the person usually receives each week.

Indigenous

Persons who identify themselves as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin.

Industry (of employment)

A person’s industry of employment, as classified by the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 (cat. no. 1292.0).

Internal migration

Internal migration is the movement of people from one defined area to another within a country.

Internet use

Includes Internet connections in private and business applications; Internet connection through a computer or television set top box, games machine, mobile phone, or other means; and Internet at other locations including libraries, Internet cafes, shops, educational institutions, or at a neighbour's or friend's place of residence, etc.

Labour force

The labour force consists of people aged 15 years and over who are employed, or those who do not have a job but are actively looking for work and are available to start work during the week prior to Census Night.

Labour force participation rate

The labour force expressed as a percentage of the population aged 15 years and over.

Labour force status

Labour force status identifies whether a person aged 15 years or over is employed, unemployed or not in the labour force.

Language spoken at home

Data for this variable are coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Languages (ASCL), 1997 (cat. no. 1267.0). Only one language is coded for each person despite the fact that people may speak more than one language at home.

Living arrangements

Living arrangements refers to whether a person lives alone, with other family members or with other unrelated individuals; whether a person lives in a private or non-private dwelling.

Local government area

The LGA is a geographical area under the responsibility of an incorporated local government council. For further information, refer to Australian Standard
Geographical Classification (ASGC), 2002 (cat. no. 1216.0).

Lone parent

A person who has no spouse or partner usually present in the household but who forms a parent-child relationship with at least one dependent or non-dependent child usually resident in the household.

Lone person household

A person who makes provision for his/her own food and other essentials in living, without combining with any other person to form part of a multi-person household is classified as a lone person household. He/she may live in a dwelling on his/her own, or share a dwelling with another individual or family.

Main English speaking countries

The list of main English speaking countries provided here is not an attempt to classify countries on the basis of whether or not English is the predominant or official language of each country. It is a list of the main countries from which Australia receives, or has received, significant numbers of overseas settlers who are likely to speak English. The list therefore includes South Africa. Although large numbers of South Africans do not speak English as their first language, those who migrate to Australia are likely to speak English. The list does not include country units which are statistically insignificant in the Australian context, although they are English speaking countries.

The set of main English speaking countries other than Australia used by the ABS consists of: Canada, Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland) and United States of America. In this publication, Australia is excluded from the analyses of main English speaking countries.

Mean income

The total income received by a group of units divided by the number of units in the group.

Median individual income (gross)

The estimated mid-point of the distribution of individual gross incomes for a given income range. As individual income data are collected in ranges from the Census, a uniform distribution of responses within each range is assumed, in order to calculate the median value. For more information on the calculation of medians, see paragraphs 20, 21 and 22 of the Explanatory Notes. See also Individual income (gross).

Method of travel to work

Method or means of travel to work on census day used by a person aged 15 years and over who was employed during the week before census. Up to three methods can be recorded.

Mobility rate

For any group, the number of people who changed their usual residence in a specified period expressed as a percentage of the population in that group. The census defines usual residence at a point in time and, therefore, mobility rates do not account for multiple moves or moves occurring between periods.

Net interstate migration

The difference between the number of persons who have changed their usual place of residence by moving into a given state or territory and the number who have changed their place of usual residence by moving out of that state or territory. This difference may be either positive or negative.

Net interstate migration flows

The difference between the number of persons who have changed their usual place of residence by moving into a given state or territory and the number who have changed their place of usual residence by moving out of that state or territory. This difference may be either positive or negative.

Net migration

The difference between the number of persons who have changed their place of usual residence by moving into a given defined geographic area and the number who have changed their place of usual residence by moving out of that defined geographic area during a specified time period. This difference can be either positive or negative.

Non-dependent children

A natural, step, adopted or foster child of a couple or lone parent usually resident in the household, who is aged over 15 years, is not a full-time student aged 15–24 years, and who has no partner or child of his/her own usually resident in the household.

Non-main English speaking countries

All countries other than Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Republic of Ireland, South Africa, United Kingdom ((England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland), and United States of America.

Non-private dwelling

Non-private dwellings (NPDs) are residential dwellings with accommodation which are not included in the Census of Population and Housing list of private dwelling categories.
NPDs are classified according to their function. They include hotels, motels, guest houses, jails, religious and charitable institutions, military establishments, hospitals and other communal dwellings. Where this type of accommodation includes self-contained units (as provided by hotels, motels, homes for the elderly and guest houses), the units are enumerated as part of the NPD. Accommodation for the retired or aged (care) which is accommodation where meals are provided are included in this category.

