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4102.0 - Australian Social Trends, 2002  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 09/05/2002   
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Contents >> Health >> Definitions and references

Definitions and references

AIDS-related death

    death where AIDS is mentioned anywhere on the death certificate as a contributing factor or an underlying cause.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Alcohol: apparent consumption
    millilitres of pure alcohol (not total alcoholic beverages) consumed, divided by the population 15 years and over. Apparent consumption of beer and spirits is based on the quantities on which excise duty was paid, and imports cleared for consumption. Apparent consumption of wine comprises quantities sold by winemakers and imports cleared for consumption. Home-made beer and wine are included.
    Reference: Apparent Consumption of Foodstuffs and Nutrients, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4306.0).

Apparent consumption
    equals (commercial production + estimated home production + imports + opening stocks) minus (exports + usage for processed food + non-food usage + wastage + closing stocks) divided by the population.
    Reference: Apparent Consumption of Foodstuffs and Nutrients, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4306.0).

Asthma
    the proportion of people reporting asthma as a recent condition (within two weeks) or a long-term condition (lasting or expecting to last six months or more). Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results, Australia, 1995, (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Average length of stay in hospital
    the total number of occupied bed days in both public and private hospitals divided by the total number of separations.
    Reference: Australian Hospital Statistics, 1998-99, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Average Medicare services processed
    average number of services processed per Australian resident per year.
    Reference: Health Insurance Commission, Financial Statements and Statistical Tables, 1998-99.

Breast cancer deaths
    deaths where malignant neoplasm of the female breast is mentioned on the death certificate as the underlying cause (ICD-9 code 174 up to 1998, ICD-10 code C50 from 1999).
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Cancer
    the proportion of people reporting cancer as a recent condition (within two weeks) or a long-term condition (lasting or expecting to last six months or more).
    Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results, Australia, 1995, (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Cancer deaths
    deaths where malignant neoplasms are mentioned on the death certificate as the underlying cause (ICD-9 codes 140-208 up to 1998, ICD-10 codes C00-C97 from 1999).
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Causes of death
    the causes of death, both underlying and multiple, are classified to the International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th Revision (ICD-9 up to and including 1998, and ICD-10 for 1999 and onwards).
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Children not fully immunised
    the proportion of children reported as not having received all the required vaccinations for diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, whooping cough, measles and mumps for their age. The required vaccinations are based on the 1986 National Health and Medical Research Council Standard Childhood Vaccination Schedule.
    Reference: Children's Immunisation, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4352.0).

Crude death rate
    number of deaths registered per 1,000 of the estimated resident population at 30 June of that year.
    Reference: Deaths, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3302.0).

Current smokers
    persons aged 18 years and over who smoke one or more manufactured (packet) cigarettes, roll-your-own cigarettes, cigars or pipes per day. Smoking excludes chewing tobacco and smoking of non-tobacco products.
    Reference: National Health Survey: Health Risk Factors (ABS cat. no. 4380.0).

Diabetes
    the proportion of people reporting diabetes as a recent condition (within two weeks) or a long-term condition (lasting or expecting to last six months or more), including Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 and 2 and unspecified diabetes.
    Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results, Australia, 1995 (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Diabetes mellitus deaths
    deaths where diabetes mellitus is mentioned on the death certificate as the underlying cause (ICD-9 code 250 up to 1998, ICD-10 Codes E10-E14 for 1999).
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Disability-free life expectancy
    the average number of years at birth a person might expect to live free of disability. Disability is the presence of a limitation, restriction or impairment due to a physical, emotional or nervous condition which had lasted or was likely to last six months or more.
    Reference: Australian Health Trends, 2000, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Disability with specific restrictions
    people with a disability which causes difficulty or who need assistance with, or use an aid for, self-care, mobility, communication, employment and/or education activities. Includes all children aged under 5 years with a disability.
    Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers: Summary of Findings, Australia, 1998 (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Doctors per 100,000 population
    the number of practising general and specialist medical practitioners per 100,000 estimated mean resident population.
    Reference: Australia's Health, 1998, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Drug induced deaths
    any death directly caused by an acute episode of poisoning or toxicity to drugs, including deaths from accidental overdoses, suicide and assault, and any death from an acute condition caused by habitual drug use. The term 'drug' refers to substances classified as drugs that may be used for medicinal or therapeutic purposes and those that produce a psychoactive effect excluding alcohol, tobacco and volatile solvents (e.g. petrol).
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0)

