The data presented in this report were drawn from key national statistical collections including the latest information from both the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). Important new information about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and welfare was collected through the ABS 2006 Census of Population and Housing and 2004-05 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS). The report also includes data from other ABS collections such as the 2006 Community Housing and Infrastructure Needs Survey (CHINS) and the 2002 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey (NATSISS). AIHW surveys such as Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH), and national administrative data collections such as the National Hospital Morbidity Data Collection, the National Mortality Data Collection and the National Perinatal Data Collection are all important data sources used in the production of this report. In addition, the report includes updated estimates of expenditure on health services for Indigenous people.