Non-school qualification: Field of study

This variable describes the field of study of the highest completed non-school qualification.

The full classification for levels of education and fields of study, together with an explanation of the conceptual basis of the classification, can be found in the publication Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED) (cat. no. 1272.0).

Non-school qualification: Level of education

This variable describes the level of education of the highest completed non-school qualification (e.g. trade certificate, bachelor degree, diploma, higher degree).

The full classification for levels of education, together with an explanation of the conceptual basis of the classification, can be found in the publication Australian
Standard Classification of Education (ASCED) (cat. no. 1272.0).

Not in the labour force

Persons aged 15 years and over who were not in the categories employed or unemployed as defined.

Not married

The term not married, as used in the Social Marital Status classification, refers to a person who is not living with another person in either a registered marriage or a de facto marriage. This includes persons who live alone, with other family members, and those in shared accommodation.

Occupation

A set of jobs with similar sets of tasks, classified according to the ASCO — Australian Standard Classification of Occupations, Second Edition, 1996 (cat. no. 1220.0). The classification has five levels of hierarchy: major group, sub-major group, minor group, unit group and occupation. Occupation is collected in the census for all employed people aged 15 years and over.

One-parent family

A one-parent family consists of a lone parent with at least one child (regardless of age) who is also usually resident in the family household. The family may also include any number of other related individuals.

Other dwelling

This includes caravans; cabins; houseboats; sheds, tents, humpies and other improvised homes; house or flat attached to a shop, office, etc.

Overseas born

Overseas born people are those who stated that they were born in a country other than Australia, those born at sea, and those whose responses were classed as 'Inadequately described' or 'Not elsewhere classified'.

Overseas students

Many overseas students expect to be normally resident in Australia for a period in excess of one year and would therefore be counted as part of the normally resident population and not counted as overseas visitors.

Overseas visitors

Those people who indicated they would be usually resident in Australia for less than one year. For the purpose of this publication, these persons have been excluded from all analyses.

Participation rate

The proportion of the population who reported that they were taking part in a particular activity. For example, where a table shows a disaggregation by age, the 35–44 year participation rate reflects the number of persons aged 35–44 years participating in the activity as a proportion of all persons aged 35–44 years.

Part-time workers

Employed persons who usually worked less than 35 hours a week (in all jobs) and either did so during the reference week or were not at work in the reference week.

Personal computer

Includes computers used at home for private and business purposes; portable computers; personal organisers; computers brought home from the workplace; and
dedicated word processors. Games machines are not included.

Population

The population on Census Night is on a 'Place of enumeration' basis. The usually resident population is on a 'Place of usual residence' basis. Place of enumeration means where the person was counted on Census Night. Most population counts presented in this publication are on a place of enumeration basis.

Private dwelling

A private dwelling in the census is defined as a house, flat, part of a house, or even a room; but can also be a house attached to, or rooms above shops or offices; an occupied caravan in a caravan park or occupied boat in a marina, a houseboat, a tent if it is standing on its own block of land, or an improvised dwelling such as a humpy or park bench. A caravan situated on a residential allotment is also classed as a private dwelling.

Manufactured home estates and self-care units for the retired or aged are also treated as private dwellings.

Proficiency in English

For each person who speaks a language other than English at home this variable classifies their proficiency in spoken English. Responses to the question on Proficiency in English are subjective and is just an indicator of a person's ability to speak English and not a definitive measure of his/her ability. For these reasons, census data on the levels of proficiency in English of people who speak a language other than English at home should be interpreted with care. Nevertheless, it is a useful indicator for the planning and provision of multilingual services and the ethnicity of the population.

Registered marriage

A registered marriage exists where two people live together as husband and wife and the marriage is formalised through registration. A response of husband/wife to the relationship question results in a person being classified as 'Married in a registered marriage', regardless of that person's response to the question about present marital status.

Relationship in household

The relationship of each person residing within the same household. All persons aged under 15 years are classified as a child under 15 years and considered dependent. To be classified as a dependent student (15–24 years) or a non-dependent child the person must be a biological, step, adopted or foster child of a couple or lone parent usually resident in the household; AND have no partner or child of his/her own usually resident in the household. Furthermore, if such a person is aged 15–24 years and studying full time they are classified as a dependent student, otherwise they are classified as a non-dependent child.