Exercise (persons who do not exercise)
    persons who reported that within the two-week reference period they did not undertake exercise activities, including walking, for sport, recreation or fitness, so as to cause a moderate increase in heart rate or breathing.
    Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of results, Australia, 1995 (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Fetal death
    the delivery of a child weighing at least 400 grams at delivery (or, when birthweight is unavailable, of at least 20 weeks gestation) which did not, at any time after delivery, breathe or show any other evidence of life such as a heart beat.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Heart disease
    the number of people per 1,000 population reporting heart disease as a recent condition (within two weeks) or a long-term condition (lasting or expecting to last six months or more), including heart attack, coronary thrombosis, angina and leaking valve.
    Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results, Australia, 1995 (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Hospital beds (per 1,000 population)
    the total number of beds in all hospitals (public and private) providing acute care services per 1,000 estimated mean resident population. Hospitals providing acute care services are those in which the treatments typically require short durations of stay.
    Reference: Private Hospitals, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4390.0); Australian Hospital Statistics, 1999-2000, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Hospital separations (per 1,000 population)
    the total number of separations in all hospitals (public and private) providing acute care services per 1,000 estimated resident population at 31 December of the reference year. A separation is an episode of care which can be a total hospital stay (from admission to discharge, transfer or death) or a portion of a hospital stay ending in a change of status (for example from acute care to rehabilitation). The inclusion of status changes has been progressively introduced since 1995-96. Hospitals providing acute care services are those in which the treatments typically require short durations of stay.
    Reference: Australian Hospital Statistics, 1999-2000 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Hypertension
    high blood pressure, either treated or untreated. People are considered hypertensive if they are on tablets for blood pressure and/or their systolic blood pressure is 160 mmHg or greater and/or their diastolic blood pressure is 95 mmHg or greater.
    Reference: ABS 1995 National Nutrition Survey.

Infant mortality rate
    the number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1,000 live births.
    Reference: Deaths, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3302.0).

Injury
    the proportion of people reporting injury as a recent condition (within two weeks) or a long-term condition (lasting or expecting to last six months or more), including fractures, dislocations, sprains, wounds, bruising, crushing, burns, poisoning and surgical complications.
    Reference: National Health Survey: Summary of Results, Australia, 1995 (ABS cat. no. 4364.0).

Ischaemic heart disease deaths
    deaths where coronary heart diseases, including heart attack (acute myocardial infarction, coronary occlusion) and angina (angina pectoris), are mentioned on the death certificate as the underlying cause (ICD-9 codes 410-414 up to 1998, ICD-10 codes I20-I25 for 1999).
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Life expectancy
    the average number of years a newborn infant of a given sex would be expected to live if the age-specific death rates of the reference period continued throughout his or her lifetime. For persons aged 65 years of a given sex, it is the average additional years of life expected if the age specific death rates of the reference period continued throughout his or her remaining life.
    Reference: Deaths, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3302.0).

Live birth
    the delivery of a child weighing at least 400 grams at delivery (or, when birthweight is unavailable, of at least 20 weeks gestation) who after being born, breathed or showed any other evidence of life such as a heart beat.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Lung cancer deaths
    deaths where malignant neoplasm of the trachea, bronchus and lung are mentioned on the death certificate as the underlying cause (ICD-9 code 162 up to 1998, ICD-10 codes C33-C34 for 1999).
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Medium/high-risk drinkers
    males aged 18 years and over who reported drinking 50-75ml of absolute alcohol (medium-risk) or more than 75ml (high-risk) per day, and females aged 18 years and over who reported drinking 25-–50ml of absolute alcohol (medium-risk) or more than 50ml (high-risk) per day.
    Reference: National Health Survey: Health Risk Factors (ABS cat. no. 4380.0).

Motor vehicle traffic accident deaths
    deaths where motor traffic accidents are mentioned on the death certificate as the underlying cause (ICD-9 codes E810-E819 up to 1998, ICD-10 relevant codes selected from V01-V89 for 1999).
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Neonatal death
    deaths of any child weighing at least 400 grams at delivery (or, when birthweight is unavailable, of at least 20 weeks gestation) who was born alive (as defined under live birth) and who died within 28 days of birth.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Overweight or obese adults
    overweight is defined by a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 25 and less than 30, while obesity is defined by a BMI greater than or equal to 30. BMI is body weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in metres.
    Reference: ABS 1995 National Nutrition Survey.

Perinatal mortality rate
    the annual number of fetal and neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births and fetal deaths combined (where birthweight was at least 400 grams).
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Persons with private health insurance
    proportion of the total population with private hospital insurance.
    Reference: Annual Reports, Private Health Insurance Administration Council.

Probability of males/females surviving to 70 and 85 years
    the probability of survival to specific ages represents the proportion of survivors from birth to that age in a life table. Estimates are based on Life Tables calculated by the Australian Bureau of Statistics until 1994 and from 1999 onwards. From 1995 to 1997 the life tables were produced by the Australian Government Actuary. From 1995 onwards, probability of survival is based on life tables calculated using three years' data to reduce the impact of year-to-year statistical variations.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Prostate cancer deaths
    deaths where malignant neoplasm of the prostate gland is mentioned on the death certificate as the underlying cause (ICD-9 code 185 up to 1998, ICD-10 code C61 for 1999 and onwards).
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Residential aged care places
    the number of beds which are provided for long-term nursing care to chronically ill, frail or disabled persons, and beds provided for people who are unable to live wholly independently but do not require nursing care, per 1,000 of the population aged 70 years and over.
    Reference: Residential aged care facilities in Australia 1998-99: A statistical overview, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Skin cancer deaths
    deaths where malignant neoplasm of the skin, including both melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer are mentioned on the death certificate as the underlying cause (ICD-9 codes 172-173 up to 1998, ICD-10 codes C43-C44 for 1999 and onwards).
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Standardised rates
    these enable the comparison of rates between populations with differing age structures by relating them to a standard population. These rates are the overall rates that would have prevailed in the standard population if it had experienced at each age the rates of the population being studied. Mortality and Medicare usage rates use the 1991 Australian population as the standard population. All other standardised rates use the Australian population of the year that the survey was last collected.
    Reference: Deaths, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3302.0).

Stroke deaths
    deaths where cerebrovascular disease (causing a blockage (embolism) or rupture (haemorrhage) of blood vessels within or leading to the brain) is mentioned on the death certificate as the underlying cause (ICD-9 codes 430-438 up to 1998, ICD-10 codes I60-I69 for 1999 and onwards).
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Suicide deaths
    deaths where suicide is mentioned on the death certificate as the underlying cause (ICD-9 codes E950-E959 up to 1998, ICD-10 codes X60-X84 for 1999 and onwards).
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3303.0).

Tobacco: apparent consumption
    grams of tobacco consumed divided by the population aged 15 years and over. Apparent consumption of tobacco is based on the quantity on which import duty and excise (on cigarettes only) was paid and does not include duty or excise-free tobacco.
    Reference: ABS International Trade collection.

Total fats: apparent consumption
    the total fat content of food apparently consumed, in grams, divided by the total population.
    Reference: Apparent Consumption of Foodstuffs and Nutrients, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4306.0).

Total health expenditure as a proportion of GDP/per person
    total health expenditure as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product, in current prices. Total health expenditure per person is expressed in Australian dollars, in chain volume measures, referenced to the year 1997-98.
    Reference: Health Expenditure Bulletin, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

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