Religious affiliation

Religious affiliation is defined as the religious beliefs and practices to which a person adheres or the religious group to which a person belongs. In practice, religious affiliation is self-assessed and measures the religion to which a person declares they have an affiliation. It also identifies people who consider they do not belong to any religious group. Answering a question about religious affiliation is optional in ABS censuses and surveys. For further information see Standards for Statistics on Cultural and Language Diversity (cat. no. 1289.0) and Australian Standard Classification of Religious Groups (ASCRG) (cat. no. 1266.0).

Remotness

This classification is designed to compare, on the one hand, the major cities, and at the other extreme, very remote areas. This structure is based on the
Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA) which utilises road distance to various size service centres as a measure of physical remoteness. Within a state or territory, each remoteness area represents an aggregation of non-contiguous geographical areas which share common characteristics of remoteness. The defined areas are:
  • Major Cities of Australia
  • Inner Regional Australia
  • Outer Regional Australia
  • Remote Australia
  • Very Remote Australia
  • Migratory: composed of off-shore, shipping and migratory collection districts (figures for these areas are not shown separately in this publication).

For further information, refer to Statistical Geography Vol 1: Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) 2001 (cat. no. 1216.0) and ABS Views on Remoteness (cat. no. 1244.0).

Sex ratio

The sex ratio relates to the number of males per 100 females. The sex ratio is defined for the total population, at birth, at death and among age groups by appropriately selecting the numerator and denominator of the ratio.

Social Marital Status

The relationship status of an individual with reference to another person who is usually resident in the household. A marriage exists when two people live together as husband and wife, or partners, regardless of whether the marriage is formalised through registration. Individuals are, therefore, regarded as married if they are in a de facto marriage or if they are living with the person to whom they are registered as married.

Where information about same-sex couples is volunteered, the individuals are classified as partners in a de facto marriage.

The term 'Not married', as used in this classification, refers to a person who is not living with another person in either a registered or de facto marriage. This includes persons who lives alone, or with other family members, and those in shared accommodation.

Statistical District

Statistical Districts are areas which bound a large predominantly urban area outside the capital city SDs. They consist of one or more urban centres in close proximity to each other, with a total population of 25,000 or more. For further information refer to Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) 2002 (cat. no. 1216.0).

Statistical Division

The SD is a large, general purpose, regional type geographic area. SDs represent relatively homogeneous regions characterised by identifiable social and economic links between the inhabitants and between the economic units within the region, under the unifying influence of one or more major towns or cities. For further information, refer to Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) 2002 (cat. no. 1216.0).

Statistical Local Area

The SLA is a geographical area which consists of one or more CDs. SLAs are LGAs, or parts thereof. For further information, refer to Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) 2002 (cat. no. 1216.0).

Tenure type

Tenure type describes whether a household is purchasing, rents or owns, the dwelling in which it was enumerated on Census Night, or whether the household occupies it under another arrangement. Tenure type is derived from the responses to a series of questions about ownership, payment to purchase and rental agreements and applies to occupied private dwellings only.

Unemployed

Unemployed persons were those aged 15 years and over who were not employed during the reference week, and:
  • had actively looked for full-time or part-time work at any time in the four weeks prior to the census
  • were available for work in the week prior to the census.

Unemployment rate

For any group, the number of unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the labour force in that same group.

Unemployment to population ratio

For any group, the number of unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the civilian population aged 15 years and over in the same group.

Unrelated individual living in a family household

A person who lives in a family household, but who is not related to any person in any of the families in the household, but who shares meals with a family. A boarder fits into this category.

Usual residence

Usual residence within Australia refers to that address at which the person has lived or intends to live for a total of six months or more in a given reference year.

Visitors to a household

Characteristics of individual visitors to a household are available at the household of enumeration. Visitors may be also be identified according to their CD of usual residence but cannot be placed back to their dwelling of usual residence.

Bookmark and Share. Opens in a new window

Commonwealth of Australia 2014

Unless otherwise noted, content on this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia Licence together with any terms, conditions and exclusions as set out in the website Copyright notice. For permission to do anything beyond the scope of this licence and copyright terms contact us.